The Four Hundred (Gilded Age)

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Portrait of Mrs. Astor by Carolus-Duran, in Paris 1890. This painting was placed prominently in Astor's house; she would stand in front of it when receiving guests for receptions. Today, it is held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[1]

The Four Hundred was a list of New York society during the Gilded Age, a group that was led by Caroline Schermerhorn Astor, the "Mrs. Astor", for many years. After her death, her role in society was filled by three women: Mamie Fish, Theresa Fair Oelrichs, and Alva Belmont,[2] known as the "triumvirate" of American society.[3]

On February 16, 1892, The New York Times published the "official" list of those included in the Four Hundred as dictated by social arbiter Ward McAllister, Astor's friend and confidant, in response to lists proffered by others, and after years of clamoring by the press to know who was on it.[4][5]


In the decades following the American Civil War, the population of New York City grew almost exponentially, and immigrants and wealthy arrivistes from the Midwestern United States began challenging the dominance of the old New York Establishment.[6] Aided by McAllister, Astor[a] attempted to codify proper behavior and etiquette, as well as determine who was acceptable among the arrivistes,[8] as champions of old money and tradition.[6]

Reportedly, Ward McAllister coined the phrase "the Four Hundred" by declaring that there were "only 400 people in fashionable New York Society."[9] According to him, this was the number of people in New York who really mattered; the people who felt at ease in the ballrooms of high society.[10] In 1888, McAllister told the New-York Tribune that "If you go outside that number," he warned, "you strike people who are either not at ease in a ballroom or else make other people not at ease."[11]

While the number four hundred has popularly been linked to the capacity of Caroline Schermerhorn Astor's ballroom at her large brownstone home at 350 Fifth Avenue and East 34th Street (today the site of the Empire State Building),[12][13] the exact origins remain unknown.[14] There were other lists in New York around the same time which necessitated a maximum capacity of four hundred, including Delmonico's restaurant and local cotillion dances, that may have contributed to the particular sum of four hundred.[15]

February 1892 list[edit]

"Snobbish Society's Schoolmaster." Caricature of Ward McAllister as an ass telling Uncle Sam he must imitate "an English snob of the 19th century" or he "will nevah be a gentleman". Published in Judge, November 8, 1890.

In response to competing lists naming the purported members of New York society published in the New York World that insisted New York society was, in fact, made up of only 150 people,[16] McAllister spoke with the Times, refuting the World article and giving the paper the "official list", which was published on February 16, 1892, and quoted McAllister stating:

The so-called Four Hundred has not been cut down or dwindled to 150 names. The nonsense, don't you know, printed to that effect in the World and some other papers, has made a very bad impression that will reflect badly against them, you understand. That list of names, you understand, printed on Sunday, did not come from me, don't you see. It is unauthorized, don't you see. But it is accurate as far as it goes, you understand.

It is incomplete and does injustice, you understand, to many eligible millionaires. Think of leaving out such names, don't you know, as Chauncey M. Depew, Gen. Alexander S. Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Luther Kountze, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Goelet, Mr. and Miss Wilson, Miss Greene, and many others! Don't you understand, it is absurd, senseless.

Let me explain, don't you know. There are three dinner dances, don't you know, during the season, and the invitations, don't you see, are issued to different ladies and gentlemen each time, do you understand? So at each dinner dance, you know, are only 150 people of the highest set, don't you know. So, during the season, you see, 400 different invitations are issued.

Wait a moment and I will give you a correct list, don't you know, of the people who form what is known as the Four Hundred. Do you understand it will be authorized, reliable, and, don't you know, the only correct list.[4]

The list, purported to include the crème de la crème of New York society, consisted largely of "bankers, lawyers, brokers, real estate men, and railroaders, with one editor (Paul Dana of The New York Sun), one publisher, one artist, and two architects."[7] It also included a mix of both "Nobs" and "Swells".[17] "Nobs" came from old money (including the Astors, the Goelets, the Livingstons, and the Van Rensselaers), and "Swells" were representatives of the nouveau riche, whom Astor felt, begrudgingly, were able to partake in polite society (best personified by the Vanderbilt family).[17]

Criticism and backlash[edit]

"The European Svengali and the trilbys of the 'Four Hundred' – He hypnotizes 'em every time!" Illustration published in Puck, October 2, 1895.

After McAllister released the names of the Four Hundred in The New York Times, there was significant backlash, both against the idea of a definitive list of "acceptable society" and McAllister himself.[18][19] The papers dubbed him "Mr. Make-a-Lister" and, in combination with his memoirs published in 1890, entitled Society as I Have Found It,[20] further ostracized him from the "old guard", who valued their privacy in an era when the leaders of society were the equivalent of modern movie stars.[15] William d'Alton Mann, who owned Town Topics, a gossip magazine, considered it his duty to expose the sins of society and regularly criticized the Four Hundred.[19]

Several years later, author O. Henry released a collection of short stories, entitled The Four Million, a reaction to this phrase, expressing his opinion that every human being in New York was worthy of notice.[21]

In 2009, the Museum of the City of New York compiled its own list, entitled "The New York City 400", of the 400 "movers and shakers" who made a difference in the 400 years of New York City history since Henry Hudson arrived in 1609. McAllister was "the only person on the original Four Hundred to also make the museum's list."[22]

Named members[edit]

Photograph of Alva Smith Vanderbilt at her 1883 Ball as "Venetian Renaissance Lady". Alva, the first wife of William Kissam Vanderbilt and second wife of Oliver Belmont, was one of Astor's successors. Photographed by José Maria Mora.
Photograph of Mamie Fish, the wife of Stuyvesant Fish, and one of Astor's successors.
Portrait of Elizabeth Astor Winthrop Chanler, by John Singer Sargent, 1893.
Photograph of Chauncey Depew, U.S. Senator and president of the Vanderbilt's New York Central Railroad, c. 1908.
Frank Gray Griswold, financier and writer, 1908.
Julia Dent Grant, who married Prince Mikhail Cantacuzène in 1899, was the daughter of Frederick Dent Grant and granddaughter of U.S. President Ulysses S Grant. Photo taken in 1904.
Photograph of William Kissam Vanderbilt, first husband of Alva Smith Vanderbilt.
Photograph of Alice Claypoole Vanderbilt, wife of Cornelius Vanderbilt II, at Alva's 1883 Ball as 'Electric Light'. Gown by Charles Frederick Worth. Photographed by José Maria Mora.
Portrait of Cornelius Vanderbilt II, husband of Alice Claypoole Vanderbilt, by John Singer Sargent, 1890.
Portrait of Ruth Livingston Mills, wife of Ogden Mills, by Francois Glamony.
A miniature portrait of Cornelia Sherman Martin, wife of Bradley Martin, who threw the infamous Bradley-Martin Ball in 1897.
Photograph of Frances Ellen Work, the former wife of James Roche, 3rd Baron Fermoy, c. 1910–1915.
Portrait of Emily Thorn Vanderbilt, wife of businessman William Douglas Sloane, by Benjamin Curtis Porter, 1888.
Portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Anson Phelps Stokes, a merchant and banker, by Cecilia Beaux c. 1898.
Portrait of Florence Adele Vanderbilt Twombly, wife of Hamilton McKown Twombly, by John Singer Sargent, 1890.
Portrait of George Washington Vanderbilt II, builder of the Biltmore Estate in North Carolina, by John Singer Sargent, 1890.
Photograph of William Collins Whitney, former U.S. Secretary of the Navy (during the Cleveland administration), c. 1892 photographed by Charles Milton Bell.
Mrs. Henry Isaac Lorillard Barbey. By Wilhelm Heinrich Funk, 1904.

Besides containing far fewer than 400 people, McAllister's list "abounded in inaccuracies: names were misspelled or incomplete and many spouses omitted or included although they were dead."[23] The rules of the time dictated that "only the eldest unmarried daughter of a family carried the title 'Miss,' with no given name," but he regularly ignored the rule.[23]

No. Name at it appears in article[4] Full name[23]
1, 2 Mr. and Mrs. F. R. Appleton Francis R. Appleton
Fanny Lanier Appleton
3 Fred H. Allen Frederick Hobbes Allen
4, 5 Mr. and Mrs. Astor William Backhouse Astor Jr.
Caroline Schermerhorn Astor
6, 7 Mr. and Mrs. J.J. Astor John Jacob Astor IV[b]
Ava Lowle Willing
8, 9 Mr. and Mrs. George H. Bend George H. Bend
Elizabeth Austen Townsend Bend
10 Miss Amy Bend Amy Bend
11 Miss Beatrice Bend Beatrice Bend
12, 13 Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Bryce Lloyd Bryce
Edith Cooper Bryce
14 Mrs. Cavendish Bentinck Elizabeth Livingston Cavendish-Bentinck[c]
15, 16 Mr. and Mrs. F. Bronson Frederic Bronson
Sarah Gracie King Bronson
17 Heber Bishop Heber Reginald Bishop
18 Miss Bishop Mary Cunningham Bishop
19 William Harold Brown William Harold Brown
20, 21 Mr. and Mrs. Edmund N. Baylies Edmund L. Baylies
Louisa Van Rensselaer Baylies
22 Mr. Temple Bowdoin Temple Bowdoin
23, 24 Mr. and Mrs. J. Townsend Burden I. Townsend Burden
Evelyn Byrd Moale Burden
25 Miss Burden Evelyn B. Burden
26 Mrs. Barbey Mary Lorillard Barbey
27 Miss Barbey Eva Barbey
28 Harold Brown Harold Brown
29 Edward Bulkley Edward H. Bulkeley
30, 31 Mr. and Mrs. James L. Barclay James Lent Barclay
Olivia Bell Barclay
32 C. C. Baldwin C.C. Baldwin
33 Miss Baldwin Louise Roman Baldwin
34 C. C. Baldwin Jr. C.C. Baldwin, Jr.
35, 36 Gen. and Mrs. Henry L. Burnett Henry Lawrence Burnett
Agnes Suffern Tailer Burnett
37 Mr. Thomas Cushing Thomas Forbes Cushing
38 Miss Edith Cushing Edith Howard Cushing
39 Mr. F. Bayard Cutting Robert Bayard Cutting
40 Miss Coster Martha Ellery Coster
41 Mr. Harry Coster Harry Coster
Mary Lee Coles Coster
42, 43 Mr. and Mrs. Charles Carroll Charles Carroll
Suzanne Bancroft Carroll
44, 45 Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Cary Clarence Cary
Elisabeth Miller Potter Cary
46, 47 Mr. and Mrs. Winthrop Chandler Winthrop Astor Chanler
Margaret Terry Chanler
48 Mrs. Brockholst Cutting Marion Ramsay Cutting
49, 50 Mr. and Mrs. Harry Cannon Henry White Cannon
Jennie Curtis Cannon
51 Robert L. Cutting Jr. Robert Livingston Cutting Jr.
52 Col. J. Schuyler Crosby John Schuyler Crosby
53 Miss Crosby Angelica Schuyler Crosby
54, 55 Mr. and Mrs. W. Bayard Cutting William Bayard Cutting
Olivia Peyton Murray Cutting
56, 57 Mr. and Mrs. S. V. R. Cruger Stephen Van Rensselaer Cruger
Julia Grinnell Storrow Cruger
58 Rawlings Cottenet Rawlins Lowndes Cottenet
59 F. Brockholst Cutting F. Brockholst Cutting
60 W. Cutting Jr. William Bayard Cutting, Jr.
61 Sir Roderick Cameron Sir Roderick Cameron
62 Duncan Cameron Duncan Ewen Cameron
63, 64 The Misses Cameron Catherine Natalie Cameron
Anne Fleming Cameron
65, 66 Mr. and Mrs. James Cross Richard James Cross
Annie Redmond Cross
67, 68 Mr. and Mrs. Edward Cooper Edward Cooper
Cornelia Redmond Cooper
69, 70, 71 The Misses Chanler Elizabeth Astor Winthrop Chanler
Margaret Livingston Chanler
Alida Beekman Chanler
72 William R. Coster William B. Coster
Maria Griswold Gray Coster
73, 74 Mr. and Mrs. Elisha Dyer Jr. Elisha Dyer III
Sidney Turner Swan Dyer
75, 76 Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Elliot Duncan Elliot
Sallie Hargous Elliot
77, 78 Mr. and Mrs. George B. De Forest George Beach de Forest Jr.
Anita Hargous de Forest
79, 80 Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey M. Depew Chauncey Depew
Elise Hegeman Depew
81, 82 Mr. and Mrs. Frederic de Peyster Frederic James de Peyster
Augusta McEvers Morris de Peyster
83, 84 Dr. and Mrs. Francis Delafield Francis Delafield
Katherine Van Rensselaer Delafield
85 Miss Delafield Elizabeth Ray Delafield
86, 87 Mr. and Mrs. Paul Dana Paul Dana
Mary Butler Duncan Dana
88 H. De Courcy Forbes H. De Courcy Forbes
89, 90 Mr. and Mrs. Stuyvesant Fish Stuyvesant Fish
Marion Graves Anthon Fish
91, 92 Mr. and Mrs. C. G. Francklyn Charles G. Francklyn
Susan Sprague Hoyt Francklyn
93 J. C. Furman John C. Furman
94, 95 Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton Fish Jr. Hamilton Fish, Jr.
Emily Mann Fish
96 Theodore Frelinghuysen Theodore Frelinghuysen
97 Augustus C. Gurnee Augustus C. Gurnee
98, 99 Mr. and Mrs. Ogden Goelet Ogden Goelet
Mary Wilson Goelet
100 Mr. Frank G. Griswold Frank Gray Griswold
101 Miss Greene Anne Dunkin Greene
102 Mr. Allister Greene Alister Greene
103 Miss Grant Julia Grant
104 Robert F. Hawkes Robert Forbes Hawkes
105, 106 Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Howard Thomas Howard
Rose Post Howard
107, 108 Mr. and Mrs. Carly Havemeyer Charles Frederick Havemeyer
Camilla Woodward Moss Havemeyer
109 Meredith Howland Meredith Howland
110, 111 Mr. and Mrs. Valentine G. Hall Valentine Hall Jr.
Mary Livingston Ludlow Hall
112 Miss Hall Elizabeth Livingston Hall
113 John A. Hadden Jr. John A. Hadden Jr.
114, 115 Mr. and Mrs. Columbus Iselin Columbus Iselin
Edith Colford Jones Iselin
116 Isaac Iselin Isaac Iselin
117 Mrs. William Jaffray Helen Smythe Jaffray
118 Miss Jaffray Helen Frances Jaffray
119 Mrs. F. R. Jones Mary Cadwalader Rawle Jones
120 Miss Beatrix Jones Beatrix Cadwalader Jones
121 Shipley Jones Shipley Jones
122, 123 Mr. and Mrs. DeLancey Kane DeLancey Astor Kane
Eleanora Iselin Kane
124 Nicholas Kane Samuel Nicholson Kane
125 Miss Knowlton Mary Knowlton
126 Miss Sybel Kane Sybil Kane
127, 128 Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Kernochan James Powell Kernochan
Catherine Lorillard Kernochan
129, 130 Col. and Mrs. Kip Lawrence Kip
Eva Lorillard Kip
131 Miss Kipp Edith Kip
132, 133 Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Kernochan J. Frederic Kernochan
Mary Stuart Whitney Kernochan
134 Miss Lusk Anna Hartwell Lusk
135 Arthur Leary Arthur Leary
136 Mrs. Maturin Livingston Ruth Baylies Livingston
137, 138 Mr. and Mrs. James Lanier James F. D. Lanier
Harriet Bishop Lanier
139, 140 Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Livingston Henry B. Livingston
Frances Redmond Livingston
141 Edward Livingston Edward Livingston
142 Miss Clarissa Livingston Clarisse Livingston
143 Edward De Peyster Livingston Edward De Peyster Livingston
144, 145 Mr. and Mrs. Clement C. Moore Clement Clarke Moore
Laura Williams Moore
146 Ward McAllister Ward McAllister
147, 148 Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Marshall Charles Henry Marshall
Josephine Banks Marshall
149 Clement March Clement March
150, 151 Mr. and Mrs. O. Mills Ogden Mills
Ruth Livingston Mills
152, 153 Mr. and Mrs. B. Martin Bradley Martin
Cornelia Sherman Martin
154 F. T. Martin Frederick Townsend Martin
155 Peter Marié Peter Marié
156, 157 Mr. and Mrs. H. W. McVickar Harry Whitney McVickar
Maud Robbins McVickar
158, 159 Mr. and Mrs. A. N. Morris Augustus Newbold Morris
Eleanor Colford Jones Morris
160 Miss Morris Eva Van Cortlandt Morris
161, 162 Mr. and Mrs. R. Mortimer Richard Mortimer
Eleanor Jay Chapman Mortimer
163 Miss Morgan Anne Morgan
164, 165 Mr. and Mrs. T. Newbold Thomas Newbold
Sarah Lawrence Coolidge Newbold
166 Mrs. Frederick Nelson Isabelle Gebhard Neilson
167 S. H. Olin Stephen H. Olin
168, 169 Mr. and Mrs. C. Oelrichs Charles May Oelrichs
Blanche de Loosey Oelrichs
170 James Otis James Otis
171 Miss Otis Sarah Birdsall Otis
172 Edward Post Edward C. Post
173 Richard Peters Richard Peters
174, 175 Mr. and Mrs. B. C. Porter Benjamin Curtis Porter
Mary Clark Porter
176, 177 Mr. and Mrs. Frank Pendelton Francis Key Pendleton
Elizabeth La Montagne Pendleton
178 Julian Potter Julian Potter
179 I. V. Packer James Vanderburgh Parker
180, 181 Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Potter Howard Nott Potter
Ethel Potter
182, 183 Gen. and Mrs. Pierson John Frederick Pierson
Susan Augusta Rhodes Pierson
184 Miss Pierson Marguerite Pierson Hull
185, 186 Mr. and Mrs. George B. Post George Browne Post
Alice Stone Post
187 Mrs. William H. Perry Constance Frink Perry
188 Miss Perry Bertha Perry Ronalds
189 Goold H. Redmond Goold H. Redmond
190 Mrs. Rogers Susan LeRoy Fish Rogers
191 Miss Rogers Julia Fish Rogers
192 J. Ritchie J. Wadsworth Ritchie
193 T. J. Oakley Rhinelander Thomas Jackson Oakley Rhinelander
194 Miss Cora Randolph Cora Randolph Trimble
195 Mrs. Burke Roche Frances Burke Roche
196, 197 Mr. and Mrs. S. O. Ripley Sidney Dillon Ripley
Mary Hyde Ripley
198 D. T. L. Robinson Douglas Robinson Sr.
199 R. K. Richards Robert Kerr Richards
200, 201 Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Robinson Jr. Douglas Robinson Jr.
Corinne Roosevelt Robinson
202, 203 Mr. and Mrs. H. Robins Henry Asher Robbins
Lizzie Pelham Bend Robbins
204 Miss Sands Edith Cruger Sands
205, 206 Mr. and Mrs. William D. Sloane William Douglas Sloane
Emily Thorn Vanderbilt Sloane
207, 208 Mr. and Mrs. Philip Schuyler Philip Schuyler
Harriet Lowndes Langdon Schuyler
209, 210 Mr. and Mrs. Byam K. Stevens Byam K. Stevens
Eliza Langdon Wilks Stevens
211 Lispenard Stewart Lispenard Stewart, Jr.
212, 213 Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Sherman William Watts Sherman
Sophia Augusta Brown Sherman
214 Miss Adele Sloane Florence Adele Sloane
215, 216 Mr. and Mrs. Anson Phelps Stokes Anson Phelps Stokes
Helen Phelps Stokes
217 Miss Stokes Olivia Egleston Phelps Stokes
218, 219 Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Suydam Walter Lispenard Suydam
Jane Mesier Suydam
220, 221 Mr. and Mrs. F. K. Sturgis Frank K. Sturgis
Florence Lydig Sturgis
222 Miss Elizabeth Stevens Elizabeth Callendar Stevens
223 G. Mead Tooker Gabriel Mead Tooker
224 Miss Tooker Charlotte Tooker Warren
225 E. N. Tailer Edward Neufville Tailer
226, 227 Mr. and Mrs. H. McKay Twombly Hamilton McKown Twombly
Florence Vanderbilt Twombly
228 Miss Tailer Fannie Bogert Tailer
229 Marquise de Talleyrand Elizabeth de Talleyrand-Périgord
230 Miss Mabel Van Rensselaer Mabel Van Rensselaer
231 Miss Alice Van Rensselaer Alice Van Rensselaer
232, 233 Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Cornelius Vanderbilt II
Alice Claypoole Gwynne Vanderbilt
234 George W. Vanderbilt George W. Vanderbilt
235 Mrs. A. Van Rensselaer Louisa Barnewall Van Rensselaer
236 James Varnum James Varnum
237 Mr. Worthington Whitehouse Worthington Whitehouse
238, 239 Mr. and Mrs. W. Seward Webb William Seward Webb
Eliza Osgood Vanderbilt Webb
240 Barton Willing John Rhea Barton Willing
241 Miss Willing Susan Ridgway Willing
242, 243 Gov. and Mrs. Wetmore George Peabody Wetmore
Edith Keteltas Wetmore
244 Miss Wetmore Edith M. Keteltas Wetmore
245 Egerton Winthrop Egerton Leigh Winthrop
246 Thomas C. Winthrop Thomas C. Winthrop
247 F. B. Winthrop Bronson Winthrop
248, 249 Mr. and Mrs. Buchanan Winthrop Buchanan Winthrop
Sarah Townsend Winthrop
250 Miss Winthrop Marie Austen Winthrop
251, 252 Mr. and Mrs. Ben. Wells Benjamin Welles
Frances Wyeth Swan Welles
253, 254 Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Whitney William Collins Whitney
Flora Payne Whitney
255 Miss Georgiana L. Wilmerding Georgiana L. Wilmerding
256 Mrs. C. A. Whittier Elizabeth Chadwick Whittier
257, 258 Mr. and Mrs. Wysong John J. Wysong
Martha Marshall Wysong
259 M. A. Wilkes Matthew Astor Wilks
260, 261 Mr. and Mrs. W. Storrs Wells William Storrs Wells
Anna Cole Raynor Wells
262, 263 Gen. and Mrs. Alexander S. Webb Alexander S. Webb
Anna Remsen Webb
264 Miss Carrie Webb Caroline LeRoy Webb
265 Alexander S. Webb Alexander Stewart Webb

See also[edit]


  1. ^ McAllister called Mrs. Astor "the Mystic Rose," referring to the "figure in Dante's Paradise around whom all in Paradise revolve,"[7]
  2. ^ John Jacob Astor IV was Caroline's only son. He and his second wife, Madeleine Astor, were on the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic. The richest passenger onboard, he died as it sunk on April 15, 1912.[24]
  3. ^ Elizabeth Cavendish-Bentinck, a member of the Livingston family, was included, but her husband, MP William George Cavendish-Bentinck was not. William was a grand-nephew of the 4th Duke of Portland and great-grandson of the 3rd Duke of Portland, the Prime Minister of United Kingdom under George III.[25]
  1. ^ "Mrs. William Astor (Caroline Webster Schermerhorn, 1831-1908)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  2. ^ MacColl, Gail; Wallace, Carol McD (2012). To Marry an English Lord: Tales of Wealth and Marriage, Sex and Snobbery in the Gilded Age. Workman Publishing. ISBN 9780761171980. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  3. ^ Columbia, David Patrick (30 August 2007). "The Adventures of Tessie". New York Social Diary. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  5. ^ Burrows, Edwin G.; Wallace, Mike (1998). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. Oxford University Press. p. 1072. ISBN 9780199729104. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Vanderbilt Ball – how a costume ball changed New York elite society". MCNY Blog: New York Stories. 2013-08-06. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  7. ^ a b Bryk, William (August 9, 2005). "The Father of the Four Hundred". The New York Sun. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  8. ^ Gavan, Terrence (1988). The Barons of Newport: A Guide to the Gilded Age. Newport, Rhode Island: Pineapple Publications. p. 27. ISBN 9780929249018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  9. ^ Salvini, Emil R. (2005). Hobey Baker: American Legend. Hobey Baker Memorial Foundation. p. 3. ISBN 9780976345305. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  10. ^ Crain, Esther (2016). The Gilded Age in New York, 1870-1910. Running Press. p. 135. ISBN 9780316353687. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  11. ^ Somers, Reneé (2013). Edith Wharton as Spatial Activist and Analyst. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9781135922979. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  12. ^ Keister, Lisa A. (2005). Getting Rich: America's New Rich and How They Got That Way. Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780521536677. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  13. ^ Parker, Maggie. "The Four Hundred: Then and Now Tony Abrams has reinvented Gilded Age society. Will you get in?". Dujour. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  14. ^ Grimes, William (2009). Appetite City: A Culinary History of New York. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 102. ISBN 9781429990271. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  15. ^ a b Columbia, David Patrick (18 August 2011). "The First Four Hundred". New York Social Diary. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  16. ^ "THE GILT-EDGED 150, Society Leaders Make Fun of McAllister's Roster. | Sarcastic Comments by Mrs. Fish and Mrs. Whitney. | He is Not Society's Arbiter, and Society Accepts No Responsibility for His Acts". The Evening World. February 17, 1892. p. 1. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  17. ^ a b Haden-Guest, Anthony (25 July 2015). "The 400 Hottest New Yorkers…of 1892". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  18. ^ Torgerson, Rachel (May 15, 2015). "What Was it Like to Attend One of Mrs. Astor's Gilded Age Parties in NYC?". Gotham. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  19. ^ a b Holland, Evangeline (April 6, 2009). "The Four Hundred". Edwardian Promenade. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  20. ^ Ward McAllister (1890) Society as I Have Found It, Cassell, New York
  21. ^ "WARD M'ALLISTER DEAD; He Had Been Ill for a Week with an Attack of the Grip. THE END WAS UNEXPECTED His Condition Not Considered Serious by His Physicians Until Wednesday Morning – His Long Career as a Society Leader" (PDF). The New York Times. 1 February 1895. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  22. ^ Roberts, Sam (8 September 2009). "400 Years and 400 Names: Museum Tweaks City A-List". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  23. ^ a b c Patterson, Jerry E. (2000). The First Four Hundred: Mrs. Astor's New York in the Gilded Age. Random House Incorporated. pp. 207–234. ISBN 9780847822089. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  24. ^ "Noted Men On The Lost Titanic. Col. Jacob Astor, with His Wife. Isidor Straus and Wife, and Benj. Guggenheim Aboard" (PDF). The New York Times. April 16, 1912. Retrieved 2013-12-10. Following are sketches of a few of the well-known persons among the 1,300 passengers on the lost Titanic. The fate of most of them at this time is, of course, not known. Col. John Jacob Astor and Mrs. Astor, Isidor Straus and Mrs. Straus, J. Bruce Ismay, Managing Director of the White Star Line: Benjamin Guggenheim, and Frank D. Millet, the artist, are perhaps the most widely known of the passengers. ... .
  25. ^ Times, Special Cable To The New York (23 August 1909). "G. CAVENDISH-BENTINCK DEAD | Wife Was Elizabeth Livingston, Sister of Mrs. Ogden Mills" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2017.

External links[edit]