voiceless labial–velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨.
Some linguists posit
voiceless approximants distinct from voiceless fricatives. To them, English /ʍ/ is an approximant [w̥], a labialized glottal fricative [hʷ], or an [hw] sequence, not a velar fricative. Scots /ʍ/ has been described as a velar fricative, especially in older Scots, where it was [xw]. Other linguists believe that a "voiceless approximant" is a contradiction in terms, and so [w̥] must be the same as [xʷ]. Ladefoged and Maddieson were unable to confirm that any language has fricatives produced at two places of articulation, like labial and velar. They conclude that "if it is a fricative, it is better described as a voiceless labialized velar fricative".
Features [ edit ]
Features of the voiceless labial–velar fricative:
Occurrence [ edit ]
English /ʍ/ is generally an approximant or an [hw] sequence, not a velar fricative. In General American and New Zealand English only some speakers maintain a distinction with /w/; in Europe, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents. See  English phonology and phonological history of wh.
Cultivated South African
Conservative General American
Non-velar like English wh.
A voiceless labialized velar fricative.
Described as an approximant.
A semivowel in standard modern Scots. Northern dialects have [f] instead.
Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants, in free variation with a vowel [. Voiced u] [ before voiced consonants. See w] Slovene phonology.
[ˈxʷaʔi] or [ˈw̥aʔi]
'he's the one who's doing it'
Variously described as a labialized velar fricative or a voiceless approximant.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), , Kansas: University of Kansas A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene
International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
Johnston, Paul (1997), "Regional Variation", in Jones, Charles (ed.), The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
Ladefoged, Peter (2006), A Course in Phonetics (5th ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers
Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), , Oxford: Blackwell, The Sounds of the World's Languages ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
McMahon, April (2002), An Introduction to English Phonology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, ISBN 0-7486-1252-1
Rogers, Henry (2000), , Essex: Pearson Education Limited, The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7
Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi: 10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN , 0-521-65236-7 S2CID 249404451
Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Vol. 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278), Vol. 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 , 0-52128541-0 . Wilde, Christopher P. (2016), "Gamale Kham phonology revisited, with Devanagari-based orthography and lexicon", Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (9): 130–199, hdl: 1885/109195
External links [ edit ]