Voiced retroflex lateral affricate

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Voiced retroflex lateral affricate
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex lateral affricate is a rare consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ɖ͡ɭ˔ or (implied) ɖ͡𝼅; the latter is also extIPA.


Features of the voiceless retroflex lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Kamkata-viri[1] Kamviri dialect uḍl′oa- [uˈɖɭ˔oː] to drive away Apical post-alveolar. Phonemically a sequence /ɖl/.[1]
Bhadarwahi[2] Bhalesi, Bhadrawahi dialects haiḍḷ [haiɖ͡ɭ˔] "turmeric" From old /Cr/ clusters. Contrasts /ʈ͡ꞎ ɖ͡ɭ ɖ͡ɭʱ/[2]


  1. ^ a b Strand, Richard F. (2010). "Nurestâni Languages". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  2. ^ a b Masica (1991). "The Indo-Aryan Languages".