Voiced bilabial implosive

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Voiced bilabial implosive
IPA Number160
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɓ
Unicode (hex)U+0253
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)

A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɓ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b_<.


Features of the voiced bilabial implosive:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (glottalic ingressive), which means it is produced by pulling air in by pumping the glottis downward. Since it is voiced, the glottis is not completely closed, but allows a pulmonic airstream to escape through it.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Balanta-Ganja ɓaara? [ɓaːra]? 'heron' Possible allophone for /b/.[1]
Ega[2] [ɓá] 'send away'
English Southern American[3] body [ɓʌdi] 'body' Possible realization of word-initial /b/.[3] See English phonology
Fula[4] fulɓe
[fulɓe] 'Fulbe person' (g.)
Goemai as [ɓas] 'to fetch'
Hausa ɓaɓewa [ɓaɓɛua] 'quarreling'
Jamaican Patois[5] beat [ɓiːt] 'beat' Allophone of /b/ in the onset of prominent syllables.
Kalabari[6] á [ɓá] 'kill'
Khmer បារាំង / barăng [ɓaːraŋ] noun: 'France'
adjective: 'French'
See Khmer phonology
Konso[7] bad [ɓaɗ] ‘to hide’
Latundê[8] [ˌɓa:ˈnãn] '(they) are two' One of the possible realisations of /p/.[8]
Mayan Yucatec balam [ɓalam] 'jaguar'
Mam qanax [qamɓaʂ] 'foot'
Mono[9] ‘balœ [ɓálə́] 'at'
Punjabi Dialectal ਬੱਕਰੀ [ˈɓək.krɪ] 'goat'
Paumarí[10] 'bo'da [ɓoɗa] 'old'
Saraiki[11] ٻال [ɓɑː.l] 'child'
Sindhi ٻر [ɓaˑrʊ]
Serer[12] ɓood / ࢠࣷودْ [ɓoːd] 'to crawl' Contrasts /ɓ̥, ɗ̥, ʄ̊, ɓ, ɗ, ʄ/.
Southern Nambikwara[13] [ɓa̰h] 'ask excuse' One of the possible realisations of /p/.[13]
Shona baba [ɓàːɓá] 'father'
Tera[14] ɓala [ɓala] 'to talk' Contrasts phonemically with palatalized implosive, /ɓʲ/
Tukang Besi [aɓa] 'previous'
Vietnamese[15] bạn [ɓan̪˧ˀ˨ʔ] 'you' See Vietnamese phonology
Standard Zhuang lajmbwn [la̋ːɓɯ̌n] 'world'
Zulu ubaba [úˈɓàːɓá] 'my father'

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Balanta-Ganja (Fgañja / فْگَݧْجَ)". Omniglot.
  2. ^ Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002:100)
  3. ^ a b Wells (1982:489)
  4. ^ Keer (1999:82)
  5. ^ Devonish & Harry (2004:456)
  6. ^ Harry (2003:113)
  7. ^ Orkaydo, Ongaye Oda (2013). A Grammar of Konso. p. 11.
  8. ^ a b Telles (2013:298)
  9. ^ Olson (2004:233)
  10. ^ Everett (2003:23)
  11. ^ Bashir, Elena; J. Conners, Thomas (2019). "". A Descriptive Grammar of Hindko, Panjabi, and Saraiki. Vol. 4 of Mouton-CASL Grammar Series. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 28. ISBN 9781614512257. Saraiki has four voiced implosive stops: bilabial /ɓ/, alveolar /ɗ/, palatal /ʄ/, and velar /ɠ/.
  12. ^ Mc Laughlin (2005:203)
  13. ^ a b Netto (2018:105, 106)
  14. ^ Tench (2007:228)
  15. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)


External links[edit]