Voiced labiodental affricate

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Voiced labiodental affricate
Audio sample

The voiced labiodental affricate ([b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].


Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • There are two variants of the stop component:
    • bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. The affricate with this stop component is called bilabial-labiodental.
    • labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • The fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Teochew 未來 bh7 lai5 [b̪͡vue꜔꜔ lai˥˥] 'future' Allophone of /b/ before /u/ in Chaoyang dialect[1]
English Some speakers invent [ɪɱˈb̪͡vent] 'invent' Allophone of /v/ after nasal consonants for some speakers. Usually occurs in fast and/or casual speech.
obvious [ˈɑˌb̪͡viˌəs] 'obvious' Occasional pronunciation of a /bv/ or /pv/ consonant cluster.
Italian Some central-south dialects[2] in vetta [iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä] 'at the top' Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals.[2] See Italian phonology
Luxembourgish[3] Kampf am Ënnergrond [ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm
'underground battle' Allophone of a word-final /pf/ before a word-initial vowel. Occurs only in German loanwords.[3] See Luxembourgish phonology
Ngiti[4] abvɔ [āb̪͡vɔ̄] 'thorny vine' Less commonly [b͡β][5]
Sopvoma (Mao)[6] bvóthà [b̪͡vótʰà] 'kill by goring' Distinct from the voiced labiodental fricative [v].
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect shilebvu [ʃileb̪͡vu] 'chin'


  1. ^ Zhang (2016), pp. 233.
  2. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 72–73.
  4. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1994), p. 31.
  5. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1994), p. 45.
  6. ^ Giridhar, P P. "Mao Naga Grammar." 1994, p. 26. https://archive.org/details/dli.language.2262/page/n9/mode/2up


  • Zhang, Guangyu (2016). 閩客方言史稿 [History of Min & Hakka Dialects] (增訂本 ed.). Wu-Nan Book Inc. ISBN 9789571187419.
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994), Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, ISBN 978-3-927620-71-1

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