Although there were attempts to form urban kibbutzim in the early 20th century, their success was limited and most failed. The idea was revived in the 1970s when they were established as co-operative communities by former kibbutz members and Nahal graduates. They were created as a way of retaining the kibbutz lifestyle whilst moving into mainstream society, but more recently have been seen as a way of combatting social problems; in Haifa the city council asked members of the HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed youth group to form an urban kibbutz in the Hadar neighbourhood in order to work with at-risk children.
List of urban kibbutzim
- Beit Yisrael in Gilo, Jerusalem
- Migvan in Sderot
- Reshit in Ir Ganim, Jerusalem
- Horesh in Kiryat Yovel, Jerusalem
- Shomrei HaShalom, a Black Hebrew kibbutz in Dimona
- Tamuz in Beit Shemesh
- Mish'ol in Nof HaGalil
- Eli Ashkenazi (23 January 2008). "What is an urban kibbutz?". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Shulamit Reinharz (March 2008). "An Urban Kibbutz in Jerusalem". The Jewish Advocate. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Fadi Eyadat (27 December 2006). "Urban kibbutz youth steer at-risk teens away from life of crime". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Tamar Rotem (23 January 2008). "First kibbutz for Ethiopian immigrants opens in Gedera". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Melanie Lidman (29 November 2009). "Housing on the horizon?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 13 January 2014.