State-recognized tribes in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

State-recognized tribes in the United States are organizations that identify as Native American tribes or heritage groups that do not meet the criteria for federally recognized Indian tribes but have been recognized by a process established under assorted state government laws for varying purposes or by governor's executive orders. State recognition does not dictate whether or not they are recognized as Native American tribes by continually existing tribal nations.

Individual states confer state-recognition "for their various internal state government purposes."[1] Members of a state-recognized tribe are still subject to state law and government, and the tribe does not have sovereign control over its affairs.

State recognition confers few benefits under federal law. It is not the same as federal recognition, which is the federal government's acknowledgment of a tribe as a dependent sovereign nation. Some states have provided laws related to state recognition that provide some protection of autonomy for tribes that are not recognized by the federal government. For example, in Connecticut, state law recognizing certain tribes also protects reservations and limited self-government rights for state-recognized tribes.

Such state recognition has at times been opposed by federally recognized tribes. For instance, the Cherokee Nation opposes state-recognized tribes, as well as Cherokee heritage groups and others with no documented descent who claim Cherokee identity.[2]

Other groups that identify as being Native American tribes but lack federal or state recognition are listed in the List of organizations that self-identify as Native American tribes.

Demographics and geography[edit]

  Federally recognized tribes
  State recognized tribes
  Both state and federally recognized tribes

Most state-recognized tribes are located in the Eastern United States, including the three of largest state-recognized tribes in the US, the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama, and the United Houma Nation of Louisiana, each of which has more than ten thousand members.

In late 2007 about 16 states had recognized 62 tribes.[3] According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, only 14 states recognize tribes at the state level by 2017.[4]

Federal law[edit]

The United States Constitution, as interpreted by the Supreme Court, gives ultimate authority with regard to matters affecting the American Indian tribes to the United States federal government. Under US federal law and regulations, an American Indian tribe is a group of Native Americans with self-government authority.[5] This defines those tribes recognized by the federal government. By 2021, 574 tribes had been recognized by the federal government, often as a result of the process of treaties setting up reservations in the 19th century.

Under the United States Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990,[6] members of state-recognized tribes are authorized to exhibit as identified Native American artists, as are members of federally recognized tribes.

Other federal Indian legislation does not apply to state-recognized tribes. For example, the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 does not apply to these organizations.[7]

State-recognition processes[edit]

Typically, the state legislature or state agencies involved in cultural or Native American affairs make the formal recognition by criteria they establish, often with Native American representatives, and sometimes based on federal criteria.[8] Statutes that clearly identify criteria for recognition or that explicitly recognize certain tribes remove ambiguity from their status.[3]

Many organizations try to assert that various congratulatory resolutions constitute recognition as a Native American tribe by a state; however, "Resolutions are statements of opinions and, unlike bills, do not have the force of law."[9]

List of state-recognized tribes[edit]

The following is a list of tribes recognized by various states but not by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Tribes originally recognized by states that have since gained federal recognition have been deleted from the list below. The list includes state-recognized tribes that have petitioned for federal recognition..

Alabama[edit]

By the Davis-Strong Act of 1984, the state established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission to acknowledge and represent Native American citizens in the state. At that time, it recognized seven tribes that did not have federal recognition. The commission members, representatives of the tribes, have created rules for tribal recognition, which were last updated in 2003, under which three more tribes have been recognized.[10]

  • Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians.[4][10][11]
  • Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama (formerly Cherokees of Jackson County, Alabama).[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 09/23/1981;[12] certified letter returned "not known" 11/19/1997.
  • Cherokees of Southeast Alabama.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1988;[12] certified letter returned marked "deceased" 11/5/1997.
  • Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama.[4]
  • Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983. Declined to Acknowledge 08/18/1988 52 FR 34319,[4] Denied federal recognition.[12][13]
  • MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1983. Final Determination to Decline to Acknowledge published 12/24/1997 62FR247:67398-67400; petitioner requested reconsideration from BIA 3/23/1998,[4] denied federal recognition;[13] decision effective 11/26/1999.[12]
  • Piqua Shawnee Tribe.[4]
  • Star Clan of Muscogee Creeks[4] (formerly Lower Creek Muscogee Tribe East, Star Clan, Southeastern Mvskoke Nation, and Yufala Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks).
  • United Cherokee Ani-Yun-Wiya Nation[4] (formerly United Cherokee Intertribal). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/08/2001.[12]

Arkansas[edit]

Arkansas has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Connecticut[edit]

  • Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.[4][15]
    • Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/28/1978;[12] Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.[12]
    • Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/20/1989.[12] Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.[12]
  • Golden Hill Paugussett.[4][16][17] Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe (2004)[18]
  • Schaghticoke Tribal Nation.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 9/27/2001.[12][15] Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/1981; Declined to acknowledge in 2002; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60101. Also known as the Schaghticoke Indian Tribe.[12]

Delaware[edit]

  • Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware.[19]
  • Nanticoke Indian Association, Inc.[19] Letter of Intent to Petition 08/08/1978; requested petition be placed on hold 3/25/1989 of limited applicability.[20]

Florida[edit]

Florida has an office to manage Indian affairs: Florida Governor's Council on Indian Affairs, Inc.[14]

Florida has no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia established a liaison, the Georgia Council on American Indian Concerns, in 2001, under the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, State Parks and Historic Sites Division.[21][22] In 2007, the state legislature formally recognized the following as American Indian tribes of Georgia:[23]

  • Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council.[4]
  • Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees.[4] (I). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/09/1979;[12] last submission February 2002; ready for Acknowledge review. Unrecognized organizations with the same name as Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc. (II) and (III) exist.
  • Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 02/02/1972; Declined to Acknowledge 12/21/1981 (46 FR 51652).[12] Denied federal recognition.[24] Also known as Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi, Inc.

Illinois[edit]

Illinois has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Kansas[edit]

Kansas has an office to manage Indian affairs: the Joint Committee on State-Tribal Relations.[14]

Kansas has no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Louisiana[edit]

The Louisiana Office of Indian Affairs oversees state–tribal relations.[25] They maintain a list of federally and state-recognized tribes headquartered in Louisiana.[26]

  1. Addai Caddo Tribe,[4] also Adai Caddo Indians of Louisiana, Robeline, LA.[26] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1993.[27] Letter of Intent to Petition 09/13/1993.[12] Also Adais Caddo Indians, Inc.
  2. Bayou Lafourche Band of Biloxi-Chitimache Confederation of Muskogees,[26] also Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee,[4] Denham Springs, LA. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 10/24/1995.[12] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2005.[27]
  3. Choctaw-Apache Community of Ebarb,[4][11] also the Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Ebarb, Zwolle, LA.[26] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978.[27] Letter of Intent to Petition 07/02/1978.[12]
  4. Clifton-Choctaw,[4] also the Clifton Choctaw Tribe of Louisiana, Clinton, LA.[26] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978.[27] Letter of Intent to Petition 03/22/1978.[12] Also known as Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.
  5. Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy,[4] also the Four Winds Cherokees, Oakdale, LA.[26] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1997.[4][27]
  6. Grand Caillou/Dulac Band,[4] also the Grand Caillou/Dulac Band of Biloxi Chitimacha Choctaw, Chauvin, LA.[26]
  7. Isle de Jean Charles Band,[4] also the Jean Charles Choctaw Nation, Montegut, LA[26]
  8. Louisiana Choctaw Tribe,[4] as the Louisiana Band of Choctaw, Ferriday, LA[26]
  9. Natchitoches Tribe of Louisiana, Campti, LA[26] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2017 Regular Session, HR227.
  10. Pointe-au-Chien Tribe,[4] also Pointe-au-Chien Indian Tribe, Montegut, LA.[26] Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 7/22/1996.[4][12] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2004.[27]
  11. United Houma Nation.[4] Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1972.[27] Letter of Intent to Petition 07/10/1979; Proposed Finding 12/22/1994, 59 FR 6618.[12] Denied federal recognition.[28]

Maryland[edit]

On January 9, 2012, for the first time the state-recognized two American Indian tribes under a process developed by the General Assembly; these were both Piscataway groups,[29] historically part of the large Algonquian languages family along the Atlantic Coast. The Governor announced it to the Assembly by executive order.[29][30]

  1. Accohannock Indian Tribe. Governor Larry Hogan formally recognized this group on December 19, 2017,[31] through Executive Order 01.01.2017.31.[32]
  2. Piscataway Conoy Tribe.[4] It includes the following two sub-groups:
    1. Piscataway Conoy Confederacy and Sub-Tribes[29]
    2. Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians[29]
3. Piscataway Indian Nation and Tayac Territory.[4]

Massachusetts[edit]

The Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs was created by a legislative act of the General Court of Massachusetts in 1974, with the purpose of helping tribes in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts receive assistance from various local and state agencies.[33] In 1976, Governor Michael Dukakis issued Executive Order 126, which clarified the responsibilities of the Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs and identified three historic tribes in the Commonwealth - the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head, the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Hassanamisco Nipmuc.[34] The Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head and the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe[35] have federal recognition as of 1987 and 2007, respectively.[36][37]

The Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs lacks the authority to recognize any group, as recognition is beyond the scope of the duties of the Commission outlined in Executive Order 126.[34] The Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs announced in August 2023 that it would be establishing a process for state recognition to ensure protections for Native artisans under the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990.[38]

  • Hassanamisco Nipmuc.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 04/22/1980; Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35667.[39] The Hassanamisco Nipmuc Band is not protected by the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, which defines a state-recognized tribe as, "Any Indian group that has been formally recognized as an Indian tribe by a State legislature or by a State commission or similar organization legislatively vested with State tribal recognition authority."[40] The Hassanamisco Nipmuc Band was recognized by an Executive Order in 1976, and therefore does not meet the criteria for a state-recognized tribe as outlined in the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990.[34][38] The Hassanamisco Nipmuc Band petitioned for federal acknowledgment in 1980. It was denied due to its failure to meet four of the seven mandatory criteria for federal acknowledgment, including descent from a historic Indian tribe.[39]

Michigan[edit]

As of 2014, Michigan has four State-recognized tribes.

  1. Burt Lake Band of Ottawa & Chippewa Indians.[41]
  2. Grand River Band of Ottawa Indians.[41]
  3. Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians.[41]
  4. Swan Creek Black River Confederated Ojibwa Tribes of Michigan.[41]

Mississippi[edit]

The state of Mississippi has offered congratulatory resolutions to unrecognized organizations identifying as Native American descendants, such as the MS HR50 in which the legislators "commend and congratulate" Vancleave Live Oak Choctaw Tribe for recognition;[42] however, no laws outline formal state-recognition for this or any other group by the State of Mississippi.

Mississippi has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Missouri[edit]

Missouri has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Montana[edit]

Montana has the Montana Office of Indian Affairs[14] but has no state-recognized tribes.[4]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire has the New Hampshire State Commission on Native American Affairs[14] but no state-recognized tribes.[4]

New Jersey[edit]

New York[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

  1. Coharie Intra-tribal Council, Inc.[45] Letter of Intent to Petition 3/13/1981.[12]
  2. Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe.[4][11][45] Letter of Intent to Petition 1/27/1979.[12] Notified of "obvious deficiencies" in federal recognition application[46]
  3. Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina.[11] Letter of Intent to Petition 01/07/1980; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989).[12] In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.[47]
  4. Meherrin Nation.[4][45] State-recognized 1987.[12]
  5. Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation.[45] Letter of Intent to Petition 01/06/1995.[12]
  6. Sappony (formerly known as Indians of Person County, North Carolina).[45][46]
  7. Waccamaw-Siouan Tribe.[11][45] Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989).[12] Letter of Intent to Petition 10/16/1992; determined eligible to petition (SOL letter of 6/29/1995).[12] Also known as Waccamaw Siouan Development Association.

Ohio[edit]

Ohio has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina recognizes three entities: "state-recognized tribes", "state-recognized groups", and "special interest organizations."[48][49] As of 2023, South Carolina recognizes nine tribes that are not recognized by the federal government.[49]

The South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs' Native American Affairs Division also has recognized "state-recognized groups" and "special interest organizations" but these are not the same as the state-recognized tribes. In 2018, South Carolina Governor Henry McMaster signed legislation that stops the state from recognizing any additional Native American "groups."[54] As of 2023, South Carolina recognizes four "state-recognized groups" and one "special interest organization."[49] They are: Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People;[55] Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois, and United Tribes of South Carolina; Natchez Tribe of South Carolina;[56] and the Pee Dee Indian Nation of Beaver Creek.[56] The special interest organization is the Pine Hill Indian Community Development Initiative.[49][57]

Texas[edit]

Texas has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[58] Texas had "no legal mechanism to recognize tribes."[59]

The Texas state legislature often issues congratulatory resolutions that "commend" organizations, such one honoring the Mount Tabor Indian Community in 2017, "for its contributions to [the] state"[60] and the Lipan Apache in 2019;[61] however, this isn't the same as formal recognition of a tribe by a state.

Texas Senate Bill 231 to formally state-recognize the Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas, introduced in November 2022, died in committee.[62] Texas Senate Bill 1479, introduced on March 2023, and Texas House Bill 2005, introduced in February 2023, both to state-recognize the Tap Pilam Coahuiltecan Nation also died in committee.[63][64]

Vermont[edit]

As of May 3, 2006, Vermont law 1 V.S.A §§ 851–853 recognizes Abenakis as Native American Indians, not the tribes or bands. However, on April 22, 2011, Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin signed legislative bills officially recognizing two Abenaki Bands. The four Abenaki state-recognized tribes are also known as the "Abenaki Alliance".

On May 7, 2012, Governor Shumlim signed legislative bills officially recognizing two more Abenaki Bands:

Virginia[edit]

Virginia has an office to manage Indian affairs: the Virginia Council on Indians. It is composed of 13 members - eight from Virginia tribes officially recognized by the Commonwealth, two members at-large from Indian population in Virginia, one from House of Delegates, one from Senate, and one from Commonwealth at-large.[14]

Virginia has the following state-recognized tribes:

  • Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe.[4] Letter of Intent to Petition 12/30/2002.[12] Receipt of Petition 12/30/2002.[67] State-recognized 2010; in Courtland, Southampton County.[68] Letter of intent to file for federal recognition 2017. Currently a bill is being sponsored.
  • Mattaponi Indian Nation (a.k.a. Mattaponi Indian Reservation). Letter of Intent to Petition 04/04/1995. State-recognized 1983; in Banks of the Mattaponi River, King William County. The Mattaponi and Pamunkey have reservations based in colonial-era treaties ratified by the Commonwealth in 1658. Pamunkey Tribe's attorney told Congress in 1991 that the tribes state reservation originated in a treaty with the crown in the 17th century and has been occupied by Pamunkey since that time under strict requirements and following the treaty obligation to provide to the Crown a deer every year, and they've done that (replacing Crown with Governor of Commonwealth since Virginia became a Commonwealth).
  • Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia. Recognized 2010; in Capron, Southampton County.
  • Patawomeck Indian Tribe of Virginia.[4] Recognized 2010; in Stafford County.[68]

Washington[edit]

Washington has not formally recognized any tribes by statute. However, the state or preceding territorial government has been a party to treaties involving a number of tribes that are not federally recognized.

West Virginia[edit]

West Virginia has no office to manage Indian affairs[14] and no state-recognized tribes.[4]

See also[edit]

United States
Canada
Related

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "American Indians and Alaska Natives - What are State Recognized Tribes?". Administration for Native Americans. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on June 15, 2023. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  2. ^ "What is a real Indian Nation? What is a fake tribe?". Cherokee Nation. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  3. ^ a b Alexa Koenig and Jonathan Stein, "Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A Survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes across the United States", Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48, November 2007
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg "State Recognized Tribes". National Conference of State Legislatures. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  5. ^ 25 CFR 290.2, "Definitions"
  6. ^ The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine, US Department of the Interior: Indian Arts and Crafts Board. (retrieved 23 May 2009)
  7. ^ "ICWA Doesn't Apply to My Child Welfare Case. What Other Help Can I Get?" (PDF). National Indian Child Welfare Association. Retrieved June 16, 2023.
  8. ^ Sheffield (1998), p. 63
  9. ^ "Bills and Resolutions". Governmental Relations. University of Houston System. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  10. ^ a b Alabama Indian Affairs Commission. "Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama". Retrieved 2015-03-28.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Tribal Directory: Southeast". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae LIST OF PETITIONERS BY STATE (as of July 31, 2012) (Accessible as of January 15, 2013 here)
  13. ^ a b Sheffield (1998) p64
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "State Committees and Commissions on Indian Affairs". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  15. ^ a b Connecticut Law on Indian Tribes (2007-R-0475). Christopher Reinhart, Senior Attorney, on behalf of State of Connecticut General Assembly (Accessible as of July 15, 2014 here).
  16. ^ Christopher Reinhart (2002-02-07). "Effect of State Recognition of an Indian Tribe". State of Connecticut. Retrieved 2010-08-06. Connecticut statutes recognize five tribes: (1) Golden Hill Paugussett, (2) Mashantucket Pequot, (3) Mohegan, (4) Eastern Pequot, and (5) Schaghticoke tribe.
  17. ^ "CGS § 47-59a Connecticut Indians; citizenship, civil rights, land rights". State of Connecticut. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  18. ^ Bureau of Indian Affairs (2004-06-21). "Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe". Federal Register. United States. pp. 34388–34393. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
  19. ^ a b c "Tribal Directory". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  20. ^ Sheffield (1998): 66
  21. ^ "Georgia Council on American Indian Concerns". Georgia.gov. Retrieved 2023-08-23.
  22. ^ "Welcome to Georgia Indian Council | Georgia Indian Council". georgiaindiancouncil.com. Retrieved 2023-08-23.
  23. ^ O.C.G.A. § 44-12-300 (2007) Title 44, Chapter 12, Article 7, Part 3 of the Official Code of Georgia Annotated Archived 2004-09-19 at the Wayback Machine, Georgia Legislature. Quote: The State of Georgia "officially recognizes as legitimate American Indian tribes of Georgia the following tribes, bands, groups, or communities" for state purposes
  24. ^ Sheffield (1998) p67
  25. ^ "Indian Affairs". Louisiana Office of the Governor. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Federal and State-Tribal Contact Information" (PDF). Louisiana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "Louisiana Governor's Office of Indian Affairs" Retrieved on 4/8/2008 Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ Sheffield (1998): 67
  29. ^ a b c d Witte, Brian. "Md. Formally Recognizes 2 American Indian Groups.", NBC Washington, 9 Jan 2011, Retrieved 10 Jan 2011
  30. ^ Executive Orders 01.01.2012.01 and 01.01.2012.02 "Recognition of tribes in the state", Governor's Office
  31. ^ "Accohannock Indian Tribe v. Tyler". CaseText. 14 December 2021.
  32. ^ "Native Americans". Maryland Manual On-Line. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  33. ^ Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 6A, § 8A.
  34. ^ a b c "No. 126: Massachusetts Native Americans | Mass.gov". www.mass.gov. Retrieved 2023-09-14.
  35. ^ "Northeast". Tribal Directory. National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  36. ^ Swimmer, R. (1987). Final determination for federal acknowledgment of the Wampanoag Tribal Council of Gay Head, Inc., FR Doc. 87-2877. US. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  37. ^ Carson, J. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. (2004). Summary under the criteria of evidence for final determination of federal recognition of the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council, Inc Archived 2012-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. (71 FR 17488). U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  38. ^ a b "Minutes of the Virtual Meeting of the Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs, August 9, 2023". mass.gov.
  39. ^ a b "Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgment of the Nipmuc Nation". Federal Register. Indian Affairs Bureau. 25 June 2004. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  40. ^ "US Department of the Interior Indian Arts and Crafts Act" (PDF).
  41. ^ a b c d "Michigan Historic Tribes" (PDF). State of Michigan Community Services Block Grant. State Plan from Fiscal Years 2015–2016. Michigan Department of Human Services. 1 July 2014. p. 67. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  42. ^ "MS HR50, 2016". LegiScan. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  43. ^ a b c Indian Country Today March 27, 2019
  44. ^ "Tribal Directory: Northeast". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  45. ^ a b c d e f North Carolina Department of Administration (February 2007). "North Carolina American Indian Tribes and Organizations" (PDF).
  46. ^ a b Sheffield (1998) p68-70
  47. ^ "Virginia tribes take another step on road to federal recognition" Archived 2009-10-26 at archive.today in Richmond Times-Dispatch, 28 October 2009.
  48. ^ "South Carolina's Recognized Native American entities". South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "South Carolina's Recognized Native American Indian Entities". South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs. 2023. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  50. ^ a b c d e f South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs. "SC tribes and groups" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-01-02.
  51. ^ a b South Carolina Indian Affairs Commission. "Members". Archived from the original on 2013-01-11.
  52. ^ a b c South Carolina Indigenous Gallery. "Visitors Center". Archived from the original on 2007-09-02.
  53. ^ "List of Petitioners by State (as of 11/12/2013)" (PDF).
  54. ^ Johnson, Chloe. "South Carolina's Native American tribes aim to protect their legacy with new legislation". Post and Courier. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  55. ^ "S.C. recognizes Chickasaw tribe". Spartanburg Herald Journal. goupstate.com. 11 June 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  56. ^ a b Gleaton, Sonja (7 March 2007). "The Great Spirit... NEVER FORGETS State recognizes Natchez Tribe of South Carolina, Pee Dee Indian Nation of Beaver Creek". The Times and Democrat. Vol. 126, no. 71. Newspapers.com. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  57. ^ Zaleski, Gene. "Pine Hill Indian Tribe gets state sanction for community development organization". The Times and Democrat. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  58. ^ "State Recognized Tribes". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  59. ^ Brewer, Graham Lee; Ahtone, Tristan (27 October 2021). "In Texas, a group claiming to be Cherokee faces questions about authenticity". NBC News. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  60. ^ "Texas Senate Concurrent Resolution 25". LegiScan. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  61. ^ "House Concurrent Resolution No. 171" (PDF). State of Texas Secretary of State. 25 May 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  62. ^ "Texas Senate Bill 231". LegiScan. Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  63. ^ "Texas Senate Bill 1479". LegiScan. Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  64. ^ "Texas House Bill 2005". LegiScan. Retrieved 26 February 2024.
  65. ^ a b Vermonters Concerned on Native American Affairs. "Tribal Sites VT". Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  66. ^ "Petitioner #068: St. Francis/Sokoki Band of Abenakis of Vermont, VT". Indian Affairs. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  67. ^ Receipt of Petitions for Federal Acknowledgment of Existence as an Indian Tribe (68 FR 13724)
  68. ^ a b Virginia Council on Indians. "Virginia Tribes". Archived from the original on 2003-08-10.
  69. ^ "Chinook Indian Tribe". Tribal Directory. National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  70. ^ Portland State University. "Tansey Point Treaties". Public History PDX. Retrieved 2022-09-21.

References[edit]

  • Koenig, Alexa and Jonathan Stein (2008). Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States. University of Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 48.
  • Sheffield, Gail (1998). Arbitrary Indian: The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2969-7.
  • Constitution of the United States

External sources[edit]