Voiced retroflex affricate

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Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA Number106 (137)
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɖ​͡​ʐ
Unicode (hex)U+0256 U+0361 U+0290

The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is d̠͡ʐ, sometimes simplified to , with apical ⟨ɖ̺͡ʐ̺⟩ and laminal ⟨ɖ̻͡ʐ̻⟩ when precision is needed. It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).


Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some dialects ḷḷuna ['ɖ͡ʐunä] 'moon' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Belarusian джаз [ɖ͡ʐas] 'jazz' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Wu [d̠͡ʐaŋ] 'to grow' Only found in a few Wu dialects.
Some Mandarin speakers 广州 [kwaŋ˨˩ d̠͡ʐoʊ˥˥] 'Guangzhou'
Khowar[1] ݮنݮیر [d̠͡ʐand̠͡ʐer] 'chain' -
Polish Standard[2][3] em [d̠͡ʐɛm] 'jam' Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[4] dzwon [d̠͡ʐvɔn̪] 'bell' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /d̠͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[5]
Northern Qiang vvdhe [ʁd̠͡ʐə] 'star'
Serbo-Croatian[6][7] џеп / ep [d̠͡ʐê̞p] 'pocket' Apical. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[8] ús [d̠͡ʐu̞ːs] 'juice' Laminal.
Torwali[9] حؕىگ [d̠͡ʐiɡ̥] 'long' Contrasts with a palatal affricate.
Yi / rry [d̠͡ʐɪ˧] 'tooth'

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant affricate


  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Malagasy[10] [example needed] Also described as regular plosives, trilled affricates and sibilant affricates.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Farid Ahmad Raza,Preliminary Grapheme to Phoneme Khowar Alphabet Chart, Booni Chitral http://www.mahraka.com/pdf/grapheme_to_phoneme.pdf
  2. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  3. ^ Hamann (2004:65)
  4. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  5. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  6. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  7. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  8. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  9. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)
  10. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.


External links[edit]