The three-hand effect (or three-hand technique) is a means of playing on the piano with only two hands, but producing the impression that one is using three hands. Typically this effect is produced by keeping the melody in the middle register, with accompanying arpeggios in the treble and bass registers.
The effect had been prefigured by composers including Francesco Pollini (1762–1846), a pupil of Mozart, whose 32 esercizi for the piano (1829), based on techniques found in the keyboard music of Johann Sebastian Bach and Jean-Philippe Rameau, included music written on three staves, and using interlocking hand positions, to generate the impression of three, or even four, hands. Another early example exists in an 1817 caprice in E-flat Major by Alexandre Pierre François Boëly. This four-voiced composition has two melodies in bass and treble, with a third melody harmonized in sixths played simultaneously between them.
In Paris of the 1830s, bravura piano technique became very fashionable. Various intricate problems in piano playing were solved during this period, and unusual techniques invented. Advances in piano technology also enabled innovative techniques. Sigismond Thalberg employed a three-hand effect in his Fantasy on Don Juan (1833–34) and subsequently gained great success using it in his Fantasy on Rossini's Moïse (1835). Thalberg primarily used the technique in settings of other composers' works. Arthur Loesser describes his style as "drawing scarves of quick arpeggios" above and below a melody. He adds "[Thalberg's] clever shading that helped make this device convincing: since the accompanying arpeggios were very soft, the resonance of the well brought out melody tones...could seem to 'sing'." Moriz Rosenthal alleged that Thalberg had adapted this effect from the harp technique of Elias Parish Alvars (1808–1849). A contemporary review of Thalberg playing in London mentioned "myriads of notes sounding from one extremity of the instrument to the other without disturbing the subject, in which the three distinct features of this combination are clearly brought out by his exquisite touch." Carl Czerny noted that the technique also required careful novel use of the piano pedals, especially the sustaining pedal; normally having been used to sustain notes in the bass register, Thalberg applied it "to the notes of the middle and higher octaves, and thereby [produced] entirely new effects, which had hitherto never been imagined." Thalberg's entry in Grove Music Online is more circumspect, explaining that "Thalberg's basic compositional method was relatively simple, consisting of placing the melody in the centre of the keyboard first in one hand, then in the other (the thumbs and the sustaining pedal used in particular to prolong the sound), and ornamenting it with florid counterpoint and chords above and below", and concluding that "Thalberg's compositions are of questionable value". Douglas Bomberger has commented "Thalberg has come to represent the excesses of the romantic period, when bigger was better and two hands could sound like three."
Franz Liszt, initially condemning Thalberg's use of this technique, later adopted it himself, for example in his Grandes études on themes of Paganini. By 1840, Felix Mendelssohn, inspired by hearing Thalberg play, was occasionally using this technique in his own compositions. The style became part of the repertoire of many virtuoso pianist-composers of the 19th century.
Ferruccio Busoni composed six studies for three hands, "Book 4: 'For Three Hands'" of the second edition of his Klavierübung (published posthumously in 1925), which exhibit different versions of three-hand effect. The studies include transcriptions of music by Bach, Beethoven, Schubert, Offenbach, and Busoni himself.
Three-hand effect pieces
This is a partial list of two-hand piano compositions intended or arranged to create the illusion of three hands playing simultaneously.
- Alexandre Pierre François Boëly: Caprice Op. 2, no. 12 in E-flat major, allegro non troppo (1816)
- Sigismond Thalberg: Fantasia on Rossini's Moses, Op. 33 (1837)
- Felix Mendelssohn: Prelude in E minor, from Op. 35, no. 1(1840); Prelude in B-flat minor Op. 104b, no. 1.
- Franz Liszt: "Réminiscences de Norma", S.394 (1841); Concert Étude No. 3 "Un sospiro" (1845–49)
- Sergei Prokofiev: Piano Concerto No. 2, Op. 16
- Hamilton (1998), p. 58.
- Cvetko (1980), p. 48.
- Rowland (2004), p. 122.
- Kim (2007), pp. 53–54. "This etude in allegro ma non troppo tempo achieves a three-hand effect when performed correctly".
- See Loesser (1990), pp. 358–359, and Harding (1978), p. 153.
- Loesser (1990), p. 372.
- Rosenthal (2005), p. 75.
- Cited in Harding (1978), p. 155.
- Cited in Hamilton (2008), p. 156.
- François, Fortuné (2001). "Thalberg, Sigismond". In Sadie, Stanley; Tyrrell, John (eds.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5.
- Bomberger (1991), p. 198.
- Hamilton (1998), pp. 58–61.
- Arnold (2002), p. 104"The third and most famous Etude of the set in D♭ (Un sospiro) is known for its beautiful melody gracefully plucked out by alternating hands over legatissimo cascading arpeggios that create an adroit, Thalbergian three-hand effect."
- Harding (1978), p. 155.
- Todd (2004), p. 215: "...the Prelude and Fugue in E minor appeared in the album Notre temps from Schott in 1842 (for the occasion Mendelssohn joined a newly composed prelude, a kind of study in the three-hand technique, to a youthful fugue from 1827)"
- Busoni (1925), pp. 51–62.
- Hamilton (2008), p. 158.
- "Transcriptions and paraphrases", faszination-klavierwelten.de: "Busoni commented: 'Anyone who has heard or played this section without being moved has not yet found their way to Liszt.' For this section [of the Norma Reminiscences] is a kaleidoscope of pianistic sonorities which is further elevated by a new piano technique of the time, credited to Sigismund Thalberg. He had developed the so-called 'three-hand technique', covering all registers of the keyboard with the aid of continuous pedal use: Thalberg had employed this device as early as 1837 in his Fantasia on Rossini's Moses, Op. 33."
- Arnold, Ben (2002). The Liszt Companion. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 9780313306891.
- Bomberger, E. Douglas (1991). "The Thalberg Effect: Playing the Violin on the Piano". The Musical Quarterly. 75 (2): 198–208. doi:10.1093/mq/75.2.198. JSTOR 742201.
- Klavierübung in zehn Büchern (Busoni): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel (1925).
- Cvetko, Dragotin (1980). "Pollini, Francesco [Franz] (Giuseppe)". In Stanley Sadie (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Vol. 15. London: Macmillan Publishers. p. 48. ISBN 0333231112.
- Hamilton, Kenneth (1998). "The Virtuoso Tradition". In David Rowland (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Piano. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–74. ISBN 9780521479868.
- Hamilton, Kenneth (2008). After the Golden Age: Romantic Pianism and Modern Performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195178265.
- Harding, Rosamond E. M. (1978). The Piano-Forte: Its History traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (2nd edition). Woking: Gresham Books. ISBN 090541831X
- Kim, Taeseong (2007). The Piano Etudes of A. P. F. Boëly (1785–1858): A Stylistic Analysis. Doctoral dissertation in Piano Pedagogy, University of South Carolina.[dead link]
- Loesser, Arthur (1990). Men, Women and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486265439
- Rosenthal, Moriz, ed. Mark Mitchell and Allen Evans (2005). Moriz Rosenthal in Word and Music: A Legacy of the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253346606
- Rowland, David (2004). A History of Pianoforte Pedalling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521607515
- Todd, R. Larry (2004). Nineteenth Century Piano Music (2nd edition). London: Routledge. ISBN 0415968909