List of secretaries of state of the United States

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United States Secretary of State
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Official seal
Secretary Blinken's Official Department Photo.jpg
Incumbent
Antony Blinken

since January 26, 2021
United States Department of State
AppointerPresident of United States
Inaugural holderJohn Jay (acting)
Thomas Jefferson
FormationJuly 27, 1789
SuccessionFourth
Websitewww.state.gov

This is a list of secretaries of state of the United States.

Secretaries of foreign affairs (1781–1789)[edit]

On January 10, 1780, the Confederation Congress created the Department of Foreign Affairs.[1]

On August 10, 1781, Congress selected Robert R. Livingston, a delegate from New York, as the first Secretary for Foreign Affairs. Livingston was unable to take office until October 20, 1781. He served until June 4, 1783, and was succeeded by John Jay on December 21, 1784, who served until March 4, 1789, when the government under the Articles of Confederation gave way to the government under the Constitution.

The office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the Department of Foreign Affairs were reinstated by a law signed by George Washington on July 27, 1789. John Jay retained the post on an interim basis, pending the return of Thomas Jefferson from France.

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office
1 Robert R Livingston by Gilbert Stuart crop.jpeg Robert R. Livingston New York October 20, 1781 June 4, 1783
2 Gilbert Stuart - John Jay - Google Art Project.jpg John Jay New York December 21, 1784 March 4, 1789
Gilbert Stuart - John Jay - Google Art Project.jpg John Jay

Acting

New York July 27, 1789 September 15, 1789

Secretaries of state[edit]

On September 15, 1789, before Jefferson could return to take the post, Washington signed into law another act which changed the name of the office from Secretary of Foreign Affairs to Secretary of State, changed the name of the department to the Department of State, and added several domestic powers and responsibilities to both the office of secretary and the department. Thomas Jefferson took office as the first Secretary of State on March 22, 1790.

  Denotes ad interim Secretary of State
Secretary Party Vote[a] Term of office State President(s)
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term
Gilbert Stuart - John Jay - Google Art Project.jpg John Jay
(1745–1829)
Federalist September 15, 1789 March 22, 1790 188 days New York George Washington
1 Thomas-Jefferson.jpg Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[3]
Democratic-
Republican
March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793 3 years, 284 days Virginia
2 Edmund Randolph (1753-1813) by an unidentified artist.png Edmund Randolph
(1753–1813)
[4]
Federalist December 31, 1793 August 20, 1795 1 year, 232 days Virginia
3 Timothy-Pickering.jpg Timothy Pickering
(1745–1829)
[5]
Federalist August 20, 1795 December 10, 1795[b] 4 years, 265 days Pennsylvania
December 10, 1795 May 12, 1800
John Adams
Charleslee.png Charles Lee
(1758–1815)
[c][6]
Federalist May 13, 1800 June 5, 1800 23 days Virginia
4 John Marshall by Henry Inman, 1832.jpg John Marshall
(1755–1835)
[7]
Federalist June 13, 1800 February 4, 1801 264 days Virginia
February 4, 1801 March 4, 1801[d]
LeviLincoln.gif Levi Lincoln Sr.
(1749–1820)
[c][8]
Democratic-
Republican
March 5, 1801 May 1, 1801 57 days Massachusetts Thomas Jefferson
5 James Madison by Gilbert Stuart 1804.jpeg James Madison
(1751–1836)
[9]
Democratic-
Republican
May 2, 1801 March 3, 1809 7 years, 305 days Virginia
6 Robert Smith SecNavy.jpg Robert Smith
(1757–1842)
[10]
Democratic-
Republican
March 6, 1809 April 1, 1811 2 years, 26 days Maryland James Madison
7 John Vanderlyn - James Monroe - Google Art Project.jpg James Monroe
(1758–1831)
[11]
Democratic-
Republican
30–0 April 2, 1811 September 30, 1814 5 years, 335 days Virginia
October 1, 1814 February 28, 1815[b]
February 28, 1815 March 3, 1817
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg John Graham
(1774–1820)
[e][12]
Democratic-
Republican
March 4, 1817 March 9, 1817 5 days Kentucky James Monroe
Richard-Rush.jpg Richard Rush
(1780–1859)
[c][13]
Federalist March 10, 1817 September 22, 1817 196 days Pennsylvania
8 Gilbert Stuart - John Quincy Adams - Google Art Project.jpg John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
[14]
Democratic-
Republican
29–1 September 22, 1817 March 3, 1825 7 years, 162 days Massachusetts
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg Daniel Brent
(1770–1841)
[e][15]
Democratic-
Republican
March 4, 1825 March 7, 1825 3 days Virginia John Quincy
Adams
9 Henry Clay.JPG Henry Clay
(1777–1852)
[16]
Democratic-
Republican
27–14 March 7, 1825 March 3, 1829 3 years, 361 days Kentucky
National
Republican
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg James Alexander
Hamilton

(1788–1878)
[17]
Democratic March 4, 1829 March 27, 1829 23 days New York Andrew Jackson
10 Van Buren.jpg Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[18]
Democratic 25–7 March 28, 1829 May 23, 1831 2 years, 56 days New York
11 Portrait of Edward Livingston, by Thomas Sully, c. 1810-1836, oil on canvas - Portland Art Museum - Portland, Oregon - DSC08898.jpg Edward Livingston
(1764–1836)
[19]
Democratic May 24, 1831 May 29, 1833 2 years, 5 days Louisiana
12 LMcLane.jpg Louis McLane
(1786–1857)
[20]
Democratic [f] May 29, 1833 June 30, 1834 1 year, 32 days Delaware
13 John Forsyth US Secretary of State.jpg John Forsyth
(1780–1841)
[21]
Democratic July 1, 1834 March 3, 1841 6 years, 245 days Georgia
Martin Van Buren
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg Jacob L. Martin
(?–1848)
[e][22]
March 4, 1841 March 5, 1841 1 day District of
Columbia
William Henry
Harrison
14 1835 DanielWebster byFrancisAlexander Dartmouth.jpg Daniel Webster
(1782–1852)
[23]
Whig March 6, 1841 May 8, 1843 2 years, 63 days Massachusetts
John Tyler
Hugh S. Legaré.jpg Hugh S. Legaré
(1797–1843)
[c][24]
Democratic May 9, 1843 June 20, 1843 42 days South Carolina
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg William S. Derrick
(1802–1852)
[e][25]
June 21, 1843 June 23, 1843 2 days Pennsylvania
15 Abel P. Upshur, U.S. Secretary of State (2377415537).jpg Abel P. Upshur
(1791–1844)
[26]
Whig June 24, 1843 July 23, 1843[g] 220 days Virginia
July 24, 1843 February 28, 1844
John Nelson, bw photo portrait, Brady-Handy collection, circa 1855-1865.jpg John Nelson
(1791–1860)
[c][27]
Whig February 29, 1844 March 31, 1844 31 days Maryland
16 John C Calhoun by Mathew Brady, March 1849-crop, greyscale.jpg John C. Calhoun
(1782–1850)
[28]
Democratic April 1, 1844 March 10, 1845[h] 343 days South Carolina
17 James Buchanan, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
[29]
Democratic March 10, 1845 March 7, 1849[h] 3 years, 362 days Pennsylvania James K. Polk
18 John M. Clayton, U.S. Secretary of State (2277592664).jpg John M. Clayton
(1796–1856)
[30]
Whig March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 1 year, 136 days Delaware Zachary Taylor
Millard Fillmore
19 DanielWebster.jpg Daniel Webster
(1782–1852)
[23]
Whig July 23, 1850 October 24, 1852 2 years, 93 days Massachusetts
Charles Magill Conrad.jpg Charles Magill Conrad
(1804–1878)
[b][31]
Whig October 25, 1852 November 5, 1852 11 days Louisiana
20 The Public Library of the city of Boston - a history (1911) (14594074519) (cropped).jpg Edward Everett
(1794–1865)
[32]
Whig November 6, 1852 March 3, 1853 117 days Massachusetts
William Hunter (Asst. Sec. of State).jpg William Hunter
(1805–1886)
[e][33]
March 4, 1853 March 7, 1853 3 days Rhode Island Franklin Pierce
21 William L. Marcy - Brady-Handy.jpg William L. Marcy
(1786–1857)
[34]
Democratic March 7, 1853 March 6, 1857[h] 3 years, 364 days New York
22 Lewis Cass circa 1855.jpg Lewis Cass
(1782–1866)
[35]
Democratic March 6, 1857 December 14, 1860 3 years, 283 days Michigan James Buchanan
William Hunter (Asst. Sec. of State).jpg William Hunter
(1805–1886)
[e][33]
December 15, 1860 December 16, 1860 1 day Rhode Island
23 Judge Jeremiah Black.jpg Jeremiah S. Black
(1810–1883)
[36]
Democratic December 17, 1860 March 5, 1861[h] 78 days New York
24 William Henry Seward - edited.jpg William H. Seward
(1801–1872)
[37]
Republican March 5, 1861 March 4, 1869 7 years, 364 days New York Abraham Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
25 Elihu B. Washburne seated - Brady-Handy.png Elihu B. Washburne
(1816–1887)
[38]
Republican March 5, 1869 March 16, 1869 11 days Illinois Ulysses S. Grant
26 Hamilton Fish Brady Edited.jpg Hamilton Fish
(1808–1893)
[39]
Republican March 17, 1869 March 12, 1877[h] 7 years, 360 days New York
27 William M. Evarts - Brady-Handy.jpg William M. Evarts
(1818–1901)
[40]
Republican 44–2 March 12, 1877 March 7, 1881[h] 3 years, 360 days New York Rutherford B.
Hayes
28 James G. Blaine - Brady-Handy.jpg James G. Blaine
(1830–1893)
[41]
Republican March 7, 1881 December 19, 1881 287 days Maine James A.
Garfield
Chester A.
Arthur
29 Frederick T. Frelinghuysen - Brady-Handy.jpg Frederick Theodore
Frelinghuysen

(1817–1885)
[42]
Republican December 19, 1881 March 6, 1885[h] 3 years, 77 days New Jersey
30 Thomas F. Bayard, Brady-Handy photo portrait, circa 1870-1880.jpg Thomas F. Bayard
(1828–1898)
[43]
Democratic March 7, 1885 March 6, 1889[h] 3 years, 364 days Delaware Grover Cleveland
31 James Gillespie Blaine, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing front LCCN2011645229.jpg James G. Blaine
(1830–1893)
[41]
Republican March 7, 1889 June 4, 1892 3 years, 89 days Maine Benjamin Harrison
William F. Wharton.jpg William F. Wharton
(1847–1919)
[i][44]
Republican June 4, 1892 June 29, 1892 25 days Massachusetts
32 John W. Foster, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg John W. Foster
(1836–1917)
[45]
Republican June 29, 1892 February 23, 1893 239 days Indiana
William F. Wharton.jpg William F. Wharton
(1847–1919)
[i][44]
Republican February 24, 1893 March 6, 1893 10 days Massachusetts
Grover Cleveland
33 Walter Q. Gresham - Brady-Handy.jpg Walter Q. Gresham
(1832–1895)
[46]
Democratic March 7, 1893 May 28, 1895 2 years, 82 days Illinois
Edwin F. Uhl.jpg Edwin F. Uhl
(1841–1901)
[i][47]
Democratic May 28, 1895 June 9, 1895 12 days Michigan
34 Richard Olney, Bain bw photo portrait, 1913.jpg Richard Olney
(1835–1917)
[48]
Democratic June 10, 1895 March 5, 1897[h] 1 year, 268 days Massachusetts
35 John Sherman circa 1920 (cropped).jpg John Sherman
(1823–1900)
[49]
Republican March 6, 1897 April 27, 1898 1 year, 52 days Ohio William McKinley
36 DAY, WILLIAM R. JUSTICE LCCN2016857494 (cropped).jpg William R. Day
(1849–1923)
[50]
Republican April 28, 1898 September 16, 1898 141 days Ohio
AAAoftheState.jpg Alvey A. Adee
(1842–1924)
[j][51]
Independent September 17, 1898 September 29, 1898 12 days New York
37 John Hay, bw photo portrait, 1897.jpg John Hay
(1838–1905)
[52]
Republican September 30, 1898 July 1, 1905 6 years, 274 days District of
Columbia
Theodore Roosevelt
F. B. Loomis, portrait bust LCCN2014680832 (cropped).jpg Francis B. Loomis
(1861–1948)
[i][53]
Republican July 1, 1905 July 18, 1905 17 days Ohio
38 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902 (cropped).jpg Elihu Root
(1845–1937)
[54]
Republican July 19, 1905 January 27, 1909 3 years, 192 days New York
39 BACON, ROBERT LCCN2016857235 (cropped).jpg Robert Bacon
(1860–1919)
[55]
Republican January 27, 1909 March 5, 1909[h] 37 days New York
40 Philander C Knox-H&E.jpg Philander C. Knox
(1853–1921)
[56]
Republican March 6, 1909 March 5, 1913[h] 3 years, 364 days Pennsylvania William Howard Taft
41 Unsuccessful 1908.jpg William
Jennings Bryan

(1860–1925)
[57]
Democratic March 5, 1913 June 9, 1915[k] 2 years, 96 days Nebraska Woodrow Wilson
42 Robert Lansing, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg Robert Lansing
(1864–1928)
[58]
Democratic June 9, 1915 June 24, 1915 4 years, 249 days New York
June 24, 1915 February 13, 1920
Frank Lyon Polk, LC-DIG-npcc-01132, trimmed.jpg Frank Polk
(1871–1943)
[l][59]
Democratic February 14, 1920 March 14, 1920 29 days New York
43 Bainbridge Colby, bw photo portrait, 1920.jpg Bainbridge Colby
(1869–1950)
[60]
Democratic March 23, 1920 March 4, 1921 346 days New York
44 Unsuccessful 1916.jpg Charles Evans
Hughes

(1862–1948)
[61]
Republican March 5, 1921 March 4, 1925 3 years, 364 days New York Warren G.
Harding
Calvin Coolidge
45 FrankKellogg.jpg Frank B. Kellogg
(1856–1937)
[62]
Republican March 5, 1925 March 28, 1929 4 years, 23 days Minnesota
Herbert Hoover
46 Henry L. Stimson.jpg Henry L. Stimson
(1867–1950)
[63]
Republican March 28, 1929 March 4, 1933 3 years, 341 days New York
47 HULL, CORDELL. HONORABLE LCCN2016862713 (cropped).jpg Cordell Hull
(1871–1955)
[64]
Democratic March 4, 1933 November 30, 1944 11 years, 271 days Tennessee Franklin D.
Roosevelt
48 Edward Stettinius, as lend-lease administrator, September 2, 1941.jpg Edward Stettinius Jr.
(1900–1949)
[65]
Democratic 68–1 December 1, 1944 June 27, 1945 208 days Virginia
Harry S. Truman
Joseph Clark Grew cph.3b21091.jpg Joseph Grew
(1880–1965)
[l][66]
Independent June 28, 1945 July 3, 1945 5 days New Hampshire
49 James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg James F. Byrnes
(1882–1972)
[67]
Democratic July 3, 1945 January 21, 1947 1 year, 202 days South Carolina
50 George C. Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State (cropped).jpg George C. Marshall
(1880–1959)
[68]
Independent January 21, 1947 January 20, 1949 1 year, 365 days Pennsylvania
51 Dean G. Acheson, U.S. Secretary of State (cropped).jpg Dean Acheson
(1893–1971)
[69]
Democratic 83–6 January 21, 1949 January 20, 1953 3 years, 365 days Maryland
H. Freeman Matthews 1956 (cropped).jpg H. Freeman
Matthews

(1899–1986)
[l][70]
Independent January 20, 1953 January 21, 1953 1 day Maryland Dwight D.
Eisenhower
52 Senator John Foster Dulles (R-NY).jpg John Foster Dulles
(1888–1959)
[71]
Republican January 21, 1953 April 22, 1959 6 years, 91 days New York
53 Christian Archibald Herter (politician).jpg Christian Herter
(1895–1966)
[72]
Republican 93–0 April 22, 1959 January 20, 1961 1 year, 273 days Massachusetts
Livingston T. Merchant.jpg Livingston T.
Merchant

(1903–1976)
[m][73]
Independent January 20, 1961 January 21, 1961 1 day District of
Columbia
John F.
Kennedy
54 Dean Rusk.jpg Dean Rusk
(1909–1994)
[74]
Democratic January 21, 1961 January 20, 1969 7 years, 365 days New York
Lyndon B.
Johnson
Charles Bohlen.png Charles E. Bohlen
(1904–1974)
[n][75]
Independent January 20, 1969 January 22, 1969 2 days District of
Columbia
Richard Nixon
55 William P. Rogers, U.S. Secretary of State.jpg William P. Rogers
(1913–2001)
[76]
Republican January 22, 1969 September 3, 1973 4 years, 224 days Maryland
Kenneth-Rush-1977.jpg Kenneth Rush
(1910–1994)
[o][77]
Republican September 3, 1973 September 22, 1973 19 days Florida
56 Henry A. Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State, 1973-1977.jpg Henry Kissinger
(b. 1923)
[78]
Republican 78–7 September 22, 1973 January 20, 1977 3 years, 120 days District of
Columbia
Gerald Ford
Philip Habib.jpg Philip Habib
(1920–1992)
[m][79]
Independent January 20, 1977 January 23, 1977 3 days California Jimmy Carter
57 CyrusVanceSoS.jpg Cyrus Vance
(1917–2002)
[80]
Democratic Voice January 23, 1977 April 28, 1980 3 years, 96 days New York
Warren Christopher.jpg Warren Christopher
(1925–2011)
[o][81]
Democratic April 28, 1980 May 2, 1980 4 days California
Newsom 1975.png David D. Newsom
(1918–2008)
[m][82]
Independent May 2, 1980 May 3, 1980 1 day California
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg Richard N. Cooper
(1934–2020)
[p][83]
Independent May 3, 1980 0 days Connecticut
Newsom 1975.png David D. Newsom
(1918–2008)
[m][82]
Independent May 3, 1980 May 4, 1980 1 day California
Warren Christopher.jpg Warren Christopher
(1925–2011)
[o][81]
Democratic May 4, 1980 May 8, 1980 4 days California
58 Edmund Sixtus Muskie cropped.jpg Edmund Muskie
(1914–1996)
[84]
Democratic 94–2 May 8, 1980 January 18, 1981 255 days Maine
Newsom 1975.png David D. Newsom
(1918–2008)
[m][82]
Independent January 18, 1981 January 22, 1981 4 days California
59 Alexander Haig photo portrait as White House Chief of Staff black and white.jpg Alexander Haig
(1924–2010)
[85]
Republican 93–6 January 22, 1981 July 5, 1982 1 year, 164 days Connecticut Ronald Reagan
Walter J. Stoessel, Jr.jpg Walter J. Stoessel Jr.
(1920–1986)
[o][86]
Independent July 5, 1982 July 16, 1982 11 days California
60 George Pratt Shultz.jpg George Shultz
(1920–2021)
[87]
Republican 97–0 July 16, 1982 January 20, 1989 6 years, 188 days California
Michael Armacost 1987.jpg Michael Armacost
(b. 1937)
[m][88]
Independent January 20, 1989 January 25, 1989 5 days Maryland George H. W. Bush
61 James A. Baker III, U.S. Secretary of State (2380044355).jpg James Baker
(b. 1930)
[89]
Republican 99–0 January 25, 1989 August 23, 1992 3 years, 211 days Texas
62 Lawrence Eagleburger 59-N-VS-274-89 (cropped).jpg Lawrence Eagleburger
(1930–2011)
[90]
Republican August 23, 1992 December 8, 1992[o] 150 days Florida
Recess December 8, 1992 January 20, 1993
Arnold Kanter Photo.jpg Arnold Kanter
(1945 - 2010)
[p][91]
Independent January 20, 1993 0 days District of
Columbia
Bill Clinton
Frank G. Wisner, US Under Secretary of State (ret.), on gobal growth initiatives (35566644416).jpg Frank G. Wisner
(b. 1938)
[p][92]
Independent January 20, 1993 0 days District of
Columbia
63 Warren Christopher.jpg Warren Christopher
(1925–2011)
[81]
Democratic Voice January 20, 1993 January 17, 1997 3 years, 363 days California
64 Secalbright.jpg Madeleine Albright
(1937–2022)
[93]
Democratic 99–0 January 23, 1997 January 20, 2001 3 years, 363 days District of
Columbia
65 Colin Powell official Secretary of State photo.jpg Colin Powell
(1937–2021)
[94]
Republican Voice January 20, 2001 January 26, 2005 4 years, 6 days Virginia George W. Bush
66 Condoleezza Rice (cropped).jpg Condoleezza Rice
(b. 1954)
[95]
Republican 85–13 January 26, 2005 January 20, 2009 3 years, 360 days California
Assignment- 59-CF-DS-22432-05) Official portrait of William Burns, U.S. Ambassador-designate to Russia (Photographer- Ann Thomas--State) (59-CF-DS-22432-05 Amb BillBurns0086 fromPSD - DPLA - 24e3adb7aadd75ad1930cff23ef02645.jpg William J. Burns
(b. 1956)
[m]
Independent January 20, 2009 January 21, 2009 1 day District of
Columbia
Barack Obama
67 Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg Hillary Clinton
(b. 1947)
[96]
Democratic 94–2 January 21, 2009 February 1, 2013 4 years, 11 days New York
68 John Kerry official Secretary of State portrait.jpg John Kerry
(b. 1943)
[97]
Democratic 94–3 February 1, 2013 January 20, 2017 3 years, 354 days Massachusetts
Thomas A. Shannon Jr official photo.jpg Thomas A.
Shannon Jr.

(b. 1958 )
[m][98]
Republican January 20, 2017 February 1, 2017 12 days Minnesota Donald Trump
69 Rex Tillerson official portrait.jpg Rex Tillerson
(b. 1952)
[99]
Republican 55–43 February 1, 2017 March 31, 2018 1 year, 58 days Texas
John J. Sullivan.jpg John J. Sullivan
(b. 1959)
[o]
Republican April 1, 2018 April 26, 2018 25 days Massachusetts
70 Mike Pompeo official photo.jpg Mike Pompeo
(b. 1963)
[100]
Republican 57–42 April 26, 2018 January 20, 2021 2 years, 269 days Kansas
Daniel Bennett Smith ambassador.jpg Daniel Bennett Smith
(b. 1956)
[q][101]
Independent January 20, 2021 January 26, 2021 6 days Virginia Joe Biden
71 Secretary Blinken's Official Department Photo.jpg Antony Blinken
(b. 1962)
[102]
Democratic 78–22 January 26, 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 202 days New York

List of secretaries of state by time in office[edit]

11 years, 271 days
Cordell Hull from 1933 to 1944
7 years, 364 days
Dean Rusk from 1961 to 1969
7 years, 364 days
William H. Seward from 1861 to 1869
43 days
Lawrence Eagleburger from 1992 to 1993
37 days
Robert Bacon in 1909
11 days
Elihu B. Washburne in 1869

This is a list of United States secretaries of state by time in office. This is based on the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater. Cordell Hull is the only person to have served as Secretary of State for more than eight years. Daniel Webster and James G. Blaine are the only secretaries of state to have ever served non-consecutive terms. Warren Christopher served very briefly as Acting Secretary of State non-consecutively with his later tenure as full-fledged Secretary of State. Elihu B. Washburne served as Secretary of State for less than two weeks before becoming Ambassador to France.

No. in office Secretary Length of service
(days)
Rank
47 Cordell Hull 4289 1
54 Dean Rusk 2921 2
24 William H. Seward 2921
26 Hamilton Fish 2917 4
5 James Madison 2862 5
8 John Quincy Adams 2719 6
37 John Hay 2465 7
13 John Forsyth 2437 8
60 George P. Shultz 2380 9
52 John Foster Dulles 2282 10
7 James Monroe 2011 11
42 Robert Lansing 1695 12
55 William P. Rogers 1685 13
14/19 Daniel Webster 1617 14
3 Timothy Pickering 1614 15
45 Frank B. Kellogg 1484 16
28/31 James G. Blaine 1472 17
67 Hillary Clinton 1472
65 Colin Powell 1467 19
51 Dean Acheson 1460 20
21 William L. Marcy 1460
30 Thomas F. Bayard Sr. 1460
40 Philander C. Knox 1460
44 Charles Evans Hughes 1460
63 Warren Christopher 1458 25
64 Madeleine Albright 1458
17 James Buchanan 1458
9 Henry Clay 1457 28
27 William M. Evarts 1456 29
66 Condoleezza Rice 1455 30
68 John Kerry 1449 31
46 Henry L. Stimson 1437 32
1 Thomas Jefferson 1380 33
22 Lewis Cass 1379 34
61 James Baker 1306 35
38 Elihu Root 1288 36
56 Henry Kissinger 1216 37
57 Cyrus Vance 1191 38
29 Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 1173 39
70 Mike Pompeo 1000 40
41 William Jennings Bryan 826 41
33 Walter Q. Gresham 812 42
10 Martin Van Buren 786 43
6 Robert Smith 756 44
11 Edward Livingston 736 45
50 George C. Marshall 730 46
53 Christian Herter 639 47
34 Richard Olney 634 48
2 Edmund Randolph 595 49
49 James F. Byrnes 567 50
71 Antony Blinken 567 51
59 Alexander Haig 529 52
18 John M. Clayton 501 53
69 Rex Tillerson 423 54
35 John Sherman 417 55
12 Louis McLane 397 56
43 Bainbridge Colby 346 57
16 John C. Calhoun 343 58
4 John Marshall 264 59
58 Edmund Muskie 257 60
32 John W. Foster 239 61
15 Abel P. Upshur 219 62
48 Edward Stettinius Jr. 208 63
36 William R. Day 141 64
20 Edward Everett 117 65
23 Jeremiah S. Black 78 66
62 Lawrence Eagleburger 43 67
39 Robert Bacon 37 68
25 Elihu B. Washburne 11 69

Living former secretaries of state[edit]

As of August 2022, there are seven living former secretaries of state, the oldest being Henry Kissinger (1973–1977). The most recent death of a former secretary of state was that of Madeleine Albright (1997–2001) on March 23, 2022. The living former secretaries of state, in order of service, are:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Where no vote is listed, confirmation was by voice vote or otherwise unrecorded.[2]
  2. ^ a b c As Secretary of War.
  3. ^ a b c d e As Attorney General.
  4. ^ As Chief Justice of the United States.
  5. ^ a b c d e f As Chief Clerk of the State Department.
  6. ^ This appears to have been a recess appointment that was never submitted to the Senate.[2]
  7. ^ As Secretary of the Navy.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k In addition to the president listed, this secretary of state served for a brief period of time (eight days or less) under that president's successor until a replacement could be named and confirmed.
  9. ^ a b c d As Assistant Secretary of State.
  10. ^ As Second Assistant Secretary of State.
  11. ^ As Counselor for the Department of State.
  12. ^ a b c As Under Secretary of State.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h As Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.
  14. ^ As Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.
  15. ^ a b c d e f As Deputy Secretary of State.
  16. ^ a b c As Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs.
  17. ^ As Director of the Foreign Service Institute.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Secret Committee of Correspondence/Committee for Foreign Affairs, 1775–1777". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
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  94. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Colin Luther Powell (1937–2021)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  95. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Condoleezza Rice (1954–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  96. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  97. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Forbes Kerry (1943–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  98. ^ "Thomas Alfred Shannon Jr. (1958–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  99. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Rex W. Tillerson (1952–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
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  101. ^ "Daniel Bennett Smith (1956–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  102. ^ "Antony Blinken (1962–)". Office of the Historian. Retrieved November 10, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Further reading[edit]

  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg, ed. The American secretaries of state and their diplomacy (19 vol., 1963) scholarly biographies. partly online
  • Graebner, Norman A., ed. An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries of State in the Twentieth Century (1961) scholarly essays on John Hay through John Foster Dulles. online
  • Hopkins, Michael F. "President Harry Truman's Secretaries of State: Stettinius, Byrnes, Marshall and Acheson." Journal of Transatlantic Studies 6.3 (2008): 290–304.
  • Mihalkanin Edward, ed. American Statesmen: Secretaries of State from John Jay to Colin Powell (2004); short scholarly articles by experts; 572pp online

External links[edit]