Voiced retroflex lateral flap

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Voiced retroflex lateral flap
Entity (decimal)𝼈
Unicode (hex)U+1DF08

The voiced retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The 'implicit' symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is 𝼈 .[1] The sound may also be transcribed as a short ɭ̆ , or with the old dot diacritic, ɺ̣.


Features of the voiced retroflex lateral flap:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ilgar [example needed] Contrasts /l, ɺ, ɭ, ɭ̆/ and possibly /ʎ, ʎ̆/ though they are likely underlying sequences of /Lj/.
Iwaidja [ŋa𝼈uli] 'my foot' Contrasts /l, ɺ, ɭ, ɭ̆/ and possibly /ʎ, ʎ̆/ though they are likely underlying sequences of /Lj/.
Kannada ಕೇಳಿ/Kēḷi [keː𝼈i] 'to ask' Can be an approximant [ɭ] instead.
Kobon ƚawƚ [𝼈aw𝼈] 'to shoot' Subapical.
Konkani फळ/fāḷ [fə𝼈 ] 'fruit'
Kresh[2] [example needed]
Malayalam വേളി/vēḷi [veː𝼈i] 'marriage' Can be an approximant [ɭ] instead.
Marathi केळी/Kēḷī [ke𝼈iː] 'bananas' See Marathi phonology
Tarama & Irabu[3] [paɨ𝼈 ] 'to pull'
Norwegian Trøndersk[4] glas [ˈɡɺ̠ɑːs] 'glass' Apical postalveolar;[4] also described as central [ɽ].[5] See Norwegian phonology
O'odham[6] [example needed] Apical postalveolar.[6]
Pashto[7][8] ړوند/llund [𝼈und] 'blind' Contrasts plain and nasalized flaps.[7][8] Tend to be lateral at the beginning of a prosodic unit, and a central flap [ɽ] or approximant [ɻ ] elsewhere.
Tamil குளி/Kuḷi [ˈku𝼈i] 'bathe' Allophone of /ɭ/. See Tamil phonology
Tarahumara Western Rarámuri [example needed] Often transcribed /𝼈 /.[9]
Totoli[10] [u𝼈aɡ] 'snake' Allophone of /ɺ/ after back vowels.[10]
Tukang Besi[11] [example needed] Possible allophone of /l/ after back vowels, as well as an allophone of /r/.[11]
Wayuu[citation needed] llaa [𝼈áɨ𝼈aa] 'old man' postalveolar?

A retroflex lateral flap has been reported from various languages of Sulawesi such as the Sangiric languages, Buol and Totoli,[12] as well as Nambikwara in Brazil (plain and laryngealized), Gaagudju in Australia, Purépecha and Western Rarámuri in Mexico, Moro in Sudan, O'odham and Mohawk in the United States, Chaga in Tanzania, and Kanuri in Nigeria.

Various Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages of Indian subcontinent are reported to have a retroflex lateral flap, either phonemically or phonetically, including Gujarati, Konkani, Marathi, Odia, and Rajasthani.[13] Masica describes the sound as widespread in the Indic languages of India:

A retroflex flapped lateral /ḷ/, contrasting with ordinary /l/, is a prominent feature of Odia, Marathi–Konkani, Gujarati, most varieties of Rajasthani and Bhili, Punjabi, some dialects of "Lahnda", ... most dialects of West Pahari, and Kumauni (not in the Southeastern dialect described by Apte and Pattanayak), as well as Hariyanvi and the Saharanpur subdialect of Northwestern Kauravi ("Vernacular Hindustani") investigated by Gumperz. It is absent from most other NIA languages, including most Hindi dialects, Nepali, Garhwali, Bengali, Assamese, Kashmiri and other Dardic languages (except for the Dras dialect of Shina and possibly Khowar), the westernmost West Pahari dialects bordering Dardic (Bhalesi, Khashali, Rudhari, Padari) as well as the easternmost (Jaunsari, Sirmauri), and from Sindhi, Kacchi, and Siraiki. It was once present in Sinhalese, but in the modern language has merged with /l/.[14]


  1. ^ Kirk Miller & Michael Ashby, L2/20-252R Unicode request for IPA modifier-letters (a), pulmonic
  2. ^ D. Richard Brown, 1994, "Kresh", in Kahrel & van den Berg, eds, Typological studies in negation, p 163
  3. ^ Aleksandra Jarosz, 2014, "Miyako-Ryukyuan and its contribution to linguistic diversity", JournaLIPP 3, p. 43.
  4. ^ a b Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, p. 155, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  5. ^ Heide, Eldar (2010), "Tjukk l – Retroflektert tydeleggjering av kort kvantitet. Om kvalitetskløyvinga av det gamle kvantitetssystemet.", Maal og Minne, Novus forlag, 1 (2010): 3–44
  6. ^ a b Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  7. ^ a b D.N. MacKenzie, 1990, "Pashto", in Bernard Comrie, ed, The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, p. 103
  8. ^ a b Herbert Penzl, 1965, A reader of Pashto, p 7
  9. ^ Burgess 1984, p. 7.
  10. ^ a b Nikolaus Himmelmann, 2001, Sourcebook on Tomini-Tolitoli languages, The Australian National University
  11. ^ a b Donohue, Mark (1999), "Tukang Besi", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, p. 152, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  12. ^ J. N. Sneddon, 1984, Proto-Sangiric & the Sangiric languages pp 20, 23
  13. ^ *Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2
  14. ^ Colin Masica, The Indo-Aryan Languages, CUP, 1991, p. 97.

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