Soft sign

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Cyrillic letter
Soft Sign
Cyrillic letter Yeri - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[◌ʲ]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
Non-Slavic letters
Archaic or unused letters
Cyrillic capital letter script A.svgА̨Б̀Б̣В̀Г̀Г̧Г̄
Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆Cyrillic capital letter split by middle ring Ghe.svgД̓Д̀Д̨
ԀԂЕ̇Е̨Ж̑Cyrillic small letter Zhe with long middle leg and stroke through descender.svg
Cyrillic capital letter bashkir Ie.svgЏ̆Ꚅ̆З̀
І̨Cyrillic capital letter bashkir Dha.svgЈ̵К̓К̀К̆
Ӄ̆К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂Cyrillic small letter Ka with loop.svg
Cyrillic small letter ka with ascender.svgЛ̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
ѺCyrillic capital letter open at bottom O.svg
Cyrillic capital letter O with left notch.svgП̓П́П̧ҦП̑ҀԚ̆
Cyrillic capital letter long Es.svgТ̓Т̀ԎТ̑Т̧
Ꚍ̆Cyrillic small letter Te El Soft-sign.svgCyrillic small letter voiceless L with comma above.svgѸCyrillic capital letter script U.svgУ̇У̊
Х̓Cyrillic capital letter bashkir Ha.svgѠѼѾЦ́
Ц̓Cyrillic capital letter Tse with long left leg.svgꚎ̆Cyrillic capital letter Cil.svgCyrillic capital letter Cil with bar.svgЧ́
Ч̀Ч̑Ч̓Cyrillic capital letter Char.svgԬꚆ̆
Ҽ̆Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆Cyrillic capital letter Che Sha.svg

The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь) also known as the front yer, front jer, or er malak (lit. "small er") is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Old Church Slavonic, it represented a short (or "reduced") front vowel. As with its companion, the back yer ⟨ъ⟩, the vowel phoneme that it designated was later partly dropped and partly merged with other vowels.

In the modern Slavic Cyrillic writing systems in which it appears (all East Slavic languages and Bulgarian and Church Slavic), it does not represent an individual sound but indicates palatalization of the preceding consonant.

Uses and meanings[edit]

Palatalization sign[edit]

The soft sign is normally written after a consonant and indicates its softening (palatalization) (for example Ukrainian батько 'father'). Less commonly, the soft sign just has a grammatically determined usage with no phonetic meaning (like Russian: туш 'fanfare' and тушь 'India ink', both pronounced /tuʂ/ but different in grammatical gender and declension). In East Slavic languages and some other Slavic languages (such as Bulgarian), there are some consonants that do not have phonetically different palatalized forms but corresponding letters still admit the affixing soft sign.

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet has had no soft sign as a distinct letter since the mid-19th century: palatalization is represented by special consonant letters instead of the sign (some of these letters, such as Љ or Њ, were designed as ligatures with the grapheme of the soft sign). The modern Macedonian alphabet, based on the Serbian Cyrillic variant, has had no soft sign since its creation, in 1944.

Before a vowel in East Slavic languages[edit]

Between a consonant and a vowel, the soft sign bears also a function of "iotation sign": in Russian, vowels after the soft sign are iotated (compare Russian льют /lʲjut/ '(they) pour/cast' and лют /lʲut/ '(he is) fierce'). The feature, quite consistent with Russian orthography, promulgated a confusion between palatalization and iotation, especially because ⟨ь⟩ usually precedes so-called soft vowels. Combinations ⟨ья⟩ (ya), ⟨ье⟩ (ye), ⟨ьё⟩ (yo) and ⟨ью⟩ (yu) give iotated vowels, like corresponding vowel letters in isolation (and word-initially), and unlike its use immediately after a consonant letter in which palatalization can occur but not iotation. In those cases, ⟨ь⟩ may be considered as a sign indicating that a vowel after it is pronounced separately from the previous consonant, but that is the case neither for ⟨ьи⟩ (yi) nor for ⟨ьо⟩ (yo), because these vowels are not iotated in isolation. The latter case, though, is rarely used in Russian (only in loanwords such as ⟨бульон⟩) and can be seen as a replacement of phonetically identical ⟨ьё⟩, which gets rid of an "inconvenient" letter ё. In Ukrainian and Bulgarian, the spelling ⟨ьо⟩ indicates palatalization, not iotation.

⟨ъ⟩, an "unpalatalization sign", also denotes iotation, as in the case of ⟨ъя⟩, ⟨ъе⟩, ⟨ъё⟩ and ⟨ъю⟩ in Russian.

Similarly, the soft sign may denote iotation in Belarusian and Ukrainian, but it is not used so extensively as in Russian. Ukrainian uses a quite different repertoire of vowel letters from those of Russian and Belarusian, and iotation is usually expressed by an apostrophe in Ukrainian. Still the soft sign is used in Ukrainian if the sound preceded by an iotated vowel is palatalized.

In Bulgarian[edit]

Among Slavic languages using the Cyrillic script, the soft sign has the most limited use in Bulgarian: since 1945, the only possible position is one between consonants and ⟨о⟩ (such as in names Жельо, Кръстьо, and Гьончо).

As a vowel in Slavic studies[edit]

In Slavistic transcription, Ь and Ъ are used to denote Proto-Slavic extra-short sounds /ĭ/ and /ŭ/ respectively (slověnьskъ adj. 'Slavonic'), like Old Slavonic orthography.



The soft sign does not occur after vowels in Slavic languages, but the аь⟩ digraph for /æ/ or /a/ was introduced to some non-Slavic Cyrillic-based alphabets such as Chechen, Ingush and various Dagestanian languages such as Tabasaran. Similarly, the оь⟩ digraph was introduced for /œ/ or /ø/, and уь⟩ for /y/, plus iotated forms such as юь⟩ and яь⟩ as required. This use of ь is similar to a trailing e as used in, for example, German, when umlauts are unavailable (cf. Goethe).

There were proposals to use the same for Turkic languages,[1] as a replacement to Cyrillic Schwa (Ә) for ə or /æ/. Unlike Schwa, which is not represented in many Cyrillic character repertoires such as Windows-1251, both ⟨а⟩ and ⟨ь⟩ are readily available as letters of the basic modern Russian alphabet.


Like the hard sign and the palochka, many languages use the soft sign forms digraphs to represent sounds which are phonetically similar, yet distinct phonemes from the bare letter. For example, while г represents /g/, гь represents /ɣ/ in Crimean Tatar, /ɦ/ in Archi, and /h/ in Avar and Tabasaran.


Under normal orthographic rules, it has no uppercase form, as no word begins with the letter. However, Cyrillic type fonts normally provide an uppercase form for setting type in all caps or for using it as an element of various serial numbers (like series of Soviet banknotes) and indices (for example, there was once a model of old Russian steam locomotives marked "Ь" – ru:Паровоз Ь).

In the romanization of Cyrillic, the soft sign is typically transliterated with U+02B9 ʹ MODIFIER LETTER PRIME. Sometimes U+02BC ʼ MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE is used, or the soft sign may be ignored if it is in a position that it does not denote iotation, for example: Тверь=Tver, Обь=Ob. It can also be transcribed "y" or "i" if preceding a vowel.

In Belarusian it is romanized as a combining acute, e.g., зь ⟨ź⟩, ць ⟨ć⟩, нь ⟨ń⟩, ль ⟨ĺ⟩.

Name of letter[edit]

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character information
Preview Ь ь
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1068 U+042C 1100 U+044C
UTF-8 208 172 D0 AC 209 140 D1 8C
Numeric character reference Ь Ь ь ь
Named character reference Ь ь
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 248 F8 216 D8
Code page 855 238 EE 237 ED
Code page 866 156 9C 236 EC
Windows-1251 220 DC 252 FC
ISO-8859-5 204 CC 236 EC
Macintosh Cyrillic 156 9C 252 FC


  1. ^ Sergeyev, Andrey V. (2001-04-19). "QazaNovica practical transcription – a project of reformed Cyrillic-based Turkic alphabet". "21st Century: language, time and space" international workshop. Retrieved February 12, 2012.