St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda

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Coordinates: 17°07′N 61°51′W / 17.117°N 61.850°W / 17.117; -61.850

St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda
Saint John
St John's, Antigua and Barbuda - panoramio (11).jpg
St. John's in 2015
Coordinates17°07′N 61°51′W / 17.117°N 61.850°W / 17.117; -61.850
Population22,219 (2011)
Area10 km2 (4 sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
IslandAntigua
ParishSaint John
Major Division(s)Multiple
Enumeration District(s)Multiple
EthnicitiesAfrican (84.86%)
AirportV.C. Bird International Airport
HeliportFort Road Heliport
Elevation0–194 ft

St. John's is the capital and largest city of Antigua and Barbuda, part of the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. With a population of 22,219,[1] St. John's is the commercial centre of the nation and the chief port of the island of Antigua.

History[edit]

The settlement of St. John's has been the administrative centre of Antigua and Barbuda since the islands were first colonised in 1632, and it became the seat of government when the nation achieved independence in 1981.

Economy[edit]

St. John's is one of the most developed and cosmopolitan municipalities in the Lesser Antilles. The city is famous for its shopping malls as well as boutiques throughout the city, selling designer jewellery and haute-couture clothing.

St. John's attracts tourists from the resorts on the island and from the cruise ships which dock in its harbour at Heritage Quay and Redcliffe Quay several times a week.

The investment banking industry has a strong presence in the city. Major world financial institutions have offices in St. John's.

There is a market on the southwestern edge of the city where fresh produce, meats, and fresh fish are sold daily.

The Antigua Rum Distillery is located at the Citadel and is the only rum distillery on the island.

Demographics[edit]

The majority of the population of St. John's reflects that of the rest of Antigua: people of African and mixed European-African ancestry, with a European minority, including British and Portuguese. There is a population of Levantine Christian Arabs.[2]

City Centre, St. John's

Government[edit]

St John's is the home of the Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda. St John's is the capital of the Parish of Saint John.

The Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority has its headquarters on Factory Road in St. John's.[3]

St John's is twinned with Waltham Forest borough in London, England.

Administrative Divisions[edit]

Areas[edit]

Areas (or Major Divisions) are the second-level administrative divisions of Antigua and Barbuda. Saint John's is considered a first-level administrative division when it comes to dividing the Major Divisions.

  • City Centre
  • Greenbay
  • Point
  • Cook's Hill
  • Gray's Farm
  • Nut Grove
  • Kentish
  • Desouza Road
  • Browns Avenue
  • Villa
  • Radio Range
  • Sutherlands Development
  • Upper Fort Road
  • Micheal's Mount
  • Princess Margaret
  • Upper Gamble's

Boundaries[edit]

The "City of St. John's" is defined by the Public Health Act as:[4]

All land enclosed by an imaginary line starting at a point on the coast where the road running West of Greenbay meets the sea and thence in a southerly direction along the western side of this road to its junction with the road leading to Union Estate; continuing along the western side of the same road, in a southerly direction towards Cooks Estate, to a location which is marked by a concrete beacon located where the said road to Cooks Estate reaches a valley running East and West; running from the said beacon and following the centre of the valley to another concrete beacon situated at Grays Hill; thence in an Easterly direction to a point marked with a beacon on the Bolans road immediately beyond Nut Grove: from this beacon in a north-easterly direction to a point on the All Saints road where the Bendals road joins a track which forms the existing boundary of Ottos Estate and along the said track to the Factory road; turning West at this junction and following the southern side of the Factory road to a point marked by a beacon at the boundary between Sunnyside paddock and St. Johnston Village; thence following the eastern boundary of the said paddock to the Parham road to a point opposite the track West of Bell Village; thence northwards along the eastern boundary of Gambles Estate to the north-eastern corner of the said Estate; thence West along the North boundary of Gambles Estate to the western side of Friars Hill road; thence North to the boundary between Friars Hill and Gambles; thence West along the said boundary to the Marble Hill road; thence in a southerly direction to a point where the said road turns West towards Fort James; and finally along the southern and western side of Fort James road to that point on the sea coast immediately West of the point where the said road turns South to Fort James.

The "City of St. John's" is defined by the Property Tax Act, 2006 as the region enclosed by Dickenson Bay Street on both sides from the Sea to the North; Independence Avenue on both sides from Robinson Gas Station to the East; All Saints Road on the right from Joseph Lane to Kentish Road; and Perry Bay Road on the right from Kentish Road to Ribbits.[5]

Culture[edit]

There are several museums, including the Museum of Antigua and Barbuda and the Museum of Marine Art, a small facility containing fossilised bedrock, volcanic stones, petrified wood, a collection of more than 10,000 shells, and artefacts from English shipwrecks.

Just east of St. John's is the Sir Vivian Richards Stadium, a multi-use stadium in North Sound, that was created mostly for cricket matches, and has hosted the matches during the 2007 Cricket World Cup. The Antigua Recreation Ground, Antigua and Barbuda's national stadium, is located in St. John's.

Geography[edit]

Nearby villages and settlements include St. Johnston. McKinnon's Pond is located just north of St. John's.

Main sights[edit]

The city's skyline is dominated by the white baroque towers of St. John's Cathedral.

The Botanical Garden is near the intersection of Factory Road and Independence Avenue. This small park's shaded benches and gazebo provide a quiet refuge from the bustle of activity of St. John's.

Sandy Island Light

Sandy Island is a Lighthouse located on a small island about 5 km off the coast leading the way to St. John's harbour.

Fort James stands at the entrance to St. John's harbour. Other nearby forts include Fort George, Fort Charles, Fort Shirley, Fort Berkeley and Fort Barrington.

Government House is the Governor's residence, originally a 19th-century parsonage building. It is included on the World Monuments Fund's 2018 list of monuments at risk, following exposure to severe weather events.[6]

Transportation[edit]

St. John's is served by the V. C. Bird International Airport.

Fort Road Heliport is located in the city, on Fort Road.[7]

Education[edit]

St. John's is home to two medical schools – the American University of Antigua and University of Health Sciences Antigua. Secondary schools include Christ the King High School, Princess Margaret School and the Antigua Girls High School. Private grade schools include St. John's Lutheran School[8][9] of the WELS.

Climate[edit]

St. John's has a Tropical savanna climate (Koppen: Aw) with summer-like weather year-round, with hot days and warm nights. Rainfall is at its highest during the months of September to November due to hurricane activity. On 12 August 1995, a temperature of 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) was recorded, which was the highest temperature to have ever been recorded in Antigua and Barbuda.[10][11]

Climate data for St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda (V. C. Bird International Airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
32.9
(91.2)
32.7
(90.9)
34.1
(93.4)
32.9
(91.2)
33.5
(92.3)
34.9
(94.8)
34.3
(93.7)
34.1
(93.4)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
34.9
(94.8)
Average high °C (°F) 28.3
(82.9)
28.4
(83.1)
28.8
(83.8)
29.4
(84.9)
30.2
(86.4)
30.6
(87.1)
30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
31.1
(88.0)
30.6
(87.1)
29.8
(85.6)
28.8
(83.8)
29.8
(85.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
25.2
(77.4)
25.6
(78.1)
26.3
(79.3)
27.2
(81.0)
27.9
(82.2)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
28.1
(82.6)
27.5
(81.5)
26.8
(80.2)
25.9
(78.6)
26.9
(80.4)
Average low °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72.0)
22.7
(72.9)
23.4
(74.1)
24.5
(76.1)
25.3
(77.5)
25.3
(77.5)
25.5
(77.9)
25.0
(77.0)
24.4
(75.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.0
(73.4)
24.0
(75.2)
Record low °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
16.6
(61.9)
17.0
(62.6)
16.6
(61.9)
17.8
(64.0)
19.7
(67.5)
20.6
(69.1)
19.3
(66.7)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
17.7
(63.9)
16.1
(61.0)
15.5
(59.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 56.6
(2.23)
44.9
(1.77)
46.0
(1.81)
72.0
(2.83)
89.6
(3.53)
62.0
(2.44)
86.5
(3.41)
99.4
(3.91)
131.6
(5.18)
142.2
(5.60)
135.1
(5.32)
83.4
(3.28)
1,049.2
(41.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.1 8.7 7.3 7.2 8.6 8.3 11.8 12.7 12.0 12.9 12.4 12.1 124.7
Source: Antigua/Barbuda Meteorological Services[12][13][14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda (1632- ) •". 24 February 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  3. ^ "Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority (formerly, The Directorate of Civil Aviation) (Main Offices)." Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved on 23 December 2012. "Address : Factory Rd City : Saint John's State : Antigua Country : Antigua and Barbuda"
  4. ^ (PDF) http://laws.gov.ag/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/cap-353.pdf. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ (PDF) http://laws.gov.ag/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/a2000-15.pdf. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Government House". 2018 World Monuments Watch. World Monuments Foundation.
  7. ^ https://www.google.com/maps/place/CalvinAir+Helicopters+-+Fort+Road+Heliport/@17.1345876,-61.8594057,808m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x8c12937c66bdc953:0x39e837075cf5566c!8m2!3d17.1345918!4d-61.8572172. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ "St Johns Ev Lutheran School Antigua". Facebook.
  9. ^ "Antigua – WELS".
  10. ^ "Our Climate". Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Normal Daily Temperature: TEMPERATURE AT V.C. Bird International Airport". Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Normals and averages: temperature at V.C Bird International Airport". Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Services. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  13. ^ "Normals and averages: rainfall at V.C Bird International Airport". Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Services. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  14. ^ "78862: Vc Bird International Airport Antigua (Antigua and Barbuda)". ogimet.com. OGIMET. 17 October 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2021.

External links[edit]