Wikipedia:Categorization of people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Originally, this guideline was developed in response to some prolonged Wikipedia:Categories for discussion procedures that debated the categorization of people in articles. As has been proven since, this guideline can be helpful for other "delicate" categorization issues.

Definitions and scope[edit]

This guideline is about categorization of people. It discusses:

Categorization of biographical articles
This includes all articles in main namespace named after a person or a group of persons, including split-outs of such articles. Similarly, categorization of files containing portraits of people and biographies in Books namespace. The main biographical article of a person is the single main namespace article named after that person. When there are split-outs, the main biography should be a summary style article (see Wikipedia:Naming conventions (people)#Several articles treating the same person).
People categories
All categories where such biographical articles could be expected to be listed. Normally such categories belong in the Category:People categorization tree.

The concepts used in this guideline are explained in Wikipedia:Categorization and subpages, and:

Sensitive categories
Categories are defined as sensitive when they recur at Wikipedia:Categories for Discussion giving way to extensive and convoluted discussions. This includes:
Failing to handle these categories appropriately can lead to external criticism, e.g. Kevin Morris (2013-05-01), "Does Wikipedia's sexism problem really prove that the system works?", Daily Dot.[1]

General considerations[edit]

Be aware that mis-categorizations are more sensitive for articles on people than for articles on other topics.

Example: Categorizing a politician involved in a scandal as a "criminal" would create much more controversy than categorizing a behaviour or act as "criminal".


  • Categorize by defining characteristics
Biographical articles should be categorized by defining characteristics. As a rule of thumb for main biographies this includes:
  • standard biographical details: year of birth, year of death and nationality
  • the reason(s) for the person's notability; i.e., the characteristics the person is best known for.
For example, a film actor who holds a law degree should be categorized as a film actor, but not as a lawyer unless their legal career was notable in its own right or relevant to their acting career. Many people had assorted jobs before taking the one that made them notable; those other jobs should not be categorized.
Similarly, celebrities commercializing a fragrance should not be in the perfumers category; not everything a celebrity does after becoming famous warrants categorization.
  • Categorize by characteristics of the person, not characteristics of the article: E.g., do not add [[Category:Biography]] to an article. Category:Biography (genre) may legitimately contain articles about biographical films or biographical books, but should not contain articles about individual people. The article is a biography; the person is not.

  • Keep people categories separate: categories with a title indicating that the contents are people should normally only contain biographical articles and lists of people, and perhaps a non-biographical main article, though this can also be added in a text note at the top of the category. This is for clarity and ease of use, and to preserve the integrity of trees of people articles.
  • Double check: Always check after saving an article whether the categorization strikes you as offensive or indelicate. The Wikipedia system allows anybody to edit the article and remove a questionable categorization. To avoid that, follow your intuition in finding those categories you think most to the point and inoffensive. Create a new category that better serves what you want to communicate, rather than using an existing category that is (partly) inconsistent with the content of the article. But bear in mind the principle "Wikipedia is not censored", so if something is offensive but has encyclopedic value it might remain.
  • Categories should not be automatically assigned: Categories are only assigned as the result of an individual assessment of the content of an article (lists are easier in this sense, because a doubtful assignment can be marked as such). See also Wikipedia:Bots for a general discussion of contra-indications regarding automated operations.

Categorization schemes[edit]

Currently, people tend to be categorized by the following broad categories. There is currently no consensus about the order in which these categories should be placed at the bottom of an article.

By association[edit]

Currently, Wikipedia supports categorizing People by educational institution and People by company, as well as numerous more specific categories.

By ethnicity, gender, religion, sexuality, disability, medical or psychological conditions[edit]

The main guideline on these categories and categorizations includes a discussion of cross-section categories.

By the person's name[edit]

In certain very notable cases, an individual's name can be used to categorize the person itself, for example Category:Abraham Lincoln. However, this should not be done simply to reduce the number of categories displayed in an article.

Categories using the name of a person hold articles directly related to that person. Remember this when placing the article in larger categories. If the person is a member of a category, put the article about the person in the larger category. If articles directly related to the person are also members of the larger category, put the category with the person's name in the larger category. This often results in the article and category being categorized differently. For an example of this see George W. Bush and Category:George W. Bush.

By nationality and occupation[edit]

People are usually categorized by their nationality and occupation, such as Category:Ethiopian musicians. The template {{Fooian fooers}} is used to provide navigation on each category page, such as:

By place[edit]

People are sometimes categorized by notable residence, regardless of ethnicity, heritage, or nationality. Residential categories should not be used to record people who have never resided in that place. Nationality is reflected by the occupation category (above), not country or county or city of residence. The category page of People from Foo may mention the most commonly used names for residents ("Fooians", or "Fooers"), assuming that common usage is verifiable (e.g. by Google).

The place of birth, although it may be significant from the perspective of local studies, is rarely defining from the perspective of an individual. The residence of parents and relatives is never defining and rarely notable. The place of death is not normally categorized; consider using a list if this relates to a specific place or event. If it is relevant to identify the place of burial (either from the viewpoint of the person or the burial place), then someone buried in a less notable cemetery, or in a place with just a few notable burials, should be recorded in a list within the article about the burial place. However, if the burial place is notable in its own right and has too many other notable people to list, then burials should be categorized.

By heritage[edit]

Heritage categories should not be used to record people based on deduction, inference, residence, surname, nor any partial derivation from one or more ancestors. In addition to the requirement of verifiability, living people must have self-identified as a particular heritage, while historical persons may be identified by notable association with a single heritage.

Categories that intersect heritage with occupation, residence, or other such categories should only be created where that combination is itself recognized as a distinct and unique cultural topic in its own right, as with Category:African-American politicians (see WP:OCEGRS). These categories should not be created without a substantial and encyclopedic well sourced head article describing the contents (not just a list). Such categories should be treated as distinguished category (see discussion here), such that included articles should be otherwise integrated into the nationality/occupation category structure outside of the heritage subcategory.


  • Heritage categories (such as descent or diaspora) should not also contain any individual migrant, emigrant, nor immigrant; instead, that person should be diffused to an appropriate subcategory.
  • The heritage of grandparents is never defining and rarely notable.

By time period[edit]

People are usually categorized by time period if their activity in that time period is a WP:DEFINING characteristic.

For example:

By year[edit]

People are categorized by their year of birth and year of death. See Wikipedia:People by year for how to categorize people by their years of birth and death.

Ordering names in a category[edit]

It is possible to change the default order in which the articles in a Category are displayed on the Category: page. For general instructions and conventions about this, see Wikipedia:Categorization#Sort keys. Note that there are two techniques for defining a sort order different from the sort order that would result from the page name:

  1. Adding {{DEFAULTSORT:category sort key here}} in the article sets the category sort key for all categories without sort keys in that article, before or after it.
  2. Per listed category, overriding the DEFAULTSORT, [[Category:Category name here|category sort key here]]

The sort key should mirror the article's title as closely as possible, while omitting disambiguating terms. Some exceptions are made, however, to force correct collation.

Please note that some named individual animal have titles included in the article name (for example, Sergeant Stubby, a dog with a formal military rank) and are therefore subject to this guideline.

Sort by surname[edit]

If the article is titled "Forename Surname", the category should be added to the article as [[Category:Type X people|Surname, Forename]] (or: {{DEFAULTSORT:Surname, Forename}}) so that it will be sorted by surname (surname and family name are used interchangeably in this article). However, there are exceptions depending on customs, where a person lives and when they lived. If the country is not listed, try consulting with Names of persons : national usages for entry in catalogue in the bibliography section. It is a resource for how librarians and institutions inside their respective country sort names. However, the sort value may be inappropriate outside their country.[2]

  • Arabic names or Islamic names historically had no family or given names, but a full chain of names. These names should be sorted as they are written out. However, after 1900, Arabic names became similar in structure to those of Western names, and these should be sorted as if they were Western names. Certain areas form exceptions: for example, in Malaysia, Islamic names follow a patronymic pattern, as do a subset in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh.[3][4]
  • Burmese names have no surnames or patronymic system, therefore they are sorted as they are written. However, if the person's common name includes an honorific, the name should be sorted with the elements succeeding the honorific.[5][6] U Thant is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Thant, U}}.
  • Chinese names, Korean names, Vietnamese names and Cambodian names are generally written with the family name first: Mao Zedong is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Mao, Zedong}}.[7][8]
  • Eritrean and Ethiopian (Habesha) names that use a patronymic system are sorted as they are written.[9]
  • Icelandic names are generally patronymic and occasionally matronymic, with a person's last name derived from their father's or mother's given name. For example, Arnaldur Indriðason is the son of Indriði G. Þorsteinsson. Normally a patronymic name is sorted as it is written.[10] However, on English Wikipedia, the DEFAULTSORT value is Western order, overridden for Icelandic categories, where the sort key is as the name is written. Arnaldur Indriðason is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Indridason, Arnaldur}}, while the Icelandic category of photographers is done, [[Category:Icelandic photographers|Arnaldur Indridason]]. For the listas= parameter in project templates on article talk pages use the DEFAULTSORT value (since it mainly categorises in non-Icelandic categories), e.g., | listas = Indridason, Arnaldur.[11]
  • Indonesian names may be sorted by surname or in the order they are written depending on the Ethnic background of the individual. Javanese names (the most populous ethnic group in Indonesia) do not generally have surnames and may be sorted in the order they are written.
  • Japanese names for people born after 1885 follow Western order. For people born before 1885, names followed the same practice as Chinese names.[12][13][14]
    • There are exceptions. Sumo wrestlers, geishas, kabuki actors, and practitioners of traditional crafts and arts may take professional names. These names follow the same practice as Chinese names. Sumo wrestler Toyohibiki Ryūta's sort value is {{DEFAULTSORT:Toyohibiki, Ryuta}}.[14]
  • Malaysian names usually use a patronymic system and are sorted as they are written. There are exceptions; most notably, Malaysian Chinese names are handled as regular Chinese names.[15]
  • Portuguese names (Portugal only) are commonly composed of one or two given names, and two family names. In a compound family name, the first name is the mother's maiden name, with the second name being the father's surname. These names should be sorted on the last element or the father's name. Francisco da Costa Gomes is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Gomes, Francisco da Costa}}.[16][17]
  • Spanish names are similar to Portuguese names in that they are commonly composed of one or two given names, and two family names. However, in a compound family name, the first name is the father's name, while the second name is the mother's name. The sort value depends on how many names are in the articles title. For Gabriel García Márquez, with two family names and one given name, the sort is {{DEFAULTSORT:Garcia Marquez, Gabriel}}. For José Ignacio García Hamilton, with two family names and two given names, the sort is {{DEFAULTSORT:Garcia Hamilton, Jose Ignacio}}. Be careful, as the article's title may include any combination of given names and family names.[18][19]
  • Thai names have only contained a family name since 1915 and the name follows the western pattern of "given name, family name". However, people in Thailand are known and addressed by their given name. In categories mostly containing articles about Thai people, all names should be sorted with the given name first. For example, Thaksin Shinawatra is sorted [[Category:Thai people|Thaksin Shinawatra]].[20] That the entries in a category are sorted in this way for this reason should be indicated on the category page, for which the {{Thai people category}} template can be used. Thai names in categories which only contain relatively few such names should, in these categories, be sorted without applying the "sort by given name before family" exception, which only applies to categories which dominantly contain Thai names and which are entirely sorted the Thai way. user:cewbot is now maintaining sort keys in Thai-people categories.
  • Most Muslim Turkish names before 1934 had no surname. After 1934, people adopted surnames.[21]

Historical patronymic names[edit]

The patronymic system was once common throughout Europe and in some parts of the world. See Patronymic for the list of systems used in each country. Patronymic names should be sorted on their first name. The following is to distinguish how to sort the relevant historical people in some of the more common languages:

  • East Slavic languages (Russian and Ukrainian) with the ending -ovich, -ovych, -yevich, -yich are used to form patronymics for men. For women, the endings are -yevna, -yivna, -ovna, ivna or -ichna. For example, in Russian, a man named Ivan with a father named Nikolay would be known as Ivan Nikolayevich or 'Ivan, son of Nikolay'.
  • Irish names were formed by using Mac for "son of", Ó or Ua for "grandson of", for "daughter of the grandson of", Nic for "daughter of the son of" and finally, for "wife of the grandson of". The transition to fixed surnames began around 1000 and was completed after 1200. An example would be Ailill mac Dúnlainge, son of Dúnlaing mac Muiredaig.
  • Jewish names were formed by using ben or bar for "son of" and bat for "daughter of". Permanent surnames started in the Iberian Peninsula around 1000 and spread eastward over the next 700 years.[22]
  • Scandinavian names (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian) were formed by using the ending son, søn, sen to indicate "son of", and dóttir, -dotter, datter for "daughter of". Denmark outlawed the patronymic system in 1828, Sweden in 1901 and Norway in 1923. However, the countries started to abandon the patronymic system much earlier. The nobility and academics started using surnames in the mid 1500s, the middle class around 1700, with most people having surnames in the 1800s. An example of a patronymic name would be Sverker Karlsson, the son of Karl Sverkersson. See also the section about Icelandic names above.
  • Scottish names began using fixed surnames around the 12th century, though the practice continued in some areas until the 1700s. In the Gaelic language, the word meaning son is mac. The word meaning daughter is nic. Máel Coluim mac Donnchada was the son of Donnchad mac Crínáin and is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Mael Coluim Mac Donnchada}}.[23]
  • Welsh names before the 1536 Act of Union were mostly patronymic, but people had begun to use fixed surnames for over 100 years. The patronymic practice continued after 1536 and is still used today. In the Welsh language, the word meaning son is ap or ab. The word meaning daughter is merch or verch (modern spelling ferch). Rhiryd ap Bleddyn was the son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Rhiryd Ap Bleddyn}}.[24]


  • Kings, queens, emperors, emirs, sultans, popes and others known by their official names should be sorted as spelled out. An ordinal number is converted to an Arabic numeral with a leading zero. Louis IX of France's sort value is {{DEFAULTSORT:Louis 09 of France}}. In some cases, you can leave off redundant information in a category, [[Category:French monarchs|Louis 09]].[25]
  • European princes and princesses are sorted by their given name. Prince Charles is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Charles, Prince of Wales}}. Because of the prevalence of princes with the same name, Arabic or Muslim princes are sorted by their given name, but a second name (usually their father's given name preceding bin or ibn) is added. Prince Talal bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, whose father is King Abdul-Aziz, is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Talal Bin Abdul-Aziz}}.[3][26]
  • British peers are sorted by name of the title rather than surname, e.g. Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury is alphabetized under "Salisbury", not "Gascoyne-Cecil" or "Cecil": {{DEFAULTSORT:Salisbury, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of}}.[26]
  • Some peers are almost invariably known by some name other than their peerage (which will not, in such cases, appear in the article title); for example, Frederick North, Lord North (who was 2nd Earl of Guilford) or Anthony Eden (who was 1st Earl of Avon). This should be followed for most categories, sorting them under North,... and Eden,...; but categories directly relating to the peerage should still sort them under it. [[Category:Earls in the Peerage of Great Britain|Guilford]] and [[Category:Earls in the Peerage of Great Britain|Avon]], respectively.
  • Unless necessary for identification, Sir, Dame, Lord and Lady should be omitted from the sort value.[26]

Other exceptions[edit]

  • Eliminate epithets: e.g. "Saint" in Saint Alban: [[Category:Saints|Alban]].
  • Generational suffixes (e.g., "Jr." or "III"), should be placed at the end of the sort key, rather than with the surname: Robert J. Smith II sorts as [[Category:New Jersey politicians|Smith, Robert J. II]], not [[Category:New Jersey politicians|Smith II, Robert J.]].[27]
  • Only hyphens, apostrophes and periods/full stops punctuation marks should be kept in sort values. All other punctuation marks should be removed. The only exception is the apostrophe should be removed for names beginning with O'. For example, Eugene O'Neill is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:ONeill, Eugene}}.[28]
  • Clerical titles, academic titles, military titles and honorifics should not be used in sorting. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:King, Martin Luther Jr.}} and without the titles "Doctor" or "Reverend", for his academic and clerical achievements.[29]
  • Surnames beginning with Mac or Mc are sorted as they are spelled. Douglas MacArthur is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:MacArthur, Douglas}} and Malcolm McDowell is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:McDowell, Malcolm}}.[30] This is also British standard (BS 3700:1988)[31] and ISO 999:1996 standard for preparing indexes.
  • Names with particles or prefixes are a complex field and there are exceptions and inconsistencies. Examples of particles are af, al, dall, da, de, della, di, do, dos, du, el, la, o, and von. Whether or not to include the particle in sorting can be up to the individual's personal preference, traditional cultural usage or the customs of one's nationality.
    • Generally, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish names do not include lowercase particles in sorting, but do include uppercase particles. For example, Otto von Bismarck is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Bismarck, Otto von}}, Jean de La Fontaine is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:La Fontaine, Jean de}}, and Alberto Di Chiara is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Di Chiara, Alberto}}.
    • American, Australian, Canadian, and English names generally sort on the prefix, regardless of capitalization. However, there are discrepancies between different sources on whether to sort on the prefix or not.[32][33][34][clarification needed]
    • In Belgium, Dutch/Flemish and French/Walloon names sort differently by time period. For people in the Southern Netherlands (Belgium) before 1830, surnames are sorted on the body of the surname and not on the prefix(es). For example, Rogier van der Weyden is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Weyden, Rogier van der}} and Gérard de Lairesse {{DEFAULTSORT:Lairesse, Gerard de}}. In contrast, Belgian people since 1830 are sorted on the prefix. For example: Paul van Ostaijen is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Van Ostaijen, Paul}} and Christian de Duve is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:De Duve, Christian}}.[35][36]
    • In South Africa and Namibia, Dutch/Afrikaans and German surnames are sorted by prefix, e.g. F. W. de Klerk is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:De Klerk, F. W.}}.[35][36]
    • In modern Arabic or Islamic names, the prefixes al and el, regardless of capitalization, are never part of a family name for indexing. For example, Osama Al-Muwallad is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Muwallad, Osama}} and Ezzat el Kamhawi is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Kamhawi, Ezzat}}.[3][4]
    • Sometimes the name containing the prefix is not a family name, but a description of where the person is from. In these cases, the sort value is how the entire name is spelled. For Peire de Corbiac, "de Corbiac" is a description where Peire is from, the town of Corbiac. So, the name means 'Peire of or from Corbiac' and is sorted {{DEFAULTSORT:Peire de Corbiac}}.
  • Sometimes a given name is combined with neither a surname nor a peerage title; it is preferable to sort on the first name in these cases. Example: for Augustine of Hippo, use [[Category:Christian philosophers|Augustine of Hippo]] or simply [[Category:Christian philosophers]].
  • Some people are known primarily by their first name only. When it is not possible to set the first name alone as the article title, as with many articles in Category:Brazilian footballers, you should sort with the first name first to make the article easier to find in the categories. For example, Leonardo Araújo is commonly known as Leonardo, and should be sorted as {{DEFAULTSORT:Leonardo Araujo}}.[37]

Creating a new category[edit]

is as simple as using it on a page. But we have some community rules about naming and purpose of a category that you should consider.

Before creating a new category[edit]

Before creating a new category, please be sure a similar category does not exist.

Example: You might want to list someone in Category:Mexicans. Before creating that category, try to find it under a similar name. By starting at Category:People by nationality, you will discover that Mexicans are placed in Category:Mexican people.

Consider making a list[edit]

Consider whether a list or other grouping technique would be more appropriate:

  • for trivia (such as "dog owners" etc..., see also general trivia policies)
  • for categories whose members would require frequent notes to explain the reasons for each inclusion.
    • Note: Wikipedians are divided about whether categories should be used for such topics, and might propose such categories for deletion. Nonetheless: always follow your own gut instinct in this matter.
  • Please note that lists would be useful where it is important to see dates, for example, a list of medal winners or a List of Nobel laureates.

Consider whether the category might be considered category clutter[edit]

For example eponymous categories (categories named after a person) should only be created if sufficient directly related articles exist.

Choose an appropriate name for the category[edit]

A good category name is generic and neither too long nor too short.

Finding a good category name for sensitive people-related topics is not a "mathematical" science, but relies on good taste, and more than often on a bit of creativity to find a good solution that satisfies all.

Clearly define the category[edit]

It is preferable that the category definition (on the category page) tries to exclude vague or non-neutral point of view (NPOV) cases. In many cases, only referencing a Wikipedia article explaining the term is not sufficient as a definition for a category. This is true for almost every sensitive category. If the article you want to use as definition is problematic in itself, consider improving the article. Otherwise, or if that is not sufficient, write a definition of what goes in and what goes out of the category on the category page, with the reference article(s) as background information.

Example: "Atheist" can be used as an offensive term (people living under a Fatwa are still today often called atheist by their condemnors, irrespective of whether the former consider themselves atheist). Some of the vague (and non-NPOV) edges of an "Atheists" category are about the unclear distinction between "strong" and "weak" atheism (see the atheism article) and about whether only outspoken followers of atheistic beliefs should be named or everyone generally considered to be an "Atheist". See Category:Atheists for how the category is currently defined.

Place the new category in another category[edit]

See the general rules regarding categorization, and try to position the new category in a suitable place on the tree of "people" categories.

Experiencing a problematic categorization[edit]

Improper categorizations[edit]

If a person has an "incorrect" categorization, remove the category from the article and replace it (if applicable) with a correct category.

If the categorization is "correct" and the category is reasonable, but still seems problematic, please discuss the categorization on the talk page of the article in question. If the same concern applies to many members of the category, you can list the category for discussion at Wikipedia:Categories for discussion if a merge or rename is required, or at a relevant WikiProject board.

Improperly named categories[edit]

If the category name has an obvious typographical error, please list it for speedy renaming at Wikipedia:Categories for discussion/Speedy.

Redundant categories[edit]

If the category name has an obvious and unnecessary redundancy with another existing category, please list it for deletion or merging at Wikipedia:Categories for discussion.

Inappropriate categories[edit]

If the problem is not about accuracy, but about an "(in)appropriateness" for a single article to be in this category, you can remove that categorization from that article, but also consider the following:

  • Check whether you can solve (part of) the problem by making (a) better category definition(s);
  • If still needed, find or create a more appropriate category, for re-categorizing this single article.
  • If it seems clear to you that there are more articles to which this category is applied "inappropriately", add the {{SCD}} disclaimer to the bottom of the text or the {{Categorisation of people disputed}} dispute notice to the top of the text of the category description. Allow some time for this notice to take effect—possibly help with some manual recategorization (if you are familiar with the topics of the articles to which this categorization was applied). Remove the "disclaimer"/"dispute notice" if the use of this category seems OK again.
  • If you have a proposal for a better name for the category, a wider re-arrangement of the categorization scheme, or if you see a more general contradiction with Wikipedia policies and guidelines regarding this category, participate in or post new discussions on the discussion page of the category. Consider whether you can invite more potentially interested people to take part in the discussion, for example by leaving messages on their user talk pages (check, for example, the discussion page of the category and history tabs to find out who might be concerned by this category—also try to contact project people if the category is part of one or more Wikipedia projects).

Category namespace templates[edit]

Most of the templates that can be found at Wikipedia:Template messages/Category namespace are about sorting and organising categories. Here are two that can be used for problematic "people" categorizations:

What to type What it makes
{{categorization of people disputed}}
links talk edit
{{subjective category}}
links talk edit
Note: unlike other templates, this note is placed at the bottom of the category page.


  1. ^ Kevin Morris (2013-05-01), "Does Wikipedia's sexism problem really prove that the system works?", Daily Dot, archived from the original on 2013-05-02, retrieved 2013-05-02
  2. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. IX–XI
  3. ^ a b c d Hedden, Heather (April 2007). "Arabic names" (PDF). The Indexer. 25 (3). Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.74
  5. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.75
  6. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 155–158
  7. ^ Akhtar, Nasreen (April 1989). "Asian names" (PDF). The Indexer. 16 (3). Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  8. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003
  9. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 64–65
  10. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 88–90
  11. ^ "Sort keys for Icelandic names". WikiProject Iceland. Wikipedia. January 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
  12. ^ Power, John (June 2008). "Japanese names" (PDF). The Indexer. 26 (2). Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  13. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.80
  14. ^ a b IFLA 1996, pp. 118–120
  15. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 145–149
  16. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.81
  17. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 185–186
  18. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.82
  19. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 211–213
  20. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 232–234
  21. ^ Alakas, Meral (April 2007). "Turkish names" (PDF). The Indexer. 25 (3). Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  22. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 108–110
  23. ^ "Scottish Surnames and Variants". Scotland's people. Scotland. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  24. ^ Moore, Donald (April 1990). "The Indexing of Welsh personal names" (PDF). The Indexer. 17 (1). Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  25. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.37
  26. ^ a b c Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.38
  27. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.41
  28. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.72
  29. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.39
  30. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.71
  31. ^ Butcher's copy-editing 2006, p. 195
  32. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2003, p. 18.69
  33. ^ IFLA 1996, pp. 252–253
  34. ^ Indexing Books 2005, p. 169
  35. ^ a b Pitchford, Jacqueline (October 2006). "Dutch, German, Austrian, Flemish and Afrikaans names" (PDF). The Indexer. 25 (2). Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  36. ^ a b IFLA 1996, pp. 29–31
  37. ^ "Defaultsort". WikiProject Football. Wikipedia. June 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2012.