|Voiceless labialized palatal fricative|
The voiceless labial–palatal fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in a few spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɥ̊⟩ or ⟨ɸ͡ç⟩. The former – more accurately the voiceless labialized palatal fricative by those who consider it to be a fricative – is the voiceless counterpart of the voiced labial–palatal approximant. Other linguists posit voiceless approximants distinct from voiceless fricatives; to them, [ɥ̊] is a voiceless labialized palatal approximant.
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- The place of articulation of [ɥ̊] is palatal; it is also labialized. The place of articulation of [ɸ͡ç] is palatal and bilabial.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Iaai||[example needed]||Described as an approximant. Contrasts with the voiced /ɥ/. Not protruded.|
|Kham||Gamale Kham||ह्व़ा||[ɥ̊ɐ]||'monkey'||Described as an approximant. Contrasts with the voiced /ɥ/.|
- Maddieson, Ian; Anderson, Victoria (1994), "Phonetic Structures of Iaai", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics (87): 163–182
- Ohala, John J.; Solé, Maria-Josep (2010), "Turbulence and Phonology" (PDF), in Fuchs, Susanne; Toda, Martine; Żygis, Marzena (eds.), Turbulent Sounds: An Interdisciplinary Guide, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, pp. 37–101, doi:10.1515/9783110226584.37, ISBN 978-3-11-022657-7
- Wilde, Christopher P. (2016), "Gamale Kham phonology revisited, with Devanagari-based orthography and lexicon", Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (9): 130–199, hdl:1885/109195