Tikka Khan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tikka Khan
ٹکا خان
1st Chief of Army Staff
In office
3 March 1972 – 1 March 1976
PresidentZulfikar Ali Bhutto
Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
Prime MinisterZulfikar Ali Bhutto
Preceded byGul Hassan
(as C-in-C of the Army)
Succeeded byZia-ul-Haq
National Security Advisor
In office
1 March 1976 – 4 July 1977
PresidentFazal Ilahi Chaudhry
Prime MinisterZulfikar Ali Bhutto
Preceded byGhulam Omar
Succeeded byRao Farman Ali
Military Governor of East Pakistan
In office
25 March 1971 – 31 August 1971
PresidentYahya Khan
Preceded byLt-Gen. Yaqub Ali Khan
Succeeded byDr. Abdul Motaleb Malik
23rd Governor of Punjab
In office
9 December 1988 – 6 August 1990
PresidentGhulam Ishaq Khan
Prime MinisterBenazir Bhutto
Preceded byS.J. Qureshi
Succeeded byMuhammad Azhar
Personal details
Tikka Khan

(1915-02-10)10 February 1915[1]
Kahuta, Punjab, British India (now Punjab, Pakistan)
Died28 March 2002(2002-03-28) (aged 87)
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Resting placeWestridge cemetery
CitizenshipBritish Raj British India (1915–1947)
 Pakistan (1947–2002)
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party (1976–1990)
ChildrenCol. (R) Khalid
Civilian awards Hilal-e-Quaid-e-Azam
NicknameQasab-e-Bengal (Butcher of Bengal)[2]
Military service
AllegianceBritish Raj British India (1935-47)
Pakistan Pakistan (1947-76)
Branch/serviceBritish Raj British Indian Army
Pakistan Pakistan Army
Years of service1935–1976
Rank General
UnitRegiment Artillery
CommandsEastern Command
IV Corps
II Corps
8th Infantry Division, Rann of Kutch
15th Infantry Division, Sialkot
Military awards Hilal-e-Jurat
1939-1945 Star
Africa Star
Burma Star
Italy Star
War Medal 1939-1945
Service numberPA – 124

Tikka Khan HJ HQA SPk NePl (Urdu: ٹکا خان‎; 10 February 1915 – 28 March 2002)[3] was a Pakistan Army officer who served as the first chief of the army staff from 1972 to 1976.[4] Along with Yahya Khan, he is considered a chief architect of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide[5] which according to independent researchers led to the deaths of 300,000 to 500,000 people.[6][7]

Gaining a commission in 1940 as an artillery officer in the British Indian Army to participate in World War II, he rose to command the 8th and 15th infantry divisions in the war with India in 1965. In 1969, he was appointed as the commander of IV Corps while acting as martial law administrator in West Pakistan under President Yahya Khan. In 1971, he took over the command of army's Eastern Command in East Pakistan and appointed as Governor of East Pakistan where he oversaw the planning and the military deployments to execute the military operations to quell the liberation war efforts by the Awami League.[8] His tough rhetoric to deal with political enemies earned him notoriety and a nickname of Touka (meaning Cleaver)[9] and he was soon relieved of his command by President Yahya Khan.

After commanding the II Corps in the war with India in 1971, Tikka Khan was promoted to four-star rank and appointed as the first chief of army staff of the Pakistan Army in 1972. As an army chief, Tikka Khan provided support to the Pakistan nuclear programme alongside bureaucrat Ghulam Ishaq Khan.[10] Upon retirement from the military in 1976, he was subsequently appointed as National Security Advisor by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, only to be removed in 1977 as a result of enforced martial law. In the 1980s, he remained active as a political worker of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and emerged as its leader when appointed as Governor of Punjab after the general elections held in 1988. His tenure ended when President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government in 1990 and he was succeeded by Mian Muhammad Azhar. He retired from politics in 1990. He died on 28 March 2002 and was buried with full military honours in Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.[11]

Early life and education[edit]

Tikka Khan was born on 10 February 1915[1] into a Punjabi Muslim family of the Janjua Rajput clan[12] in the Jochha Mamdot village of Kahuta Tehsil, Rawalpindi District, Punjab, British India (now Punjab, Pakistan).[13]

After his education in Rawalpindi, he joined the Army Cadet College in Nowgong, Madhya Pradesh in 1933 and joined the British Indian Army as a sepoy in 1935; he gained his commission in the army from the Indian Military Academy on 22 December 1940.[14]

During these early years he was known to be a particularly good boxer,[15] with the famous British biographer Robert Payne describing him as "a heavy set man with a powerful chest and a boxer’s shoulders, and he would have been called handsome except for a rather swollen and misshapen nose acquired during a brief boxing career."[16]

Military career[edit]

World War II[edit]

He participated in World War II and fought with the 2nd Field Regiment, Regiment of Artillery in Libya against the Afrika Korps led by German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in 1940.[14] He was captured by German troops and held as a POW in Libya for more than a year.[14] After successfully escaping, he saw military action in the Burma campaign against Japan in 1945 where he was wounded and hospitalised for some time.[14] In 1946, he was posted in different parts of India such as Deolali, Mathura, and Kalyan.[14]

During the same time, he served as an instructor at the Indian Military Academy at Dehradun.[14]

New beginnings in Pakistan[edit]

After the efforts of Pakistani nationalists culminated in the partition of British India and the creation of Pakistan, Tikka Khan joined the Pakistan Army as a major in the Pakistan Army's Regiment of Artillery in 1947.[14] His military career progressed well and he got accelerated promotions in the army.[14] In 1949, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. He worked hard to raise the Medium Regiment in the new army.[14] In 1950–54, he was promoted to colonel and became the deputy director at the directorate of artillery in the GHQ.[14]

In 1955, he was promoted to brigadier.[14] In 1962, he was promoted to major general and posted at the GHQ in Rawalpindi.[14]

Between the wars: 1965–1971[edit]

In 1965, Major-General Tikka Khan was the GOC of the 8th Infantry Division that was positioned in Punjab, Pakistan.[17] At that time, the 8th Infantry Division consisted of the 51st Paratrooper Brigade and the 52nd Infantry Brigade.[17] In April 1965, the 8th Infantry Division intruded into the Rann of Kutch.[18] Hostilities broke out between India and Pakistan and Tikka Khan's 8th Division fought the Indian Army in the Battle of Rann of Kutch.[19][20] During the war, Tikka Khan earned a reputation as a victor of Rann of Kutch and was credited widely by the Pakistani press for the victories he gained over the Indian Army.[14] He made a bold stand against the Indian Army's encirclement in the Sialkot sector in 1965.[14] He later led the 15th Infantry Division in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965.[14]

After President Ayub Khan handed over the presidency to his army chief General Yahya Khan in 1969, Tikka Khan was promoted to lieutenant general to command the IV Corps, stationed in Lahore.[14] He was the martial law administrator of Punjab under President Yahya Khan who appointed him after replacing with Attiqur Rahman.[14] His personality was well known in Pakistan as being tough and ruthless.[14] In March 1971, Tikka Khan was sent to Dacca and left the post to Lieutenant General Bahadur Sher in March 1971.[14]

Bangladesh Liberation and 1971 war[edit]

The situation was very complex in both West and East Pakistan after the general elections held in 1970 where the Bengali nationalist Awami League won 160 of the 162 seats in East Pakistan, whereas the leftist-socialist Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won 81 seats out of 138 in West Pakistan.[21] By constitutional law, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman of the Awami League was supposed to be the candidate for the post of Prime Minister of Pakistan but Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of the Pakistan Peoples Party was not ready to accept his role as Leader of the Opposition and refused to sit in the National Assembly in this role.[21]

Under pressure by Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party, President Yahya Khan postponed the National Assembly session despite meeting with and inviting the Awami League to form the government on 7 March.[21] Sheikh Mujibur Rahman reacted by calling upon the Bengali people to launch an armed liberation movement against Pakistan at a mass rally.[21] Responding to this, President Yahya Khan accepted the resignation of Lieutenant General Yaqub Khan as governor of East Pakistan and commander of the army's Eastern Command in March 1971 and appointed Lieutenant General Tikka Khan as his successor. Tikka Khan arrived in Dacca the same month and took over the governorship. He assumed command of the Eastern Command on 7 March 1971. He has faced accusations of killing thousands of civilians.[21][user-generated source][22][23]

Acting on the instructions of President Yahya Khan's administration, Lieutenant General Tikka Khan began preparations of "direct-wise military operation" against the Awami League on the evening of 25 March 1971.[24] Tikka Khan's order to his soldiers was I want the land and not the people.[25] Tikka Khan took assistance from loyal Bengalis and Biharis for the operation and organized a paramilitary force called Razakars. He ordered the arrest of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, outlawed the Awami League and ordered a midnight attack on the University of Dhaka.[26] Tikka Khan was the architect and top planner of Operation Searchlight.[8] Thousands were killed in this operation, including academics and other members of civil society, and the country was plunged into a bloody civil war.[26] Tikka Khan followed the classical "Seek and destroy and Infiltration" method and captured all radio stations in East Pakistan at the price of systematic killings of Bengali people.[26] In Pakistan, he was called "a soldier known for his eager use of force."[26] He became notorious as the "Butcher of Bengal."[27][28]

In West Pakistan, domestic criticism and disapproval of Lieutenant General Tikka Khan grew to the point that President Yahya Khan replaced him with a civilian government led by a governor and a cabinet drawn from different political parties.[29] Tikka Khan was recalled to Pakistan, relinquishing the Eastern Command to Lieutenant General Amir Khan Niazi,[30] and given command of the II Corps based in Multan, Punjab.[31] He commanded the II Corps during the 1971 war with India.[31] Indian Major General D. K. Palit has questioned the wisdom of Tikka Khan's tactics used in the Battle of Chhamb in December, citing high II Corps casualties incurred during Pakistani frontal attacks.[31]

Chief of Army staff[edit]

In 1972, President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto removed Lieutenant General Gul Hassan Khan from his position as commander-in-chief of the army[32] and reorganized the army leadership to replace the position with that of the Chief of Army Staff (COAS). Bhutto then promoted Tikka Khan to four-star general and appointed him as COAS.[33] Tikka Khan was a highly unpopular choice in military circles for the chief of army staff because it was felt strongly that he was professionally unprepared for the assignment.[34] On the other hand, Tikka Khan was steadfastly loyal to Bhutto.[32] In 1972, he supported the militarisation of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission by supporting Munir Ahmad Khan to take over the commission's chairmanship and the directorship of the clandestine atomic bomb programme.[35] He was implicated in the Hamoodur Rahman Commission's[citation needed] report on the 1971 war with India over East Pakistan, but much of the report remains classified.

In 1974, Tikka Khan led the counterinsurgency military operation in Balochistan and successfully crushed Baloch independence movement.[36] In 1976, he provided his support to Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Bhutto to expand the clandestine nuclear weapons programme.[10] The same year, Tikka Khan was preparing to retire from the military, and evaluated the eight serving lieutenant generals who were his potential successors as chief of army staff. When asked by Bhutto for his opinion on Lieutenant General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Tikka Khan did not recommend him. Tikka Khan later remarked, "I thought he was dull. In any case, he was the most junior of all the eight lieutenant generals."[37] However Bhutto by-passed his recommendations, approved Lieutenant General Zia-ul-Haq to four-star rank, and appointed him as army chief.[37] Upon retirement from the army, Khan joined the Pakistan Peoples Party.

Political career[edit]

National Security Advisor[edit]

Tikka Khan was appointed National Security Advisor in 1976 by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[38] However, his tenure was short and ended when martial law was imposed by army chief General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1977. General Zia ordered the military police to arrest both Bhutto and General Tikka Khan and placed them under house arrest.[39] Bhutto was executed in 1979, after which General Tikka Khan emerged as one of the leaders of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), becoming its Secretary General at a time when many party stalwarts abandoned it.[40]

Jail under Zia-ul-Haq[edit]

In 1980–88, Tikka Khan faced imprisonment numerous times for his political activities until President Zia-ul-Haq died in August 1988 in an aircraft explosion over Bahawalpur.[40] In spite of Tikka's leadership position within the political opposition, many of his army protégés such as Sawar Khan, Iqbal Khan and Rahimuddin Khan were promoted to four-star rank and remained on deferential terms with him.[40] In the 1988 general election, Tikka Khan ran unsuccessfully for a seat representing Rawalpindi.[40]

Governor of Punjab[edit]

He was appointed as the Governor of Punjab by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in December 1988.[40] His governorship ended when President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed the government of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in August 1990, after which Tikka Khan retired from active politics.[40]

Later life and death[edit]

Tikka Khan's grave at Army graveyard, Rawalpindi

In retirement, Tikka Khan lived a quiet life in Rawalpindi, Punjab.[38] Throughout the 1990s, he battled with illness and was hospitalised in CMH Rawalpindi for several years. He refused many television interviews on the subject of the controversial events of 1971 and died on 28 March 2002.[41] He was survived by three sons and two daughters.[42]

He was laid to rest with military honours in the Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi.[42] Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee Aziz Khan attended his funeral, accompanied by the Army Chief of Staff, Chief of Air Staff, Chief of Naval Staff and other senior military and civil officials.[42] Former prime minister and PPP chairperson Benazir Bhutto paid Tikka Khan tribute in a message to his son Colonel Khalid Masud; she described the Colonel's father as one who "rose to the highest offices of this country due to his hard work and respect for the rule of law."[42]

Awards and decorations[edit]


(Crescent of Courage)

1971 War




(Star of Pakistan)



(General Service Medal)

1. Rann of Kutch Clasp

Sitara-e-Harb 1965 War

(War Star 1965)

Sitara-e-Harb 1971 War

(War Star 1971)

Tamgha-e-Jang 1965 War

(War Medal 1965)

Tamgha-e-Jang 1971 War

(War Medal 1971)

Pakistan Tamgha

(Pakistan Medal)



(Republic Commemoration Medal)


Order of the Crown

(Pahlavi Iran)

1939-1945 Star Africa Star Burma Star
Italy Star War Medal


India Service Medal


Queen Elizabeth II

Coronation Medal


Foreign Decorations[edit]

Foreign Awards
 Imperial Iran Order of the Crown
 UK 1939-1945 Star
 UK Africa Star
 UK Burma Star
 UK Italy Star 1945
 UK War Medal 1939-1945
 UK India Service Medal 1939–1945
 UK Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b General Tikka Khan's Headstone (Headstone in graveyard). Army Graveyard, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 2011.
  2. ^ "Gen. Tikka Khan, 87; 'Butcher of Bengal' led Pakistani Army". Los Angeles Times. 30 March 2002. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  3. ^ "Chiefs of Army Staff (Pakistan)". 24 October 2017.
  4. ^ "General Tikka Khan". www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Pakistan Army. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  5. ^ Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Psychology Press. pp. 295–303. ISBN 978-0-415-94430-4. The Pakistani government (the Yahya regime) was primarily responsible for the genocide. Not only did it prevent the Awami League and Rahman from forming the federal government, but it opted for a military solution to a constitutional crisis. In doing so, it decided to unleash a brutal military operation in order to terrorize the Bengalis. Yahya's decision to put General Tikka Khan (who had earned the name of "Butcher of Baluchistan" for his earlier brutal suppression of Baluchi nationals in the 1960s) in charge of the military operation in Bangladesh was an overt signal of the regime's intention to launch a genocide.
  6. ^ Dummett, Mark (16 December 2011). "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history". BBC News. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  7. ^ Payne, Robert (1973). Massacre: The tragedy at Bangla Desh and the phenomenon of mass slaughter throughout history. Macmillan Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 9780025952409.
  8. ^ a b Hamid Mir (26 March 2010). "Apology Day for Pakistanis". The Daily Star. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  9. ^ "Gen. Tikka Khan, 87; 'Butcher of Bengal' Led Pakistani Army". Los Angeles Times. 30 March 2002. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  10. ^ a b "RANDOM THOUGHTS : Unsung Heroes (Part XXII)- By: Dr. A.Q. Khan – South Asian Pulse". www.sapulse.com. A.Q. Khan memoirs. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  11. ^ "Former administrator of East Pakistan Lt-General Tikka Khan dies". India Today. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  12. ^ Nawaz, Shuja (2008). Crossed Swords: Pakistan, its Army, and the Wars Within. Oxford University Press. p. 266. Word spread within the army that Yaqub had lost his nerve. This was further strengthened by the choice of Lt. Gen. Tikka Khan as Yaqub's replacement. Tikka, a Janjua Rajput from a village near Kahuta in Rawalpindi district, was seen as a commander who followed orders to the letter.
  13. ^ Tripathi, Salil (2016). The Colonel Who Would Not Repent: The Bangladesh War and Its Unquiet Legacy. Yale University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-300-22102-2.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Sagar, Krishna Chandra (1997). The War of the Twins. Northern Book Centre. p. 57. ISBN 978-81-7211-082-6. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  15. ^ Abdul Wahab, A.T.M. (2004). Mukti Bahini Wins Victory: Pak Military Oligarchy Divides Pakistan in 1971. Columbia Prokashani. p. 86. ISBN 978-984-713-044-6.
  16. ^ Payne, Robert (1977). "The Tortured and The Damned". The Illustrated Weekly of India. 97 (13): 45.
  17. ^ a b Cloughley, Brian (2016). A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-63144-039-7. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  18. ^ Khanna, K. K. (2015). Art of Generalship. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 176. ISBN 978-93-82652-93-9.
  19. ^ Bajwa, Farooq (2013). From Kutch to Tashkent: The Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. Hurst Publishers. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-84904-230-7. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  20. ^ Haskew, Michael E. (2015). Tank: 100 Years of the World's Most Important Armored Military Vehicle. Motorbooks International. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-7603-4963-2. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Fall of Dhaka 1971". Story of Pakistan. 4 June 2002. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  22. ^ "Unfinished agenda of 1971". The Statesman (Opinion). Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  23. ^ Chowdhury, Prabir Barua (26 March 2016). "A friend in need". The Daily Star. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  24. ^ Dixit, J. N. (2003). India-Pakistan in War and Peace. Routledge. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-134-40758-3. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  25. ^ "How Genocide Triggered Bangladesh Bid for Independence". The Citizen India. 25 March 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d Bhutto, Fatima (2011). Songs of Blood and Sword: A Daughter's Memoir. Nation Books. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-56858-712-7. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  27. ^ Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 978-81-7648-469-5. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  28. ^ "Muktijuddho (Bangladesh Liberation War 1971) - Butcher of Bengal General Tikka Khan takes charge in East Pakistan - History of Bangladesh". Londoni. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  29. ^ Shehabuddin, Elora (2008). Reshaping the Holy: Democracy, Development, and Muslim Women in Bangladesh. Columbia University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-231-51255-8. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  30. ^ Kathpalia, Pran Nath. Mission with a Difference: The Exploits of 71 Mountain Brigade. Lancer Publishers. p. 53. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  31. ^ a b c Palit, Maj Gen DK (1998). The Lightning Campaign: The Indo-Pakistan War, 1971. Lancer Publishers. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-897829-37-0. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  32. ^ a b Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015). The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Oxford University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-19023-518-5.
  33. ^ Kalia, Ravi (2011). Pakistan: From the Rhetoric of Democracy to the Rise of Militancy. Routledge. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-415-67040-1. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  34. ^ Abbas, Hassan (2015). Pakistan's Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-317-46327-6. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  35. ^ Israeli, Raphael (2016). Years of Upheaval: Axial Changes in Islam Since 1989. Transaction Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-4128-6190-8.
  36. ^ "Killings of Zehris and history of Balochistan's plight". The News International. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  37. ^ a b Elliott, John; Imhasly, Bernard; Denyer, Simon (2008). Foreign Correspondent: Fifty Years of Reporting South Asia. Penguin Books India. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-670-08204-9. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  38. ^ a b "Tikka Khan dead". The Hindu. 29 March 2002. Retrieved 20 August 2016.[dead link]
  39. ^ "An unwell commando". The Nation. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  40. ^ a b c d e f Burki, Shahid Javed (2015). Historical Dictionary of Pakistan. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 544. ISBN 978-1-4422-4148-0. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  41. ^ Singh, Khushwant (13 April 2002). "This Above All". The Tribune. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  42. ^ a b c d "Tikka Khan passes away". Dawn. 29 March 2002. Retrieved 20 August 2016.

Further reading[edit]

  • Zaheer, Hasan: The separation of East Pakistan : The rise and realisation of Bengali Muslim nationalism, Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Sisson, Richard & Rose, Leo: War and secession : Pakistan, India, and the creation of Bangladesh, University of California Press (Berkeley), 1990.
  • Matinuddin, General Kamal: Tragedy of Errors : East Pakistan Crisis, 1968–1971, Wajidalis, Lahore, Pakistan, 1994.
  • Salik, Siddiq: Witness to surrender, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1977.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Martial Law Administrator of Zone A, (West Pakistan)
Succeeded by
Governor of West Pakistan
Succeeded by
Preceded by Martial Law Administrator of Zone B, (East Pakistan)
Succeeded by
Governor of East Pakistan
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of Punjab
Succeeded by
Military offices
Preceded by Commander of Eastern Command
7 March 1971 – 7 April 1971
Succeeded by
Preceded byas Commander-in-Chief, Pakistan Army Chief of Army Staff
Succeeded by