Timeline of Pakistani history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a timeline of Pakistani history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the region of modern-day Pakistan. To read about the background of these events, see History of Pakistan and History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Paleolithic Period Lower Paleolithic Period ·

Middle Paleolithic Period ·

Upper Paleolithic Period

Centuries BCE 35th · 27th · 25th · 19th · 17th · 15th · 13th · 12th · 10th · 7th · 6th · 5th · 4th · 3rd · 2nd · 1st
CE 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

Lower Paleolithic[edit]

Year Date Event
2,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the region of present-day North Pakistan[1][2]

The pebble stones from the archaeological site of Riwat, Murree are discovered, dating back approximately 1.9 million years ago.[3]

The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.[4] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across Indian subcontinent.[5][6][7]

500,000 BCE Some of the earliest relics of Stone Age man have been found in the Soan Valley of the Potohar region near Rawalpindi, dating back to 500,000 BCE.

Middle Paleolithic[edit]

Year Date Event
300,000 BCE – 100,000 BCE

Flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools have been found in Soan Valley. Most of these tools were composed of the metamorphic quartzite rocks. The stone tool artifacts in this assemblage have been identified as a part of the second inter-pluvial period in Pakistan.

Some of the Bhimbetka shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago.[8][9]

Upper Paleolithic[edit]

Year Date Event
43,000 BCE The archaeological site of Riwat 55 dates back to this period. It is modern form of Early Riwat Site.[10]

Riwat 55 contains a structure that includes a low wall footing, a pit, and a stone-lined niche, all associated with a freshly flaked stone assemblage that included blades.[10]

35th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
3500 BCE – 3300 BCE Mature phases of the Indus Valley civilization begins. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, also called Indus script.

Over the course of next 1000–1500 years, inhabitants of the civilization developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products and seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin) had elaborate urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.[11] The civilization depended significantly on trade, was the first civilization to use wheeled transport in form of bullock carts, and also used boats.[12]

27th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
2700 BCE – 2600 BCE The cities of Harappa[13] and Mohenjo-daro[14] become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole region of modern-day Pakistan and also some areas of Afghanistan and India,[15] covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus script for its writing system.

25th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
2500 BCE – 2000 BCE The culture, artichetere, technology and educational system of Indus Valley civilization reached at its zenith with Harappa and Kot Diji as main centres.[13]

These fluctuations reflect complex and dynamic political, ideological, and economic processes that are an integral part of urban society.[13]

19th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
1900 BCE – 1300 BCE Late Harappan Phase (Cemetery H Culture)

13th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
1300 BCE Cemetery H culture comes to an end

10th century BCE[edit]

Date Event
1000 BCE Middle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BCE)
Iron Age of Indian subcontinent (including today's Pakistan)

7th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
700 BCE The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism is written.

6th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
600 BCE Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge.[16]
Vedic period ends.
535 BCE – 518 BCE Achaemenid Emperors launched Persian campaign of Indus Valley and in result parts of modern-day Pakistan became easternmost part of Achaemenid Empire[17]
500 BCE Gandhara Civilization at first stage of its flourishness.[18]

5th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
500 BCE – 450 BCE Persian rule is at its zenith.
500 BCE Roruka as capital of Sauvira Kingdom become most important trading center of Indian subcontinent, also mentioned in early Buddhist literature.[19]
450 BCE Ror Dynasty come to power and captured Sindh, Balochistan and North India with the capital of Rori, Sindh.[20]

4th century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
333 BCE Persian rule in the Pakistan ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.[21]
326 BCE Ambhi king of Takshila surrenders to Alexander.[22]
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.[23]
325 BCE During the Mallian Campaign, Alexander was seriously wounded by an arrow in the chest and this became reason of his death.[24]
321 BCE Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya.[25]
305 BCE Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.[26]
304 BCE Seleucus gives up his territories (Balochistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.[27]

2nd century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
200 BCE – 150 BCE Gandhara Civilization (present day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) flourished in new way by combination of Hellenistic culture and Ancient Indian culture.

Taxila became centre of Gandhara Civilization and religion of Buddhism.

1st century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
75 BCE Arrival of Scythians (Sakas) from Central Asia.
58 BCE Beginning of Vikram Era.

1st century [edit]

Year Date Event
20 AD – 35 AD Indo-Parthian Kingdom was established and conquered present northern Pakistan.[28]
35 AD Western Satraps formed.[29]
68 AD Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.[30]

2nd century[edit]

Year Date Event
100 AD or after Sugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in Punjab.[31]

3rd century[edit]

Year Date Event
240 AD Sri Gupta starts the establishment of Gupta Empire in Indian subcontinent (including present Pakistan).[32]
260 AD Kushans decline and are dominated by Indo-Sassanians.[33]

4th century[edit]

Date Event
320 AD Chandragupta I ascends the throne of Gupta Empire.[34]
Kidarite Kingdom came to power in the region of modern-day Pakistan.[35]
335 AD Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.[36]
380 AD Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.[34]

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
450 AD White Huns (Hephthalites) attacked Gandhara, sacked its cities and burnt down its many monasteries and centres of learning.[37]
489 AD Ror dynasty is disestablished.[38]

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
524 AD Rai dynasty come to power in the region of Sindh.[39]
554 AD Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Skandagupta.[34]
565 AD Sassanians and Turks overthrow Huns.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
601 AD Rai dynasty reached at its zenith and covered whole of Pakistan and Afghanistan with the capital of Aror, Sindh.[40]
632 AD Brahman dynasty come into power and Chach of Aror become Maharaja of Sindh.[41]
644 AD Islam arrived in Indian subcontinent. Rashidun Caliphate defeated Rai dynasty in the Battle of Rasil and Balochistan become easternmost frontier of Rashidun Caliphate.[42]
665 AD Turk Shahi gained control west of the Indus River, including Gandhara.[43]
671 AD At the death of Chach of Alor, the Brahmin dynasty reached its zenith and he was succeeded by his brother Chandar of Sindh.[44]
679 AD Chandar of Sindh died and succeeded by his nephew Raja Dahir, last Hindu Maharaja of Sindh.[45]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
700 AD According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the Parsi immigrants are granted permission to stay by the local ruler Jadi Rana.
712 AD Muhammad Bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir and established Ummayad Islamic rule on Sindh and South Punjab (Multan) on the orders of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[46]
747 AD – 751 AD Ummayad Era finished and Abbasid Era begins.[47]

Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi revolted against Ummayad Dynasty during Abbasid Revolution and after Abbasid victory in revolution, he was confirmed as Abbasid Governor of Sindh.[48]

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
841 AD Dynastic rule of Habbaris over Sindh begin under suzerainty of Abbasid Caliphate.[49]
870 AD Hindu Shahis captured Kingdom of Kabul Shahi and expanded their rule in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa and Punjab.[50]
875 AD Habbari dynasty rule expanded over whole of Sindh, Balochistan and South Punjab (Multan).[51]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
977 AD – 997 AD Sabuktigin of Ghaznavid dynasty defeated many times Hindu Shahi ruler Jayapala and became ruler of domains east of the Indus River.[52]

11th century [edit]

Year Date Event
1001 Mahmud Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala of Hindu Shahi; after that Jayapala commits suicide.[53]
1021 Mahmud Ghazni defeats Raja Tarnochalpal and Punjab becomes part of Ghaznavid dynasty.[54]

In this way whole of Pakistan comes under Muslim rule; Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa under Ghaznavid Empire, Sindh under Habbari dynasty while Makran (Balochistan) under Caliphate.

This Muslim rule continued for next 8 centuries under different Muslim dynasties.

1030 Alberuni arrives in Indian subcontinent; death of Mahmud Ghazni.[55]
1058 Muslim Rajput Soomra Dynasty ends the rule of Habbari dynasty and starts to rule on the behave of Abbasid Caliph.[56][57]
1092 Reign of Zainab Tari begins; first absolute female ruler in the history of South Asia as well as only female who ruled Sindh.[58]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1175 Muhammad of Ghurid dynasty defeats Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175.[59][60]
1186 Muhammad Ghori along with Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad ends the rule of Ghaznavid dynasty after having captured Lahore.[61][62][63]
1191 "Victory of Prithviraj Chauhan". First Battle of Tarain fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj III. Ghori is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.[64]
1192 "Victory of Muhammad Ghori". Second Battle of Tarain fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III. Chauhan is defeated by Muhammad Ghori.[64]
1193 Qutb al-Din Aibak becomes deputy of Ghurid Empire in Indian subcontinent.[65]

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1206 15 March Khukhrains kill Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River.[66]
1206 12 June End of Ghurid Era.
1206 25 June Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes Delhi Sultanate by becoming first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate from Mamluk dynasty.[67]
1210 November Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo.[68]
1210 December Aram Shah becomes new Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[69]
1211 June Shams ud-Din Iltutmish defeats Aram Shah in the Battle of Delhi and become third Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[70]
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab during rule of Iltutmish.
1236 30 April Iltutmish dies and Rukn ud din Firuz become fourth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[71]
1236 10 October Razia Sultana abolishes the rule of Rukn ud din Firuz and become fifth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[72]
1240 17 May Muiz ud din Bahram becomes sixth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[73]
1240 14 October Murder of Razia Sultan by nobles of Chalisa.[74]
1242 15 May Murder of Muiz ud din Bahram by army.

Ala ud din Masud becomes seventh Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[75]

1246 10 June Nasiruddin Mahmud becomes eighth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate with the support of Corps of Forty.[71]

Balban rules on the behave of Nasiruddin Mahmud as a deputy of empire.

1266 18 February Nasiruddin Mahmud dies without any hier.

Ghiyas ud din Balban becomes ninth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[71]

1285 Delhi Sultanate decisively defeats the army of Mongol Empire at the battle of Beas River.[76]
1287 March Muiz ud din Qaiqabad becomes tenth Sultan of Delhi Sultanate after the death of his grandfather Ghiyas ud din Balban.[77]
1290 1 February Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad by Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, an army commander.[78]

Shamsuddin Kayumars becomes eleventh Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.

1290 13 June Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji ends the Mamluk Dynasty by murdering Shamsuddin Kayumars.

Establishment of Khalji dynasty. Jalaluddin becomes twelfth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[79]

1296 19 July Alauddin Khalji murders Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji and become thirteen Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[79]
1296 October Allauddin Khalji conquers Multan and eliminates all surviving members of his predecessor Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji.[80]
1297-1298 Mongol Army invades Punjab and Sindh but Delhi Sultanate decisively defeats them and crushes away from Pakistan.[81]
1298 Mongols once again invades Sindh and occupies fort of Sivistan but Delhi Sultanate decisively defeats them.[82]

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1316 4 January Alauddin Khalji died due to severe illness.[83]
1316 5 January Shihabuddin Omar succeeded Alauddin Khalji with the help of Malik Kafur and becomes the 14th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[80]
1316 14 April After the assassination of Malik Kafur, Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah detroned his brother Shihabuddin Omar and himself becomes 15th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.[80]




  • 3 June 1947: British Government decides to separate British India, into two sovereign Dominions of India and Pakistan.
  • 8 July Constituent Assembly of Pakistan approves the design of Pakistan.
  • 26 July: The Gazette of India publishes that the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was given shape with 69 members (later on the membership was increased to 79), including one female member.
  • 14 August: Pakistan became independent. Quaid-a-Azam took oath as the first Governor General of Pakistan. Liaqat Ali Khan took oath as the first Prime minister of Pakistan.
  • 30 September: Pakistan becomes a member of the UN by an unanimous vote of the Security Council.
  • 27 October: Indian Air troops land in Kashmir as the Maharajah declares accession of Kashmir to India.
  • 1 January: UNO cease-fire orders to operate in Kashmir. War stops accordingly.
  • 1 May: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Pakistan enters war on behalf of Kashmir against India.
  • 1 July: Quaid-e-Azam inaugurated the State Bank of Pakistan.
  • 11 September 1948: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the first governor general of Pakistan, passes away.
  • 1 January: United Nations Cease-fire Line established between Pakistan Administered Kashmir (GB & AJ&K) and Indian Administered Kashmir
  • 8 February: Azad Kashmir Government shifts its capital to Muzaffarabad.
  • 12 March 1949 : Objectives Resolution passed by Liaquat Ali Khan.
  • 14 September: Khwaja Nazimuddin becomes 2nd Governor-General of Pakistan.



  • 1960: Ayub Khan becomes first elected president
  • 1 August 1960: Islamabad is declared as the principal seat of the Government of Pakistan.
  • 8 June 1962: 1962 Constitution is promulgated. National Assembly elected. Ayub Khan takes oath of first President of Pakistan under new constitution.
  • 2 January 1964: Fatima Jinnah lost the presidential elections, Ayub completes the second term.
  • 6 September 1965: Second war between Pakistan and India over Kashmir.
  • 10 January 1966: Pakistan and India sign the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities.
  • 30 November 1967: Pakistan Peoples Party founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in Lahore.
  • 25 March 1969: Ayub Khan resigns; Yahya Khan declares martial law and assumes presidency.



  • 26 May 1980: Establishment of Federal Shariat Court is announced.
  • 23 March 1981: Provisional constitutional order enforced, replacing the 1973 constitution.
  • 18 March 1984: Azeem Ahmed Tariq & Altaf Hussain founded the MQM (Muhajir Qaumi Movement) in Karachi and Hyderabad.
  • 28 February 1985: General elections held; Muhammad Khan Junejo becomes prime minister.
  • 31 December 1985: Martial Law is lifted, amended 1973 Constitution revived.
  • 20 January 1988: Prominent Pashtun leader Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan dies in Peshawar.
  • 10 April 1988: Army ammunition blown up in Ojheri camp, Rawalpindi; more than 100 people die.
  • 29 May 1988: Zia dismisses Junejo's government;
  • 17 August 1988: General Zia-ul-Haq is killed in a plane crash near Bahawalpur.
  • 16 November 1988: New elections held; Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister
  • 30 September 1988: 1988 Hyderabad massacre
  • 16 November 1988: 1988 Pakistani general election



  • 12 May 2000: Supreme Court validated the October 1999 coup and granted General Pervez Musharraf executive and legislative authority for three years.[86]


  • 20 June: General Pervez Musharraf dismissed the president and named himself to the post.
  • 15 July: Agra Summit starts. President Pervez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee holds talks over long-standing issues.
  • 14 August: New Local Government system installed, after holding of elections in three phases.
  • 16 September: US Secretary of State Powell told that Pakistan's President Musharraf had agreed to support the U.S. anti-terrorist campaign.
  • 10 November: US President Bush meets President Musharraf in New York and assures additional aid of one billion dollars.


  • 5 January: Musharraf stunned Vajpayee by a hand-shake at the last 11th SAARC summit in Kathmandu.
  • 1 February: Wall Street Journal reporter, Daniel Pearl killed in Karachi.
  • 16 March: War in North-West Pakistan begins.
  • 30 April: General Pervez Musharraf wins a referendum thus ensures 5 more years in office.
  • 8 May: 2002 Karachi bus bombing, 15 killed.
  • 24 August: President General Musharraf issues the Legal Framework Order 2002.
  • 10 October: 2002 Pakistani general election, First general elections since the 1999 military coup held.
  • 23 November: Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali sworn in as Prime Minister.


  • 24 February: Senate elections: Ruling party wins most seats in voting to the upper house.
  • 23 March: AAJ TV, Pakistan's premier channel inaugurated.
  • 24 June: President Pervez Musharraf meets US President G.W. Bush in Camp David. US announces $3-billion five-year economic assistance package for Pakistan.
  • 4 July: 2003 Quetta mosque bombing, 44 killed.
  • 11 July: Lahore-Delhi bus service resumed after suspension of 18 months.
  • 14 December: General Musharraf survived an assassination attempt in Rawalpindi.


  • 1 January: General Musharraf won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies.
  • 5 January: Musharraf meets Vajpayee in Islamabad, discusses Kashmir dispute.
  • 22 May: Pakistan readmitted to Commonwealth.
  • 26 June: Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali steps down and nominates Ch. Shujaat Hussain as his interim successor.
  • 28 August: Shaukat Aziz becomes Prime Minister.


Year Date Event
2005 13 July 136 people killed and about 170 injured in a collision of three passenger trains near Ghotki.
14 July NWFP Assembly passes the Hasba bill with a majority vote.
19 July Government of Pakistan launches country-wide crackdown against extremist elements.
8 October The 7.6 MwKashmir earthquake affects Azad Kashmir with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), killing more than 79,000 people and displacing several million more.
11 October Renowned littérateur, linguist and poet, Shanul Haq Haqqee, passes away in Toronto. He was 88.
2006 2 January Dr. Shamshad Akhtar assumes office of State Bank Governor having the first woman Governor of SBP.
14 May Charter of democracy (CoD) is signed by two former prime ministers of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto in London.
26 April Pervez Musharraf lays foundation-stone of Diamir-Bhasha dam.
8 July Process to release over 1600 women prisoners from 55 jails across starts after Presidential Ordinance.
10 July Noted poet, writer and columnist, Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi, passes away in Lahore. He was 89.
26 August Prominent Baloch leader and politician Sirdar Akbar Bugti killed by military
2007 9 March President Musharraf dismissed Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar.
3 July Pakistani security forces started operation Sunrise to liberate Lal Masjid from the fundamentalist Islamic militants
20 July Iftikhar restored as Chief Justice of Pakistan.
18 October Bhutto, Benazir returned to Pakistan, after exile of about 8 years.
3 November Pervez Musharraf imposed emergency, most of the senior judges of Supreme Court ousted.
16 November After completion of 5 years, National Assembly dissolved, Caretaker government of Muhammad Mian Soomro took oath.
25 November Nawaz Sharif returned Pakistan after 7 years of forced exile.
15 December Emergency lifted, civil rights and suspended constitution restored
27 December Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto assassinated in Rawalpindi
2008 2 January The Election Commission announces elections will now be held on February 18.
18 February Elections are held amidst tight security. PPP, PML-N, PML-N and ANP win 124, 91, 54 and 13 seats respectively.
24 March Yusuf Raza Gilani is elected as the new Prime Minister.
18 August Pervaiz Musharraf steps down as President of Pakistan. Mohammadmian Soomro takes over as president.
6 September Asif Zardari wins presidential election with 481 votes.
9 September Asif Zardari takes oath as President of Pakistan.














  • 27 May: The twenty-fifth amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was approved by the Parliament of Pakistan and the Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), giving way to the merger of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas into the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
  • 25 July: 2018 Pakistani general election are held and Imran khan became Prime Minister of Pakistan with majority .


See also[edit]


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  2. ^ Murray, Tim (1999). Time and archaeology. London; New York: Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-415-11762-3.
  3. ^ Rendell, H. and Dennell, R.W. 1987 Thermoluminescence Dating of an Upper Pleistocene Site, Northern Pakistan. Geoarchaeology 2, 63-67.
  4. ^ Rendell, H. R.; Dennell, R. W.; Halim, M. (1989). Pleistocene and Palaeolithic Investigations in the Soan Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archaeological Reports International Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-86054-691-7. OCLC 29222688.
  5. ^ Parth R. Chauhan. Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective.
  6. ^ Lycett, Stephen J (2007), "Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment", Journal of Archaeological Science, 34 (9): 1434–1440, Bibcode:2007JArSc..34.1434L, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.11.001
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  8. ^ Javid, Ali and Javeed, Tabassum. World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. 2008, page 19
  9. ^ "Bhimbetka, Auditorium Cave, Madhya Pradesh: Acheulian Petroglyph Site, c. >100,000 - 500,000 BP". Archived from the original on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
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