Voiceless labiodental fricative

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Voiceless labiodental fricative
IPA Number128
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)f
Unicode (hex)U+0066
Braille⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
Voiceless labiodental approximant
IPA Number150 402A

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is f.

Some scholars also posit the voiceless labiodental approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ʋ̥.


Features of the voiceless labiodental fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz фы/fy [fə] 'lightning' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe тфы/tfy [tfə] 'five' Corresponds to [xʷ] in Kabardian and Proto-Circassian
Albanian faqe [facɛ] 'cheek'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] ظرف/th'arf [ðˤɑrf] 'envelope' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ֆուտբոլ/futbol [fut̪bol] 'football'
Assyrian ܦܬܐ pata [fɔθɔ] 'face' Used mostly by Western speakers; corresponds to /p/ in most other dialects.
Assamese বৰ/borof [bɔɹɔf] 'snow/ice'
Azeri fəng [t̪y̆fæɲɟ] 'ɡun'
Basque fin [fin] 'thin'
Bengali ফু/ful [ful] 'flower' Allophone of /pʰ/. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] fort [ˈfɔɾt] 'strong' See Catalan phonology
Chechen факс / faks [faks] 'fax' Used only in loanwords. There is no /f/ in Chechen; /f/ was replaced by /p/ in loanwords that contained it before increased influence from the Russian language popularized the usage of /f/.
Chinese Cantonese / fēi [fei̯˥] 'to fly' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin (traditional) / (simplified) / fēi [feɪ̯˥] See Mandarin phonology
Coptic ϥⲧⲟⲟⲩ/ftoow [ftow] 'four'
Czech foukat [ˈfoʊ̯kat] 'to blow' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] fiets [fiːts] 'bike' See Dutch phonology
English All dialects fill [fɪɫ] 'fill' See English phonology
Cockney[5] think [fɪŋk] 'think' Socially marked,[6] with speakers exhibiting some free variation with [θ] (with which it corresponds to in other dialects).[7] See th-fronting.
Many British urban dialects[8]
Some younger East Anglian English
Some younger New Zealanders[9][10]
Broad South African[11] myth [mɨf] 'myth' Possible realization of /θ/, more common word-finally. See White SAE phonology.
Indian South African[12] fair [ʋ̥eː] 'fair' Described as an approximant. Corresponds to /f/ in other accents.
Esperanto fajro [ˈfajɾo] 'fire' See Esperanto phonology
Ewe[13] eflen [éflé̃] 'he spit off'
French[14] fabuleuse [fäbyˈløːz̪] 'fabulous' See French phonology
Galician faísca [faˈiska] 'spark' See Galician phonology
German fade [ˈfaːdə] 'bland' See Standard German phonology
Goemai f'at' [fat] 'to blow'
Greek φύση / fysī [ˈfisi] 'nature' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati / faļ [fəɭ] 'fruit' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew סופר/sofer [so̞fe̞ʁ] 'writer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani साफ़ / صاف/saaf [sɑːf] 'clean' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian figyel [ˈfiɟɛl] 'he/she pays attention' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian fajar [fadʒar] 'dawn' See Indonesian phonology
Italian fantasma [fän̪ˈt̪äzmä] 'ghost' See Italian phonology
Kabardian фыз/fyz [fəz] 'woman' Corresponds to [ʂʷ] in Adyghe and Proto-Circassian
Kabyle afus [afus]
Kazakh faqır / фақыр [faqr] 'poor'
Khmer កាហ្វេ / kahvé [kaːfeː] 'coffee' See Khmer phonology
Macedonian фонетика/fonetika [fɔnetika] 'phonetics' See Macedonian phonology
Māori whakapapa [fakapapa] 'genealogy' Less commonly [ɸ]. See Māori phonology.
Malay feri [feri] 'ferry' Only occurs in loanwords
Malayalam ലം/falam [fɐlɐm] 'fruit, result' Only occurs in loanwords in the standard version. ഫ is used to represent both /pʰ/ and /f/ but nowadays most people pronounce /pʰ/ as [f]. Occurs in native words in the Jeseri dialect.
Maltese fenek [fenek] 'rabbit'
Norwegian filter [filtɛɾ] 'filter' See Norwegian phonology
Persian فروخت/foruxt [foru:χt] 'he/she sold'
Polish[15] futro [ˈfut̪rɔ] 'fur' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[16] fala [ˈfalɐ] 'speech' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਫ਼ੌਜੀ/faujī [fɔːd͡ʒi] 'soldier'
Romanian[17] foc [fo̞k] 'fire' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] орфография/orfografiya [ɐrfɐˈɡrafʲɪjə] 'orthography' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19] фаза / faza [fǎːz̪ä] 'phase' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak fúkať [ˈfu̞ːkäc] 'to blow' See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard flavta [ˈfláːu̯t̪à] 'flute' See Slovene phonology
Some dialects vsi [ˈfs̪î] 'all (people)' Allophone of /v/ before voiceless obstruents in dialects with /ʋ//v/ development. See Slovene phonology
Somali feex [fɛħ] 'wart' See Somali phonology
Spanish[20] fantasma [fã̠n̪ˈt̪a̠zma̠] 'ghost' See Spanish phonology
Swahili kufa [kufɑ] 'to die'
Swedish fisk [ˈfɪsk] 'fish' See Swedish phonology
Thai /fon [fon˩˩˦] 'rain'
Toda nes̲of [nes̲of] 'moon'
Turkish saf [ˈs̟ɑf] 'pure' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[21] Фастів/fastiv [ˈfɑsʲtʲiw] 'Fastiv' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[22] pháo [faːw˧ˀ˥] 'firecracker' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh ffon [fɔn] 'stick' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian fol [foɫ] 'full' See West Frisian phonology
Yi / fu [fu˧] 'roast'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[23] cafe [kafɘ] 'coffee' Used primarily in loanwords from Spanish

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 18.
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  5. ^ Wells (1982), p. 328.
  6. ^ Altendorf (1999), p. 7.
  7. ^ Clark & Trousdale (2010), p. 309.
  8. ^ Britain (2005), p. 1005.
  9. ^ Wood (2003), p. 50.
  10. ^ Gordon & Maclagan (2008), p. 74.
  11. ^ Bowerman (2004), p. 939.
  12. ^ Mesthrie (2004), p. 960.
  13. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 156.
  14. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  15. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ DEX Online : [1]
  18. ^ Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  20. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  21. ^ Danylenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  22. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  23. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.


  • Altendorf, Ulrike; Watt, Dominic (2004), "The dialects in the South of England: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181–196, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Britain, David (2005), "Innovation diffusion: "Estuary English" and local dialect differentiation: The survival of Fenland Englishes", Linguistics, 43 (5): 995–1022, doi:10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.995, S2CID 144652354
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618, S2CID 249411809
  • Clark, Lynn; Trousdale, Graeme (2010), "A cognitive approach to quantitative sociolinguistic variation: Evidence from th-fronting in Central Scotland", in Geeraerts, Dirk; Kristiansen, Gitte; Peirsman, Yves (eds.), Advances in Cognitive Linguistics, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-022645-4
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223, S2CID 249414876
  • Danylenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, S2CID 249404451
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2008), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: Phonology", in Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd (eds.), Varieties of English, vol. 3: The Pacific and Australasia, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 64–76, ISBN 978-3110208412
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X, S2CID 243772965
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953–963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505, S2CID 13470826
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266, S2CID 243640727
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, vol. 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X
  • Wood, Elizabeth (2003), "TH-fronting: The substitution of f/v for θ/ð in New Zealand English", New Zealand English Journal, 17: 50–56, S2CID 61870739

External links[edit]