Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate

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Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate
Audio sample

The voiced dental non-sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are d͡ð, d͜ð, d̪͡ð, and d̟͡ð.

The sound is a frequent allophone of /ð/.


Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal. Note that most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Burmese[1] အညာသား [ʔəɲàd̪͡ðá] 'grand' Common realization of /ð/.[1]
English Dublin[2] they [d̪͡ðeɪ̯] 'they' Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; may be [] instead.[2]
New York[3] Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects, may be a stop [] or a fricative [ð] instead.[3]
New Zealand[4] [d̪͡ðæe̯] Possible realization of /ð/.[4] See New Zealand English phonology

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Watkins (2001), p. 292.
  2. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  3. ^ a b Labov (1966), pp. 36–37.
  4. ^ a b Warren & Bauer (2004), p. 618.


  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Labov, William (1966), The Social Stratification of English in New York City (PDF) (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-24, retrieved 2014-06-27
  • Warren, Paul; Bauer, Laurie (2004), "Maori English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, vol. 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 614–624, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Watkins, Justin W. (2001), "Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291–295, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122

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