State Committee on the State of Emergency

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State Committee on the State of Emergency (SCSE)
Государственный комитет по чрезвычайному положению (ГКЧП)
Formation19 August 1991
Dissolved22 August 1991
TypeSelf-declared provisional government
Legal statusDissolved by the Russian SFSR and Soviet Union
PurposePrevention of the New Union Treaty signing, governance for planned six-month state of emergency
HeadquartersMoscow Kremlin, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union[1][2]
Location
Region served
Soviet Union
Official language
Russian
Chairman
Gennady Yanayev
AffiliationsCPSU
KGB
Soviet Army
Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs

The State Committee on the State of Emergency (Russian: Госуда́рственный комите́т по чрезвыча́йному положе́нию, tr. Gosudárstvenny komitét po chrezvycháynomu polozhéniyu, IPA: [ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)ɨj kəmʲɪˈtʲet tɕrʲɪzvɨˈtɕæjnəmʊ pəlɐˈʐɛnʲɪjʊ]), abbreviated as SCSE (Russian: ГКЧП, tr. GKChP), was a self-proclaimed political body in the Soviet Union that existed from 19 to 21 August 1991.[3][4] It included a group of eight high-level Soviet officials within the Soviet government, the Communist Party, and the KGB, who attempted a coup d'état against Mikhail Gorbachev on 19 August 1991. The American publicist Georges Obolensky called it the Gang of Eight.[5] The coup ultimately failed, with the provisional government collapsing by 22 August 1991 and several of the conspirators being prosecuted by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.

From 22 to 29 August 1991, former members of the dissolved SCSE and who actively assisted them were arrested, but from June 1992 to January 1993, they were all released on their own recognizance.[6][7][8][9] In April 1993, the trial began. On 23 February 1994, the defendants in the SCSE case were amnestied by the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,[10][11] despite Yeltsin's objection.[12] One of the defendants, General V.I. Varennikov, refused to accept the amnesty and his trial continued, which he ultimately won.

Diplomatic support came from:[13][14][15] Afghanistan, China, Cuba, Iraq, Laos, Libya, North Korea, Palestine Liberation Organization,[16] Vietnam, Socialist Republic of Serbia, and Socialist Republic of Montenegro.

Members[edit]

The eight members were:

Pugo committed suicide via gunshot to avoid arrest, while the other seven members were arrested. However, there is some speculation that he may have been murdered instead.[17]

Coup d'état[edit]

The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, occurring between 19 and 21 August 1991, was an attempt by the SCSE to take control of the country from then President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev. The SCSE were hard-line members of the Communist Party (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty he had negotiated, which dispersed much of the central government's power to the republics. The coup collapsed after only two days, and although Gorbachev was restored as president, his authority was irreparably damaged and he became less influential outside of Moscow. The event destabilized the Soviet Union and many speculate that it played a role in both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. After the coup failed, the seven living members of the SCSE were arrested.

Court trials[edit]

On December 14, 1992, a year after the attempted coup, the Prosecutor General of Russia Valentin Stepankov approved the indictment in the GKChP case.[18] It was sent to the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. Anatoliy Ukolov, a deputy chairman of the Collegiate, was charged with reviewing the case, and the hearing was scheduled for 26 January 1993. The defendants included the aforementioned seven living members of the group plus Oleg Shenin (1937–2009), Politburo and secretariat member; Anatoly Lukyanov (1930–2019), Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union; and Valentin Varennikov (1923–2009), General of the Army, Deputy Minister of Defense, and Commander of Land Forces.

The trials lasted more than ten months, from 14 April 1993[19] until 1 March 1994. They were open to the public and press; however, foreign press did not participate due to lack of space in the courtroom. A prosecution commission was assigned to the case by the Collegiate, consisting of nine people and headed by Denisov, a Deputy Prosecutor General. The defense attorneys, Genri Reznik (Shenin), Genrikh Padva, Yuriy Ivanov (Kryuchkov), and Dmitriy Shteinberg (Varennikov) were hired, but in total, there were seventeen defense attorneys. After various delay tactics staged by the defense, the trial began on 30 November 1993. The main defendants were Yazov, Kryuchkov, Shenin, and Varennikov.

On 23 February 1994, the State Duma issued an amnesty to the defense,[20] and on 1 March 1994, the case was closed with all ten defendants accepting amnesty. Varennikov requested amnesty on the condition that Mikhail Gorbachev would be the next to be prosecuted, as he accused Gorbachev of creating the recent political disorder. The court rejected his petition, and upon Varennikov sending his request to the Prosecutor General's office, it was rejected again.

Ten days after the close, the Presidium of the Supreme Court revived the prosecution, ruling that procedural infringements regarding the amnesty had occurred. The Presidium arranged a new hearing and assigned a new judge, Viktor Aleksandrovich Yaskin. He conducted the case review using revised court procedures. Yaskin offered the defendants amnesty, and all but Varennikov accepted it. Varennikov was acquitted on the argument that he was following the orders of Minister of Defense.

Kryuchkov, Yazov, Shenin, and Pavlov were named as the main conspirators.

Further fate of GKChP members[edit]

Yazov spent 18 months in Matrosskaya Tishina, a prison in northern Moscow. According to the magazine Vlast No. 41(85) of 14 October 1991, he contacted the President from jail with a recorded video message, in which he repented and called himself "an old fool". Yazov denies ever doing that, and he also accepted the amnesty offered by the Russians stating that he was not guilty. He was dismissed from military service by the Presidential Order, and at his discharge, was awarded a ceremonial weapon. He was also awarded an order of honor by the President of Russian Federation. Yazov later worked as a military adviser at the General Staff Academy. He died in 2020 in Moscow, after a prolonged illness.

Baklanov spent 18 months in Matrosskaya Tishina, and then accepted amnesty in 1994, stating that he was not guilty. He later worked as a director of Rosobshchemash.

Yanayev spent 18 months in Matrosskaya Tishina. He later became a chairman of the department of national history at the Russian International Academy of Tourism.[21]

Pavlov had been taken to a hospital during the coup with the diagnosis of hypertension, but on 29 August 1991, he was transferred to Matrosskaya Tishina. He accepted amnesty stating that he was not guilty, and later became the head of the Chasprombank. Pavlov resigned from the bank on 31 August 1995, and six months later the bank was left without license.[22] Afterwards he was an adviser at Promstroibank, today known as Bank VTB. Pavlov died in 2003 after a series of heart attacks and was buried in Moscow.

Evaluations of Anatoliy Ukolov's interviews[edit]

According to Vzglyad, Anatoliy Ukolov, the original person charged with the prosecution of the SCSE, blamed the occurrence of the 1991 coup attempt on Gorbachev, implying that the leader should not have taken a vacation at the time. However, in an interview with Komsomol Pravda, Ukolov also mentioned how the members of GKChP chose not to follow the letter of law, but rather to take the situation into their own hands.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Артём Кречетников (August 17, 2006). "Хроника путча: часть I" (in Russian). BBC Russian Service. Archived from the original on September 2, 2007.
  2. ^ Артём Кречетников (August 18, 2006). "Хроника путча: часть II" (in Russian). BBC Russian Service. Archived from the original on August 28, 2007.
  3. ^ Волгин Евгений Игоревич (2009). "КПСС в контексте политического кризиса 19-21 августа 1991 г". Вестник Московского Университета. Серия 12. Политические Науки (Вестник Московского университета. Серия 12. Политические науки ed.) (2): 24–36. ISSN 0868-4871.
  4. ^ Сосенков Ф.с (2017). "Проблема сохранения Советского Союза в документах Государственного комитета по чрезвычайному положению" (2) (Genesis: исторические исследования ed.): 85–93. doi:10.7256/2409-868X.2017.2.18015. ISSN 2409-868X. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Obolensky, Georges (2013), Forever Russian: Memoirs of a Vagabond Prince, AuthorHouse, p. 152, ISBN 978-1481714761, [...] a group of military brass and Communist Party hardliners, calling themselves the 'State Emergency Committee,' (later to be known as 'the gang of eight') attempted a coup d'état.
  6. ^ "Прежде Всего Стародубцев на воле. С Лениным в башке и подпиской в руке". 15 June 1992. Archived from the original on 2014-01-11. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  7. ^ "Новости Метрополий. Олег Шенин отпущен до суда домой". 3 November 1992. Archived from the original on 2014-01-11. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  8. ^ "В Прокуратуре России. Четверо обвиняемых освобождены". 15 December 1992. Archived from the original on 2021-07-10. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
  9. ^ "Пресс-конференция по делу ГКЧП. Шесть узников "Матросской тишины" получили свободу до приговора". 27 January 1993. Archived from the original on 2021-04-05. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
  10. ^ "Члены ГКЧП после "путча"". Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-08-31.
  11. ^ Постановление Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации от 23 февраля 1994 г. № 65-1 ГД «Об объявлении политической и экономической амнистии»
  12. ^ "Борис Ельцин. Первый". Archived from the original on 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2013-08-29.
  13. ^ "Би-би-си – Россия – Хроника путча. Часть II". news.bbc.co.uk. 18 August 2006. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  14. ^ "Апресян Р.Г. Народное сопротивление августовскому путчу". 2007-09-11. Archived from the original on 2007-09-11. Retrieved 2023-11-09.
  15. ^ Ishërwood, Julian M. (19 August 1991). "World reacts with shock to Gorbachev ouster". United Press International. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  16. ^ "Апресян Р.Г. Народное сопротивление августовскому путчу". Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 2021-12-04.
  17. ^ "The Men Who Tried to Topple Mikhail Gorbachev". The Moscow Times. Russia. August 17, 2001. Archived from the original on September 5, 2001.
  18. ^ В Прокуратуре России
  19. ^ Суд над членами ГКЧП
  20. ^ Постановление Государственной Думы Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации от 23 февраля 1994 г. № 65-1 ГД «Об объявлении политической и экономической амнистии»
  21. ^ Бывший вице-президент СССР Геннадий Янаев: Ручонки действительно подрагивали (in Russian). Версия. October 31, 2008.
  22. ^ Книга памяти: "Часпромбанк" (in Russian). Банки.ру.

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