Versatile Video Coding

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VVC / H.266 / MPEG-I Part 3
Versatile video coding
StatusIn force
Year started2017
First published2020
Latest version2nd Edition
29 April 2022
OrganizationITU-T, ISO, IEC
CommitteeSG16 (Secretary: Simao Campos) (VCEG), MPEG
Base standardsH.261, H.262, H.263, H.264, H.265, MPEG-1
DomainVideo compression

Versatile Video Coding (VVC), also known as H.266,[1] ISO/IEC 23090-3,[2] and MPEG-I Part 3, is a video compression standard finalized on 6 July 2020, by the Joint Video Experts Team (JVET),[3] a joint video expert team of the VCEG working group of ITU-T Study Group 16 and the MPEG working group of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29. It is the successor to High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC, also known as ITU-T H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2). It was developed with two primary goals – improved compression performance and support for a very broad range of applications.[4][5][6]


In October 2015, the MPEG and VCEG formed the Joint Video Exploration Team (JVET) to evaluate available compression technologies and study the requirements for a next-generation video compression standard. The new standard has about 50% better compression rate for the same perceptual quality compared to HEVC,[7] with support for lossless and subjectively lossless compression. It supports resolutions ranging from very low resolution up to 4K and 16K as well as 360° videos. VVC supports YCbCr 4:4:4, 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 with 8–10 bits per component, BT.2100 wide color gamut and high dynamic range (HDR) of more than 16 stops (with peak brightness of 1000, 4000 and 10000 nits), auxiliary channels (for depth, transparency, etc.), variable and fractional frame rates from 0 to 120 Hz and higher, scalable video coding for temporal (frame rate), spatial (resolution), SNR, color gamut and dynamic range differences, stereo/multiview coding, panoramic formats, and still-picture coding. Work on high bit depth support (12 to 16 bits per component) started in October 2020[8] and was included in the second edition published in 2022. Encoding complexity of several times (up to ten times) that of HEVC is expected, depending on the quality of the encoding algorithm (which is outside the scope of the standard). The decoding complexity is about twice that of HEVC.

VVC development has been made using the VVC Test Model (VTM), a reference software codebase that was started with a minimal set of coding tools. Further coding tools have been added after being tested in Core Experiments (CEs). Its predecessor was the Joint Exploration Model (JEM), an experimental software codebase that was based on the reference software used for HEVC.


JVET issued a final Call for Proposals in October 2017, and the standardization process officially began in April 2018 when the first working draft of the standard was produced.[9][10]

At IBC 2018, a preliminary implementation based on VVC was demonstrated that was said to compress video 40% more efficiently than HEVC.[11]

The content of the final standard was approved on 6 July 2020.[7][12][13]


  • October 2017: Call for Proposals
  • April 2018: Evaluation of the proposals received and first draft of the standard[14]
  • July 2019: Ballot issued for Committee Draft
  • October 2019: Ballot issued for Draft International Standard
  • 6 July 2020: Completion of final standard


To reduce the risk of the problems seen when licensing HEVC implementations, for VVC a new group called the Media Coding Industry Forum (MC-IF) was founded.[15][16] However, MC-IF had no power over the standardization process, which was based on technical merit as determined by consensus decisions of JVET.[17]

Four companies were initially vying to be patent pool administrators for VVC, in a situation similar to the previous AVC[18] and HEVC[19] codecs. Two companies were later reported to be forming pools: Access Advance and MPEG LA.[20]

Access Advance has already published the amount of the required license fee.[21]






Company Chip / Architecture Type Throughput Ref
Allegro DVT AL-D320 Decoder IP core 8K@120 [33][34]
MediaTek Pentonic 2000 Decoder 8K@144 [35]
Pentonic 1000 Decoder 4K@144 [36]
Pentonic 700 Decoder 4K@144 [37]
Realtek RTD1319D Set-top box SoC 4K@60 [38]
VeriSilicon Hantro VC9000D Decoder 8K@120 [39]


The Brazilian SBTVD Forum will adopt the MPEG-I VVC codec in its forthcoming broadcast television system, TV 3.0, expected to launch in 2024. It will be used alongside MPEG-5 LCEVC as a video base layer encoder for broadcast and broadband delivery.[40]

The European organization DVB Project, which governs digital television broadcasting standards, announced 24 February 2022 that VVC was now part of its tools for broadcasting.[41] The DVB tuner specification used throughout Europe, Australia, and many other regions has been revised to support the VVC (H.266) video codec, the successor to HEVC.[42]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ License withholds patent rights and is not OSI-approved.


  1. ^ "H.266: Versatile video coding". International Telecommunication Union. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  2. ^ "Information technology — Coded representation of immersive media — Part 3: Versatile video coding". International Organization for Standardization (2nd ed.). September 2022. ISO/IEC 23090-3:2022. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  3. ^ "JVET - Joint Video Experts Team". International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  4. ^ Bross, Benjamin; Chen, Jianle; Ohm, Jens-Rainer; Sullivan, Gary J.; Wang, Ye-Kui (September 2021). "Developments in International Video Coding Standardization After AVC, With an Overview of Versatile Video Coding (VVC)". Proceedings of the IEEE. 109 (9): 1463–1493. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2020.3043399. S2CID 234183758.
  5. ^ Bross, Benjamin; Wang, Ye-Kui; Ye, Yan; Liu, Shan; Sullivan, Gary J.; Ohm, Jens-Rainer (October 2021). "Overview of the Versatile Video Coding (VVC) Standard and its Applications". IEEE Trans. Circuits & Systs. For Video Technol. 31 (10): 3736–3764. doi:10.1109/TCSVT.2021.3101953. S2CID 238243504.
  6. ^ Boyce, Jill M.; Chen, Jianle; Liu, Shan; Ohm, Jens-Rainer; Sullivan, Gary J.; Wiegand, Thomas; Ye, Yan; Zhu, Wenwu (October 2021). "Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Section on the VVC Standard". IEEE Trans. Circuits & Systs. For Video Technol. 31 (10): 3731–3735. doi:10.1109/TCSVT.2021.3111712. S2CID 238425004.
  7. ^ a b "Fraunhofer HHI is proud to present the new state-of-the-art in global video coding: H.266/VVC brings video transmission to new speeds". Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications. 6 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  8. ^ T. Ikai; T. Zhou; T. Hashimoto. "AHG12: VVC coding tool evaluation for high bit-depth coding". JVET document management system.
  9. ^ "N17195, Joint Call for Proposals on Video Compression with Capability beyond HEVC". Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  10. ^ "N17669, Working Draft 1 of Versatile Video Coding". Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  11. ^ "Fraunhofer Institut zeigt 50% besseren HEVC Nachfolger VVC auf der // IBC 2018". slashCAM (in German). Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  12. ^ "Versatile Video Coding | MPEG". Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  13. ^ ITU (27 April 2018). "Beyond HEVC: Versatile Video Coding project starts strongly in Joint Video Experts Team". ITU News. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  14. ^ "JVET-J1001: Versatile Video Coding (Draft 1)". April 2018.
  15. ^ Ozer, Jan (13 January 2019). "A Video Codec Licensing Update". Streaming Media. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  16. ^ "MC-IF". mc-if. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  17. ^ Feldman, Christian (7 May 2019). "Video Engineering Summit East 2019 – AV1/VVC Update". New York. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019. No change to the standardization has been done, so it could theoretically happen that the same thing with HEVC happens again. No measures have been done to prevent that, unfortunately. Also, JVET is not directly responsible; they are just a technical committee. (…) There is the Media Coding Industry Forum (…), but they don't have any real power.
  18. ^ Siglin, Timothy (12 February 2009). "The H.264 Licensing Labyrinth". Streaming Media. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  19. ^ Ozer, Jan (17 January 2020). "Balance of Power Shifts Among HEVC Patent Pools". Streaming Media. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  20. ^ Ozer, Jan (28 January 2021). "VVC Patent Pools: And Then There Were Two". Streaming Media. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  21. ^ Eltzroth, Carter; Cary, Judson (2021). "Fostering of Patent Pools Covering Cable Technology: Lessons from VVC Pool Fostering". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3949545. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 243836590.
  22. ^ "Fraunhofer HHI has developed a software encoder that fully exploits the compression potential of VVC. Its source code is available on GitHub". Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  23. ^ "Fraunhofer HHI has developed a resource efficient, multithreaded VVC software decoder that enables live decoding. Its source code is available on GitHub". Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  24. ^ Tencent (22 June 2021). "High performance Real-time H.266/VVC decoder now available from Tencent Media Lab". Tencent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  25. ^ Tencent (16 July 2021). "Tencent Cloud Becomes First Cloud Service Provider to Support H.266/VVC Standard".
  26. ^ "Faq x266 Webinar". MulticoreWare. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  27. ^ FFmpeg README, ffvvc, 19 March 2023, retrieved 22 March 2023
  28. ^ "Spin Digital – 8K VVC Media Player (Spin Player VVC)". Spin Digital. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  29. ^ "MX Player cuts down video streaming data consumption by half; upgrades its video encoding and compression technology to H.266". 15 June 2021.
  30. ^ "How the H.266 video standard will help stream content way faster". The Next Web. 7 September 2021.
  31. ^ "Free Video Player for Mac with M1/M2 Support - Download Elmedia Player". Elmedia Player. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  32. ^ Rudd, Emilia. "Elmedia Player for Mac Version History | KB". Electronic Team, Inc. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  33. ^ "IP Decoder AV1 8K IP Video Multiformats AV1 422 Scalable". Allegro DVT - Leading Video Compression Expertise. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  34. ^ "First hardware VVC/H.266 video decoder IP core". 1 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  35. ^ MediaTek. "MediaTek Announces New Pentonic Smart TV Family with New Pentonic 2000 for Flagship 8K 120Hz TVs". (Press release). Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  36. ^ de Looper, Christian (10 November 2022). "MediaTek wants to power next-generation TVs and Chromebooks". BGR.
  37. ^ Roy, Avik (20 August 2022). "MediaTek launches Pentonic 700 chip for 4K televisions". TechnoSports.
  38. ^ "Realtek Launches World's First 4K UHD Set-top Box SoC (RTD1319D) Supports VVC/H.266 Video Decoding, GPU with 10-bit Graphics, Multiple CAS, and HDMI 2.1a". Realtek. 29 August 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  39. ^ "VeriSilicon delivered multi-format hardware video decoder Hantro VC9000D supporting 8K@120FPS VVC/H.266 to customers". Retrieved 21 March 2023.
  40. ^ "Brazilian SBTVD Forum Selects V-Nova LCEVC for Brazil's Upcoming TV 3.0". 13 January 2022.
  41. ^ "DVB adds the VVC (H.266) codec to its video standards, for 8K?". 24 February 2022.
  42. ^ "Next-gen video codec VVC (H.266) added to DVB tuner specification". 28 February 2022.

Further reading[edit]

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