|Uniformed services of the United States|
|Founded||14 June 1775[a]|
|Federal department heads|
|Military age||17 with parental consent, 18 for voluntary service.[b]|
|Conscription||Male only (inactive since 1973)|
|17 million, age 18–25 (2016)|
|2 million (2016)|
|Active personnel||1,374,125 (ranked 3rd)|
|Deployed personnel||170,000|
|Budget||US$721.5 billion (2020) (ranked 1st)|
|Percent of GDP||3.42% (2019)|
|History||Military history of the United States|
The uniformed services are, in order of precedence:
- Marine Corps
- Air Force
- Space Force
- Coast Guard
- Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps
Federal executive departments
United States Department of Defense (DoD)
Department of the Army (DA)
- Army (USA): Established 14 June 1775
Department of the Navy (DON)
Department of the Air Force (DAF)
United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- Coast Guard (USCG): Established 4 August 1790
Prior to 1967, the Coast Guard was a part of the Department of the Treasury. In 1967, it became a part of the Department of Transportation. In 2002, it was placed under the Department of Homeland Security. During times of war, it may be transferred to the Department of the Navy, under the Department of Defense.
United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
- Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC): Established 4 January 1889
The Corps is headed by the Surgeon General of the United States.
United States Department of Commerce (DOC)
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps): Established 22 May 1917.
The NOAA Corps was created as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, a component of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, on 22 May 1917. It was removed from the Coast and Geodetic Survey and became a component of the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) as the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps (ESSA Corps) upon the establishment of ESSA on 13 July 1965. The ESSA Corps became the NOAA Corps as a component of NOAA when ESSA was abolished and NOAA simultaneously was created on 3 October 1970. Under all three names, the corps has been an element of the Department of Commerce throughout its existence.
The eight uniformed services are defined by :
The term "uniformed services" means—
(A) the armed forces;
(B) the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and
(C) the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service.
The six uniformed services that make up the armed forces of the United States are defined in the previous clause,:
The term "armed forces" means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Space Force, and Coast Guard.
U.S. Armed Forces
Six of the uniformed services make up the armed forces as defined by Title 10, five of which are within the Department of Defense. The Coast Guard is part of the Department of Homeland Security and has both military and law enforcement duties. Title 14 states that the Coast Guard is part of the armed forces at all times, making it the only branch of the military outside the Department of Defense. During a declared state of war, however, the President of the United States or U.S. Congress may direct that the Coast Guard operate as part of the Department of the Navy. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, along with the NOAA Commissioned Corps, operate under military rules with the exception of the applicability of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, to which they are subject only when militarized by executive order or while detailed to any component of the armed forces.
Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces are all members of the military who serve in a reserve capacity. The National Guard is an additional reserve military component of the Army and Air Force, respectively, and is composed of National Guard units, which operate under Title 32 and under state authority as the Army National Guard and Air National Guard. The militia that later became the National Guard was first formed in the Colony of Virginia in 1607 and is the oldest uniformed military force founded in the New World. The National Guard can also be mobilized by the president to operate under federal authority through Title 10. When acting under federal direction, the National Guard is managed by the National Guard Bureau, which is a joint Army and Air Force activity under the Department of Defense, with a 4-star general from the Army or Air Force appointed as its top leader. However, in federal service, command and control of National Guard organizations will fall under the designated geographic or functional combatant commander. The National Guard of the United States serves as a reserve component for both the Army and the Air Force, and can be called up for federal active duty in times of war or national emergencies.
Non-armed uniformed services
- The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps) is a uniformed branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is under the Department of Commerce.
- The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the uniformed personnel system of the Public Health Service, which is under the Department of Health and Human Services.
Commissioned officers of the NOAA Corps and PHSCC wear uniforms that are derived from U.S. Navy and Coast Guard uniforms, except that the commissioning devices, buttons, and insignia reflect their specific service. Uniformed officers of the NOAA Corps and PHSCC are paid on the same scale as members of the armed services, with respective rank and time-in-grade. Additionally, PHSCC officers are covered by the Uniformed Services Employment and Re-employment Rights Act and the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (formerly the Soldiers and Sailors Civil Relief Act). The NOAA Corps and PHSCC consist of commissioned officers only and have no warrant officer ranks or enlisted ranks.
Commissioned officers of the NOAA Corps and PHSCC may be militarized by the president. Because they are commissioned officers, they can be classified as prisoners of war under the Geneva Conventions if captured by a belligerent entity. The PHSCC traces its origins to a system of marine hospitals created by An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, passed by Congress in 1798; it adopted a military model of organization in 1871. The Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), a predecessor to NOAA, originally began commissioning its officers so that if captured while engaged in battlefield surveying, they would be protected under the law of armed conflict and could not be tried or executed as spies. The USC&GS Commissioned Officer Corps became the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps (ESSA Corps), upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration on 13 July 1965, then became the NOAA Corps upon the creation of NOAA on 3 October 1970.
- Civil Air Patrol
- Military badges of the United States
- State defense force
- Strategic Sealift Officer Program
- United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
- United States Maritime Service
- United States Merchant Marine
- "United States Army". Goarmy.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Contact Us: Frequently Asked Questions - airforce.com". airforce.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Plan Your Next Move to Become a Coast Guard Member". Enlisted Opportunities. U.S. Coast Guard. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "QUICK FACTS AND FIGURES". Selective Service System. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- "Number of births in the United States from 1990 to 2016 (in millions)". Statista. 2018. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- "ARMED FORCES STRENGTH FIGURES FOR JUNE 30, 2020".
- IISS 2020, p. 46. sfn error: no target: CITEREFIISS2020 (help)
- "National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2021" (PDF). United States Department of Defense. April 2020.
- "Defence Expenditure of NATO Countries (2012-2019)" (PDF). NATO Public Diplomacy Division. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- "DoD Directive 1005.8" (PDF).[dead link]
- "10 U.S. Code § 1408 - Payment of retired or retainer pay in compliance with court orders". Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law School. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
- 14 U.S.C. § 3
- "UCMJ S 802. Art. 2. Subs. (a). Para. (8)".
- "H.R. 4986: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008".
- "H.R. 4986: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 full text".
- "SEC. 1812. ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU AS JOINT ACTIVITY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE".
- The PHSCC is under Title 42 & 46 U.S.C.
- United States Code. Title 5. Part III. Chapter 21. S 2101.
- "History of the Office of Surgeon General". 18 July 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2014.