Voiceless palatal implosive

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Voiceless palatal implosive

A voiceless palatal implosive is a rare consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is  ʄ̊  or cʼ↓. A dedicated IPA letter, ƈ, was withdrawn in 1993.


Features of the voiceless palatal implosive:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (glottalic ingressive), which means it is produced by pulling air in by pumping the glottis downward. As it is voiceless, the glottis is completely closed, and there is no pulmonic airstream at all.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Lendu [example needed] [1]
Ngiti tdyɛ̀kɛ̀ [káʄ̥ɛ̀kɛ̀] 'sorghum' Contrasts voiced implosive /ʄ/, and voiceless, voiced, and prenasalised plosives /c/, /ɟ/, /ᶮɟ/.[2]: 34 [3]
Serer [example needed] Written as ⟨ࢢ⟩ in the Arabic script and as ⟨ƈ⟩ in Latin script. Contrasts /ɓ̥, ɗ̥, ʄ̊, ɓ, ɗ, ʄ/.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Phoible 2.0 -".
  2. ^ Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994). Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire (PhD). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  3. ^ "Phoible 2.0 -".

External links[edit]