Zone to Defend
Zone to Defend or ZAD (French: zone à défendre) is a French neologism used to refer to a militant occupation that is intended to physically blockade a development project. By occupying the land, activists aim to prevent the project from going ahead. The acronym "ZAD" is a détournement of "deferred development area" (from French: zone d'aménagement différé). The ZADs are organized particularly in rural areas with an ecological or agricultural dimension, although the name has also been used by occupations in urban areas, for example in Décines-Charpieu and Rouen.
The most notable example is the ZAD de Notre-Dame-des-Landes which helped a broader campaign to defeat the Aéroport du Grand Ouest, a proposed airport in Notre-Dame-des-Landes, north of Nantes. The ZAD du Testet existed from 2011 until 2015 and prevented a dam from being constructed. Evicted ZADs have amongst other things contested the construction of an electricity substation, a motorway and a facility for the storage of nuclear waste. There have been ZADs in the departments of Aveyron, Bas-Rhin, Doubs, Isère, Loire-Atlantique, Meuse, Seine-Maritime, Tarn and Yvelines. The occupation of the Hambach Forest in Germany and the No TAV movement in Italy have both been compared to ZADs. The ZAD de la Colline was the first Swiss Zone to Defend.
The acronym "ZAD" meaning "zone to defend" (French: "zone à défendre") is a détournement of "deferred development area" (French: "zone d'aménagement différé"). In 2015, the French term "zadiste" (English: Zadist) entered the 2016 edition of Le Petit Robert dictionary as "a militant occupying a ZAD to oppose a proposed development that would damage the environment." The ZADs are organized particularly in areas with an ecological or agricultural dimension. The name has also been used by occupations in urban areas, for example in Rouen and in Décines-Charpieu.
Appearing in France in the early 2010s, the term was first popularized during the opposition to the airport construction project in Notre-Dame-des-Landes. In France, the most famous antecedents of the ZAD movement are the Larzac struggle (1971–1981), the protests against the proposed nuclear power plant at Creys-Malville, in Isère (1977), and at Plogoff in the 1970s and 1980s.
One of the movement's first slogans was "ZAD everywhere" (French: "Zad Partout") and though there are no official figures, in early 2016 La Gazette des Communes estimated there to have been at least a dozen ZADs across France since 2009. In other countries there are projects similar to the ZAD concept, such as the occupation of the Hambach Forest in Germany, the No TAV movement in the Susa Valley in Italy and the Grow Heathrow squat protesting against the expansion of Heathrow Airport in London.
The ZADs have multiplied in France after the state's failed eviction of the protest occupation at Notre-Dame-des-Landes in the autumn of 2012. One of the first to be set up afterwards was the ZAD de la ferme des Bouillons near Rouen. In addition to Notre-Dame-des-Landes ZAD, the best-known cases are the opposition to: the Sivens dam project in Tarn where the activist Rémi Fraisse was killed by the French police; the proposed Center Parcs project in the forest of Chambaran in Isère; a nuclear waste storage project called Cigéo (French: Centre industriel de stockage géologique) in Bure.
Activists began a solidarity project called ZAD Patate in 2013, which opposed the destruction of market gardens on the plain of Montesson. In the Yvelines department, twenty kilometres to the west of central Paris, 400 small holdings were producing half of all the salad greens consumed in the capital. In 2014, plans to expand the commercial zone were halted, but the guerrilla gardening continued. The gardens have been sabotaged several times: an orchard of thirty fruit trees was cut down and a field of potatoes was destroyed.
The ZAD de Sainte-Colombe-en-Bruilhois was set up near Agen to prevent the development of a business park in December 2014. The Zadists were invited on to land by a local farmer and slowly expanded onto neighbouring lots. They demanded that 220 hectares of agricultural land be preserved. Most of the ZAD was evicted in May 2016, but the land of the farmer still needed to be expropriated, since he refused to sell it.
Not all ZADs involve permanent occupations. The ZAD du Triangle at Gonesse, to the north of Paris, was set up to counter plans by Auchan and Wanda Group to build a shopping centre called EuropaCity. A collective to protect the triangle of land at Gonesse was formed in 2011 and at times, for example in October 2019, tent occupations were used as part of the tactics to resist construction. As of 2020, the EuropaCity plans had been scrapped but activists were still wary of other developments. Local people in Brueil-en-Vexin camped on land for a weekend in 2019 to show opposition to plans to dig limestone quarries on agricultural land. A ZAD was discussed but not implemented. By September 2020, the plans were still under discussion and the activists restated their intention to create a ZAD if circumstances required it.
Activists attempted to set up a ZAD in March 2016 to resist the construction of a quarry for a new motorway in the Bager forest, which is located at Oloron-Sainte-Marie, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department near to the border with Spain. The mayor issued a byelaw forbidding camping and the police prevented them from founding a camp. By 2017, the ZAD had been initiated and it was still in existence in 2019.
After a demonstration of 2,500 people in October 2019 against a proposed marina, the ZAD de la Dune at Bretignolles-sur-Mer was founded. It was evicted in April 2020 when police took twenty Zadists away from the site to make identity checks and the mayor together with 70 local people went onto the site and burnt down all the structures. The mayor's actions were condemned by other politicians as reckless, particularly since restrictions were in place due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A ZAD in Ardèche was evicted in June and the local prefect said she would not tolerate any such project. In December 2019, residents of Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue in Vaucluse set up the ZAD du Plan d’Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue without occupying any land. They were concerned about a development plan which would build a prison and a landfill site.
A ZAD was occupied in Besançon in July 2020. The ZAD du Carnet was occupied in late August in order to stop the preparatory works for the expansion of the port of Saint-Nazaire in the Loire-Atlantique department. The site is between Frossay and Saint-Viaud. Activists voiced their concerns about destruction of 110 hectares of wetlands beside the Loire river.
|ZAD de l'Amassada||Aveyron||Construction of electricity substation||2014–2019||ZAD evicted|||
|ZAD de Bure||Meuse||Expansion of existing nuclear waste storage facility||2015–2018||ZAD evicted|||
|ZAD de la Colline||Canton of Vaud, Switzerland||Expansion of cement quarry||2020-2021||ZAD evicted|||
|ZAD du Carnet||Loire-Atlantique||Destruction of wetlands for port expansion||2020–||Ongoing|||
|ZAD de la ferme des Bouillons||Seine-Maritime||Destruction of farmland for a shopping centre||2012–2015||ZAD evicted, farmland saved|||
|ZAD du Moulin||Bas-Rhin||Proposed motorway in Strasbourg||2017–2018||ZAD evicted|||
|ZAD de Notre-Dame-des-Landes||Loire-Atlantique||Destruction of farmland for an airport||2009–||Airport cancelled|||
|ZAD Rheinland||North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany||Expansion of Garzweiler surface mine||2020–||Ongoing|||
|ZAD de Roybon||Isère||Destruction of forest for a Center Parcs||2014–||Development cancelled|||
|ZAD du Testet||Tarn||Proposed Sivens dam||2011–2015||Development cancelled|||
|ZAD de Vaites||Doubs||Destruction of wetlands for housing||2020–||Ongoing|||
The ZAD de l'Amassada at Saint-Victor-et-Melvieu, in the Aveyron department, was set up in December 2014 to oppose the construction of an electricity substation required by RTE (Réseau de Transport d'Électricité) to distribute the electricity generated by renewable sources, mainly wind turbines. The word "amassada" means "assembly" in the Occitan language. There was a "windy week" in 2016, in which more cabins were built on the terrain of 7 hectares, with people coming to help out from other ZADs such as Bure, Roybon and the Susa Valley. As a way to slow down the progress of the project, 136 people became individual owners of plots over 3,300m² of land and thus would have to be bought out individually by RTE, a subsidiary of EDF (Électricité de France).
RTE obtained a declaration of public utility for the project in June 2018, which meant they could evict the site. Then in January 2019, the squatters were given an eviction order and warned that they would be fined 2000 euros for every day that they stayed. A police raid in February resulted in the arrest of five people on the site, with other people remaining to ensure it was not evicted. Before their trial in July, two of the five were forbidden from entering the ZAD and three from entering Aveyron. In October 2019, the ZAD was evicted. A protest march in November brought 300 people bearing flowers to the site. The police used tear gas to disperse the crowd and arrested several people.
The ZAD at Bure, in the Meuse department, protested against the expansion of a nuclear waste storage facility known as the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory. Every year, the French nuclear energy industry produces around 13,000 cubic metres of radioactive waste (this equates to 2 kg for every French person or enough to fill 120 double-decker buses). Subject to state approval, all this waste will be stored underground at Bure from 2025 onwards. Since 2004, there has been an anti-nuclear Maison de la Résistance (House of Resistance) in the centre of Bure since 2004, which acts as headquarters for the protests. Land in the forest of Mandres-en-Barrois, which would be destroyed by the construction, was occupied in 2015.
At a demonstration in 2017, the police used a water cannon and fired tear gas canisters and stun grenades. There were 30 wounded demonstrators, of which three were hospitalised. One of them, a 27-year-old man, was struck by an exploding GLI-4 grenade on his foot. It made a hole 13 centimetres long and 3 centimetres deep. The occupation at Mandres-en-Barrois was evicted in 2018. Thirty people had been living there and they retreated to the Maison de la Résistance. The Minister of the Interior at the time, Gerard Collomb, said "We do not want there to be places of lawlessness in France." After the eviction, there were calls to resquat the site and a large police presence remained to counter the threat.
The ZAD de la Colline became the first Swiss ZAD after land at Éclépens in the Canton of Vaud was occupied in October 2020, when environmental activists wanted to prevent the expansion of a quarry run by Holcim. The occupation was supported by an open letter from Jacques Dubochet, a Nobel Prize winning biophysicist. In November 2020, the squatters appealed a decision made by the municipality of La Sarraz to withdraw the permission of residence from a house used as their base. On 30 March 2021, 600 police officers evicted the ZAD, arresting 93 people. Two days later, two activists remained in a tree.
Ferme des Bouillons
Land located at Mont-Saint-Aignan, in the Seine-Maritime department north of Rouen, was occupied in December 2012 by activists concerned by its sale to Immochan (now part of Auchan), a property development company. It is the last farm on the plateau. The site was four hectares and fifty people turned it into an organic farm, fighting the plan of Immochan to build a shopping centre.
The local council protected the land and in August 2015, Immochan sold the site to a local real estate company which proposed an organic farming project. The ZAD was then evicted by police exercising a 2013 court verdict. The Zadists were unhappy they had not been given an opportunity to buy the land and that their plan had been copied. They remained concerned that the land would be developed.
The ZAD du Moulin was established in 2017 to resist the building of the A355 motorway also known as GCO (French: Grand contournement ouest) near Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department. Eight huts were built along the proposed 24 kilometres of the motorway, which was intended as a bypass to reduce congestion on the A35 which dissects Strasbourg. The costs were slated to be over 500 million euros.
The ZAD was evicted by 500 police in September 2018. Members of the European Parliament Karima Delli and José Bové had joined the protestors in solidarity with their struggle to stop the road. Delli was sprayed with tear gas in her face and mouth by the police and fell unconscious. Bové stated "This violence is unacceptable."
ZAD Notre-Dame-des-Landes (also known as ZAD NDDL) is the most well-known 'Zone to Defend' in France. Located in the Loire-Atlantique department near to Nantes, it is a very large mostly agricultural terrain of 1,650 hectares (4,080 acres) which became nationally famous and has resisted several concerted attempts by the French state to evict it. The squatters joined the long struggle against an airport, the Aéroport du Grand Ouest (AGO). It was announced in 2018 that the plans for the airport were cancelled and also that the squatters would have until spring to leave.
In April 2018, a largescale eviction operation began as the French state tried to regain control of the autonomous zone. After 10 days (19 April), the police had fired 11,000 projectiles. The eviction was halted on 26 April and said it would be frozen until at least 14 May. The truce came about as representatives of the ZAD negotiated for legal recognition for 28 projects. Some projects agreed to file individual claims, whereas other refused to participate in the process.
The ZAD Rheinland was formed in 2020 to protect the village of Lützerath in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany from demolition by RWE, which wants to expand the Garzweiler surface mine. The camp was set up on the land of a farmer resisting eviction and from 1 October 2021 onwards, the land had been expropriated by RWE. It is the first explicitly named ZAD in Germany.
The ZAD at Roybon, Isère, between Lyon and Grenoble, was created to oppose the proposed construction of a Center Parcs on the Chambarand plateau. Environmentalists had opposed the project since 2007, represented by the group 'For Chambaran without Center Parcs' (French: Pour les Chambaran sans Center Parcs) or PCSCP. The plans entailed building almost 1000 cottages in the forest. Plans were halted in December 2016, when the Court of Appeal in Lyon stated that two of the three orders permitting construction were illegal. The court agreed with environmentalist concerns regarding wastewater processing from a site with a maximum capacity of 5,600 people and also how the water table would be affected, with 76 hectares of wetland under threat. The court did not agree that the potential loss of protected species outweighed the potential creation of 600 jobs. The owner of Center Parcs, Pierre & Vacances, announced that they would appeal the decision. By 2018, the ZAD had several buildings including the Marquise and Barricade Sud. The thirty inhabitants were planning to construct a strawbale house and were growing vegetables and farming animals. Pierre & Vacances announced in July 2020 that they were scrapping the plans to build and the ZAD responded that after six years it had no intention of disbanding. This angered the mayor of Roybon, who demanded that the camp was evicted.
The demonstrations to protect the biodiversity of the wetlands in the area threatened by the proposed Sivens Dam resulted in the ZAD du Testet, which existed from 2011 until 2015. It was evicted several times and resquatted. In 2014, botanist Rémi Fraisse was killed by a stun grenade fired by police and the following year the dam was cancelled.
On 17 July 2020, activists from ANV-COP21 and Extinction Rebellion occupied land in Les Vaites on the east side of Besançon, as part of protests against an eco-development of 1150 apartments. Work had started in January 2020 on the site and was then stopped twice by legal challenges from environmental groups. After one month of occupation, the two groups handed over responsibility for the ZAD to the anonymous Zadists squatting the land. The mayor demanded that before negotiating anything, a watchtower built on the land needed to be demolished, but the Zadists refused. In August 2020, the collective of 180 people celebrated their second month of occupation.
- Cain, Blandine Le (7 February 2015). "Comment le mot "zadiste" s'est intégré dans le langage courant [How the word "Zadist" became part of everyday language]". Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Le Petit Robert 2016
- Soutra, Hugo (1 February 2016). "Zones à Défendre : les aménageurs face à une nouvelle contrainte ["Zones to Defend: developers face a new constraint"]". La Gazette des Communes (in French). Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- Daniel, Emmanuel (16 December 2014). "Une ZAD voit le jour au milieu des champs près d'Agen". Reporterre, le quotidien de l'écologie (in French). Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- Daniel, Emmanuel (7 November 2014). "Une journée sur la Zad urbaine de Rouen - expulsée vendredi matin [A day on urban Zad Rouen – evicted Friday morning]". Reporterre, le quotidien de l'écologie (in French). Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Binctin, Barnabé (11 January 2014). "A Lyon, expulsion de la première ZAD... mais la deuxième résiste toujours [In Lyon, the eviction of the first ZAD ... but the second one continues]". Reporterre, le quotidien de l'écologie (in French). Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- ""The country slingshots against the "unnecessary" projects"". Le Monde. 30 June 2013.
- Caillat, Sophie (4 November 2014). "Notre-Dame-des-Landes n'est pas le Larzac (même si ça y ressemble) [Notre-Dame-des-Landes is not the Larzac (even if it looks like)]". L'Obs (in French). Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Morice, Louis (29 July 2013). "Notre-Dame-des-Landes rêve d'une issue à la Plogoff [Notre-Dame-des-Landes dreams of an exit like Plogoff]". L'Obs. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Barroux, Rémi (10 May 2013). "Les militants de Notre-Dame-des-Landes tentent de disséminer leur mouvement". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Versieux, Nathalie (17 September 2018). "La forêt de Hambach, une "zad" contre le charbon". Le Temps (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- Mauvaise Troupe (2018). The Zad and NoTAV: Territorial struggles and the making of a new political intelligence (English language ed.). London. ISBN 978-1786634962.
- Le Hir, Pierre; Girard, Laurence; Valo, Martine; Garric, Audrey; Barroux, Rémi (24 October 2015). "D'une ZAD à l'autre, tour d'horizon des conflits environnementaux [From one ZAD to another, an overview of environmental conflicts]". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- "Mort de Rémi Fraisse à Sivens : Les juges ordonnent un non-lieu". Le Monde.fr. 9 January 2018. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
-  Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine "Notre-Dame-des-Landes inspired other protests", The Cross, 2 August 2013
- Stothard, Michael (14 July 2016). "Nuclear waste: keep out for 100,000 years". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Fumey, Gilles (14 July 2020). "Géographies en mouvement - "Les ZAD sont l'apprentissage des communs" - Libération.fr". Liberation. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Fanfani, David; Ruiz, Alberto Matarán (2020). Bioregional Planning and Design: Volume I: Perspectives on a Transitional Century. Springer Nature. ISBN 978-3-030-45870-6. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Denécé, Eric; Assi, Jamil Abou (8 April 2016). Ecoterrorisme: Altermondialisme, écologie, animalisme (in French). Tallandier. p. 297. ISBN 979-10-210-0730-7. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Dhollande-Monnier, Victor (21 November 2014). "ZAD: La révolte s'étend en France". Europe 1 (in French). Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- "Plaine de Montesson: Le champ des opposants à l'urbanisation saccagé". Le Parisien (in French). 28 June 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Chauwin, Helene (22 March 2016). "Un zadiste de Sainte-Colombe-en-Bruilhois retrouvé mort". France 3 Nouvelle-Aquitaine (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Giraud, Baptiste (7 March 2016). "Près d'Agen, une Zad pour que " les bulldozers n'aillent pas plus vite que la justice "". Reporterre, le quotidien de l'écologie (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Quintard, Mathieu (13 December 2017). "Où sont les ZAD aujourd'hui en France? [Where are the ZADs today in France]?". La Depeche. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- "Évacuation de la ZAD d'Agen : la journée en images [Evacuation of the Agen ZAD: the day in pictures]". Sud Ouest (in French). 31 May 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Sainte-Colombe-en-Bruilhois. ZAD: et maintenant? [Sainte-Colombe-en-Bruilhois. What now with the ZAD?]". La Depeche (in French). 1 June 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Garcin-Berson, Wladimir (5 October 2019). "EuropaCity: les modifications apportées au projet ne convainquent pas les opposants". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Kokabi, Alexandre-Reza; Cadoret, NnoMan (3 October 2019). "Les opposants à EuropaCity prêts à créer une Zad". Reporterre, le quotidien de l'écologie (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "19 septembre – 4e fête des Terres de Gonesse (ZAD du Triangle)!". Infolibertaire (in French). 16 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Gherdane, Mehdi (6 July 2019). "Brueil-en-Vexin : les anti-carrière ont levé le camp". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- à 20h31, Par Julien ConstantLe 5 septembre 2020; À 20h37, Modifié Le 5 Septembre 2020 (5 September 2020). "Yvelines : les anti-carrières toujours vent debout contre le projet de cimenterie". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
Mais s'il le fait nous sommes prêts à monter une ZAD (zone à défendre) avec l'appui des propriétaires des terrains agricoles qui refusent encore de vendre à l'industriel.
- Bigorre, Béarn; Hourt, Fanette (20 March 2016). "Oloron-Sainte-Marie: Des militants veulent installer une ZAD". France Bleu (in French). Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- "Rixe mortelle à Oloron-Sainte-Marie: un deuxième homme est mort de ses blessures". France 3 Nouvelle-Aquitaine (in French). 21 December 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- Paris, Désobéissance Ecolo (11 April 2020). "Expulsion de la Zad de la Dune: des occupant·es racontent". Club de Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Guitton-Boussion, Justine (9 April 2020). "Évacuation de la Zad de Brétignolles-sur-Mer : les autorités n'ont pas respecté le confinement". Reporterre, le quotidien de l'écologie (in French). Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Giovaninetti, Claire (15 April 2020). "Zad de. Brétignolles-sur-Mer démantelée : Evelyne Bouillon réagit". L'ouest France. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Soudani, Anthony (15 June 2020). "Saint-Pierre-de-Colombier. Zad évacuée, la préfète de l'Ardèche : " Je ne tolérerai pas d'occupation illégale "". Le Dauphine (in French). Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Cauvy, Anaïs Martin; Vaucluse, France Bleu (18 December 2019). "Les habitants d'Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue montent une ZAD pour protéger la zone du PLAN". France Bleu (in French). Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "Besançon: les Vaîtes, "une zone naturelle incroyable, donc une zone à défendre (ZAD)" pour les occupants". France 3 Bourgogne-Franche-Comté (in French). 22 June 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Aufauvre, Nicolas (3 September 2020). "Loire-Atlantique. Sur la Zad du Carnet, la résistance s'organise". Ouest France. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "Le Carnet, en Loire-Atlantique : "Nous appelons à la résistance", une ZAD contre le projet du Grand port". France 3 Pays de la Loire (in French). Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "Aveyron : évacués de la ZAD de l'Amassada, des manifestants à nouveau repoussés par les forces de l'ordre". France 3 Occitanie (in French). Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
Environ 300 personnes étaient présentes ce samedi après midi pour cette marche symbolique à Saint-Victor-et-Melvieu, dans l'Aveyron, sur les lieux d'une ZAD occupée par des militants pendant plusieurs années. Les gendarmes (7 cars) présents à leur arrivée ont fait usage de gaz lacrymogène. Plusieurs personnes ont été interpellées dont le porte parole de la confédération paysanne de l'Aveyron ... Après des années de lutte, les citoyens opposés au projet qui s'étaient installés là se sont fait expulser par les forces de l'ordre. C'était le 8 octobre.
- "La tension monte à Bure, future ZAD nucléaire ?". Ouest France. 18 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "L'engagement opérationnel de la police dans le cadre du squat de la ZAD est terminé | VD.CH". Etat de Vaud (in French). 1 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
- Le Monde (19 August 2015). "Des zadistes évacués de la ferme bio des Bouillons, près de Rouen". Le Monde (in French). AFP. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Moreau, Caroline (11 September 2018). "Evacuation de la ZAD anti-GCO : la députée européenne Karima Delli victime de gaz lacrymogènes". France 3. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- G, S; K, G (11 July 2018). "ZAD: The State of Play". The Brooklyn Rail. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- Guibert, Christelle (10 October 2021). "Allemagne: La Zad Rheinland défend son village face aux excavatrices". Ouest France. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
- Desmas, Margot; Ebbhah, Florine; Borrelly, Damien. "Abandon du projet de Center Parcs à Roybon : "La priorité, c'est l'évacuation de la ZAD", demande le maire". France 3 Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (in French). Archived from the original on 12 September 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "France halts Sivens dam construction after protester's death". Guardian. AFP. 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Serdic, Lucas (7 February 2019). "Cinq interpellations ce jeudi matin sur la "ZAD" de l'Amassada en Aveyron". La Depeche. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Lassus, Valérie (12 February 2019). "Contre l'éolien industriel, la Zad de l'Amassada s'organise pour durer". Reporterre. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Myriade, Pierre M (2016). "Voleurs de vent, semeurs de tempête". CQFD. 147. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Barral, Anne-Laure (6 July 2016). "Bure dans la Meuse : l'autre ZAD ?". France Info. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Burrows-Taylor, Evie (16 August 2017). "Protesters clash with police at anti-nuclear demo in France". The Local. AFP. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Goument, Raphaël (18 August 2017). "Manifestation à Bure : "Mon pied a été déchiqueté"". Liberation. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Pommier, Sébastien (22 February 2018). "Evacuation de la ZAD de Bure: mais à qui appartient le Bois-Lejuc?". L'Express. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Miauton, Marie-Hélène (25 October 2020). "Chic, une première ZAD en Suisse [Cool, the first ZAD in Switzerland]". Le Temps (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "Occupation de la ZAD du Mormont – Lettre ouverte d'un Nobel à une dame pas contente". 24 heures (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "Canton de Vaud – Appel au sabotage: la ZAD de la colline recadre son propos". Tribune de Genève (in French). ATS/NXP. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- Boudet, Antoine (10 August 2015). "Bio contre bio à la ZAD de la ferme des Bouillons". Les Echos (in French). Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Caravagna, Léo (7 February 2017). "Strasbourg : une ébauche de ZAD contre le projet de grand contournement ouest". Le Figaro. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- Willsher, Kim (9 April 2018). "French police fire teargas to expel anti-capitalist squatters". Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- Willsher, Kim (17 January 2018). "France abandons plan for €580m airport and orders squatters off site". Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
- Barroux, Rémi (16 May 2018). "A Notre-Dame-des-Landes, de nouvelles évacuations redoutées". Le Monde. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- Kerinec, Moran (30 April 2018). "Les gendarmes ont déversé une quantité record de grenades sur la Zad de Notre-Dame-des-Landes". Reporterre. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- JAUNET, Christophe; WAJDZIK, Arnaud (25 April 2018). "Notre-Dame-des-Landes. Matignon accorde une trêve à la Zad". Ouest France. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- Valo, Martine (16 December 2016). "Center Parcs de Roybon : l'arrêt du projet confirmé en appel". Le Monde. AFP. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Kerinec, Moran (5 July 2018). "Le tour de France des Zad : Roybon, la vie dans les bois". Reporterre. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Barbier, Éric (17 July 2020). "Besançon. Anne Vignot demande la " déconstruction de la tour " de la Zad des Vaîtes". L'Est Republicain (in French). Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- L., Hélène (21 August 2020). "Vigie des Vaîtes à Besançon : où en est-on?". www.macommune.info (in French). Retrieved 13 September 2020.
- Le dernier continent, documentaire de Vincent Lapize, À perte de vue & Réel Factory, 77 min, 2015.
- Le tarmac est dans le pré, documentaire de Thibault Férié, Point du jour, 52 min, 2013 (diffusé en octobre 2013 sur France 3).
- Des tracteurs contre des avions, documentaire de Christian Baudu, Canal automedia NopubNosub, 31 min, janvier 2013.
- Notre-Dame-des-Landes, au cœur de la lutte, documentaire de Pierrick Morin, 70 min, mars 2012.
- La résistance respire, long métrage de Roxane Tchegini, Terre éveillée, 2015.
- Florian Delorme, Du Rojava à la Zad, l’autogestion en partage, Cultures Monde, Territoires d'exception (4/4), France Culture, 17 May 2018 (in French).