Page semi-protected

Socionics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Socionics, in psychology and sociology, is a pseudoscientific[11] theory of information processing and personality types. It is distinguished by its information model of the psyche (called "Model A") and a model of interpersonal relations. It incorporates Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types with Antoni Kępiński's theory of information metabolism. Socionics is a modification of Jung's personality type theory that uses eight psychic functions, in contrast to Jung's model, which used only four. These functions are supposed to process information at varying levels of competency and interact with the corresponding function in other individuals, giving rise to predictable reactions and impressions—a theory of intertype relations.[12][13] In contrast to the generally accepted views in science on age-related variability of the human psyche,[14][15] socionics postulates the presence of 16 psychological types unchanged throughout life.[16] The issue of the existence of personality types is considered by modern science to be extremely controversial.[15] The special commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Commission on Pseudoscience) has placed socionics among such well-known pseudosciences as astrology and homeopathy.[2]

Socionics was developed in the 1970s and 1980s, primarily by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, an economist and dean of the Vilnius Pedagogical University's department of family science.[17] The name "socionics" is derived from the word "society", because Augustinavičiūtė believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics.[18][19][20]

The central idea of socionics is that information is intuitively divisible into eight categories, called information aspects or information elements, which a person's psyche processes using eight psychological functions.[12] Each sociotype has a different correspondence between functions and information elements, which results in different ways of perceiving, processing, and producing information. This in turn results in distinct thinking patterns, values, and responses to arguments, all of which are encompassed within socionic type. Socionics' theory of intertype relations is based on the interaction of these functions between types.[19][12][21]

Independent authors point to the insufficient empirical validity of socionics both in its basis and in its further development, as well as the practical absence of studies on socionics outside the former USSR. In the West, the term 'socionics' (German: Sozionik) is used in a different sense, to refer to an interdisciplinary area of research on distributed artificial intelligence systems and their applications to sociology.[22][23]

In 1995 socionics was recognized as a discovery by the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, and its creator Augustinavičiūtė was granted a certificate of discovery (diploma) and a medal.[24][25]

Purpose

Socionics provides a means of predicting the character of relations and degree of business compatibility, information sharing and psychological compatibility of people before their joining in one collective group, i.e. to solve the "inverse task" of sociometry.[26]

According to Aleksandr Bukalov and Betty Lou Leaver, socionics uses Jungian typology, informational model of psyche, and theory of information metabolism for political and sociological analysis.[27][28]

According to G. Fink and B. Mayrhofer, socionics is considered one of the four most popular models of personality (including cybernetic theory Maruyama, five-factor model, Big Five" and typology Myers–Briggs Type Indicator), deserving special attention because of its importance in the study of personality.[29]

According to J. Horwood, and A. Maw, socionics is a science developed by Augustinavičiūtė in the 1970s. Augustinavičiūtė and her colleagues worked with Carl Jung's personality typologies to develop personality-based relationship profiles. It was found that the nature and development of interpersonal relationships (both professional and personal) are far from random. Instead, they are based on how well suited each individual's psychological profiles are to one another, allowing Augustinavičiūtė to develop 16 'socionic types' predicting and describing the interpersonal relationships between any combination of Jung's personality types.[20]

According to R. Blutner and E. Hochnadel, "socionics is not so much a theory of personalities per se, but much more a theory of type relations providing an analysis of the relationships that arise as a consequence of the interaction of people with different personalities."[30]

Philosopher L. Monastyrsky treats socionics as pre-science. At the same time, L. Monastyrsky himself proposes to pay attention to "the concept of socionic type".[31]

Philosopher E. Pletuhina defines socionics as the study about the information interaction of the human psyche with the outside world, between people. She also defines it as the doctrine of psychological types of people and the relationships between them, as well as notes that the particular quality of socionics is that it considers the innate qualities of the human psyche, including the personality type, which cannot be arbitrarily changed without prejudice to the mental and physical health.[32]

History

The basic structure of socionics was established in the 1960s and 1970s by Augustinavičiūtė,[33][clarification needed] along with a group of enthusiasts who met in Vilnius, Lithuania. What resulted from their discussions and Augustinavičiūtė's personal investigations was an information model of the psyche and of interpersonal interaction based on Jung's typology but with eight psychic functions rather than four.[34] Augustinavičiūtė's first works on socionics[30] were published between 1978 and 1980.

Relation to the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator

According to Betty Lou Leaver, Madeline Ehrman, and Boris Shekhtman, like the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), socionics is a sixteen-type derivative of Jung's work. Unlike MBTI, which is widely criticized[35] for the lack of validity and utility,[36] the socionics model strives to stay very close to the original descriptions and type labels suggested by Carl Jung.[37] According to Betty Lou Leaver, "today's concepts of personality emanate most frequently from the work of Carl Jung, whose theories and research have blossomed into a juncture of philosophical and sociological inquiry. This field of inquiry has been called socionics."[28]

According to Sergei Moshenkov and Tung Tang Wing, "MBTI and Socionics are contemporary sister sciences that categorize and describe human personality types in accordance to the predominance of certain mental faculties called psychic functions by Dr. Carl Jung."[38]

A. Shmelev in his review of the book "MBTI: type definition" by I. Myers-Briggs and P. Myers notes the highest popularity of socionic books in Russian and remarks that their authors are appealing to the literary and artistic associations of the mass reader, in contradistinction to books on MBTI, which contain the empirical and statistical data on the types distribution in professional groups.[39] S.A. Bogomaz considers the socionic typology as a version of post-Jung typology and believes that on a number of criteria it is more perspective than MBTI for the study of the differences between people, because it expands the volume of the typological features and offers an opportunity to form various typological groups with different motivations, attitudes, temperament, perception of information and thinking styles. It is also important the existence of preconditions to study intertype relations, that are substantially not developed within MBTI. S.A. Bogomaz thinks that the creation of the theory of intertype relationships is undoubtedly contribution of Augustinavičiūtė to the development of Jung typologies.[40]

Socionics as an academic discipline

Through the work of the International Institute of Socionics and other schools of socionics, there are four scientific peer-reviewed journals (on the practical application of the methods of socionics in management, consulting, psychology, pedagogy, education, psychotherapy, and humanities)[41] and an annual International conference on socionics.[42] The Institute gives "popularization and proliferation of socionic knowledge" as one of its goals.[43]

Svetlana V. Ivanova notes that socionics is taught in more than 150 universities in Russia, Ukraine and other CIS and European Union countries.[44][45] Some universities in Russia (including Altai State Technical University,[46] Bashkir State University,[47][48] Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University,[49] and Saint Petersburg State University[50]) Ukraine,[51] Bulgaria,[52] and Romania,[53] have published or commissioned a number of textbooks and monographs on socionics, or on psychology, pedagogy and management, which socionics and its methods are devoted to specific topics.[original research?]

Areas of research include educational socionics,[54][55] sociological socionics,[56] aviation socionics,[57][58] library socionics,[59][60] technical socionics, linguistic socionics, penitentiary socionics, and socionics in other subject areas.

Socionics is used in education, not only as a tool for teachers to manage the learning process,[61] but also as a basis for the development and improvement of education and training.[52] Bogdanova claim that a teacher holding socionic knowledge and technologies can consciously collaborate with others and improve professional efficiency.[62] Targeted use of intertype relations helps intensify the didactic process, increase the motivation of students.[63] Socionics is also used to assess the individual psychological and personal qualities to forecast the success of employee career.[64]

Izmailova and Kiseleva found socionics interesting to be applied in advertising[65] and marketing, because it allows you to explain the reasons for the behavior of consumers.[66]

Socionics is a tool for the study of personality and creativity of the writer, the typology of the characters in his works.[67] The method of linguistic-socionic modeling proposed by L. M. Komissarova,[68] used for analysis of individual lexicon of language personality.[69] A translation of socionic characteristics in verbal ones is called the "method of linguistic-socionic modeling" and widely used.[70][71]

Socionic methods have been proposed for the modeling of information processes in the "human-machine" systems,[72] and practically used to model systems "aircraft operator" in pilots' training,[57] and other similar areas.

Due to the variety of applications of socionics, its concepts and information models, in the 1990s, Bukalov proposed to distinguish socionics of personality, or differential socionics, and generalized, more abstract integral socionics.[73] Bukalov believes that the concept of information metabolism, cybernetic modeling and general systems theory extends beyond of psychology and sociology, and consider the relationship of technical information devices, and the types of information human interactions as operator with various technical and electronic management systems of major industries, including chemical, nuclear power stations, complex computer complexes with adaptive tunable to a specific operator interfaces.[73]

Propagation of socionics

International Institute of Socionics lists a number of academic publications on socionics in English in peer-reviewed journals.[74] Since 2000 socionics as a scientific discipline and a field of research has been recognized in Russia and Ukraine.[74][75][original research?]

Socionics technologies in management, staff recruitment and team building

Management is the area concerned with the application of both theoretical and practical socionics methods and S-technologies.[76][77] Management of Deutsche Bank is using socionics methods to evaluate potential of its future employees.[78] Prof. J. Horwood and Prof. A. Maw used socionics to form the surgical ambulances[20] Socinics model has been implemented in enterprises of the world's largest aluminium company Rusal for evaluating its employees.[79] Different tools are used to define sociotypes, this involves observing and testing based on well-known test methods.[80]

Experimental research of aircraft control services, which was conducted at St. Petersburg State University had found that quality of interaction integral controller which was calculated on the basis of SMoIR (socionics model of intertype relationships) is correlated with sociometric data colour test relations.[81]

Modeling of situations in groups can be done in two ways: by forming small groups based on socionics structure (quadras, clubs and temperament types) or by analysis of intertype relations between team members. Choice of approach depends on the goals set. If a goal is to analyse a situation in the team and the interaction between its members, then the best choice is the intertype analysis between members[82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][clarification needed][91][92]

Nuclear power plants' security

A person who does not have clear understanding of his duties, or somebody who takes his work as a dangerous activity, will commit more mistakes while working in short supply than a person who is not stressed by social factors. In order to reduce this kind of stressor, on some plants, for example on Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant were implemented testing, which were conducting communication trainings and other socionics methods.[93] Also socionics approaches are taught in terms of courses training staff reserve on Leningrad nuclear power plant.[94]

Socionics principles implemented to security system of nuclear power plants are described in a textbook.[95] It includes analysis of the social structure of the staff, the concept of which coincides with the notion of psychoinformative space of collectives in integral socionics. Socionics tools combined with psycho informational theory of relationships are using to describe various models of human interaction with complex technological processes that take place in enterprises and transport.[96]

Pedagogical socionics

The concepts and methods of socionics are widely used in pedagogy, this collaboration creates a new scientific branch – pedagogical socionics.[97][98]

Pletuhina noted that the parent, trainer or teacher, who knows the theory of socionics, who also understands an idea of the "image of a socionics type" and who can determine the child's personality type with a sufficient degree of probability can use those opportunities of the individual approaches that socionics provides to raise and educate a child.[32]

The role that socionics takes in the educational process is not limited to being a teacher's tool for the managing process.[99] It is also a base for development and improving the educational system and for preparing staff. Teachers armed with socionics technology can consciously establish relationships with other people and increase efficiency of their pedagogical skills.[100] Rational implementation of intertype relationships can push educational process to become more intensive and increase students' motivation.[101][102]

Socionics is also researched practical methods and techniques dedicated to evaluation person's individual psychological values to prognoses professional success.[103] Keneva, Marchenko, and Minaev argue that socionics might become a theoretical base for personal-oriented educational technologies.[104][105]

Socionics in astronautics

In Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center which located in Star City, Russia socionics methods are successfully used since 1992 for training Russian astronauts and international astronauts' crews and preparing them to spaceflights.[citation needed] Interpersonal issues and effective collaboration are extremely important in extreme conditions while working in a close space and are vital for successful spaceflight.[106] In Star City conducted number of science seminars based on socionics methods and person typology to training space crews. Forming space crews by socionics methods was a central topic at the International conference on space researches,[107] at the Space Forum 2011[108] and at the conference "Piloted flights into Space", also these issues were discussed in works of Doctor of medical science Professor Bohdashevsky, Doctor of philosophy Bukalov A.V. and Doctor of philosophy Karpenko O.B.[108][clarification needed]

Aviation socionics

According to order of the Ministry of transport of Russian Federation Flight Standards Department approved a default application "Training of pilots in the field of human factor", which expects basic socionics knowledge not only among pilots and other crew members, but also prognosing interaction in air crews by socionics methods.[109]

To improve interaction among crew members, specialists of Saint Petersburg University examined 2330 people by socionics methods, including university students; aircrews of airlines; air traffic controllers; professors from almost all flight academies of Russia; delegates from Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Estonia.[citation needed]

This database represents result of 10 years of scientific work. In their research, authors are relying on fundamental works of the Kyiv School of Socionics, International Institute of Socionics, publications in journals "Socionics, mentology and personal psychology", "Management and personnel: management psychology, socionics and sociology".[110]

According to the experimental results were obtained socionics and sociometric data of air traffic controllers and correlation analyses of its parameters, also was determined the connection's intensity between person's interaction levels. The practical values of this research is to develop automated module to determine individual characteristic of operators and to evaluate the effectiveness of socionics in the management of air traffic, particular in special cases of flight[111]

Jung's psychological types

Carl Jung describes four psychological functions that are capable of becoming applicable psychically, but to differing degrees in individuals:[112]

  • Sensation – all perceptions by means of the sense organs
  • Intuition – perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events
  • Thinking (in socionics, Logic) – judgement of information based on reason
  • Feeling (in socionics, Ethics) – judgement of information based on sentiment

In addition to these four types, Jung defines a polarity between introverted and extraverted personalities. This distinction is based on how people invest energy: either into the inner, subjective, psychical world (usually called Seele, soul, by Jung), or toward their outer, objective, physical world (including one's body).

By Jung's rules, 16 psychological types exist. But in his book "Psychological Types" he described in detail only 8, distinguished by the 8 possible dominant functions. Contrary to Socionics and MBTI, Jung did not conclude that the types had two introverted functions and two extroverted functions. He instead outlined that extroverted personality types had a Dominant extroverted function, with the remaining functions being of varying if lower levels of development that range from being Inferior introverted functions that are necessarily retarded to auxiliary functions that lie in the middle.[113]

Information metabolism elements (often confused with memetics)

Socionics Information Elements and Dichotomies.png

In socionics, Jung's cognitive functions are always either introverted (focused on refining quality) or extroverted (focused on increasing quantity), and are referred to as information metabolism elements (IM Elements).[114] These are said to process information aspects. To understand what an information aspect is, it is necessary to understand information metabolism as Augustinavičiūtė understood it.

Augustinavičiūtė states that the human mind uses eight elements of information metabolism (mental functions) to perceive the world, and each of these eight elements reflect one particular aspect of objective reality.[115] In her works she describes aspects of the world based on physical quantities such as potential and kinetic energy, space, time, and their properties.

Often, other socionists have equated these information elements with their definition and according to fundamental physical concepts as well (Matter-Time-Energy-Space).[116][117]). Matter is compared to Thinking, Energy to Feeling, Space to Sensing, and Time to Intuition. Given the division of aspects of the absolute between Extroverted ("black") and Introverted ("white"), being four times two, their number is eight.[citation needed]

The 8 socionics symbols (Socionics symbol Te.svg Socionics symbol Fe.svg Socionics symbol Se.svg Socionics symbol Ne.svg Socionics symbol Ti.svg Socionics symbol Fi.svg Socionics symbol Si.svg Socionics symbol Ni.svg) were introduced by Augustinavičiūtė while working with Jung's typology[115][clarification needed] and remain the dominant method of denoting the functions and the corresponding information aspects that they process. Text-based notation systems are also used, such as Victor Gulenko's 8 Latin letters ('P' for Pragmatism, 'E' for Emotions, 'F' for Force, 'I' for Ideas, 'L' for Laws, 'R' for Relation, 'S' for Senses, and 'T' for Time, respectively),[118] or Myers-Briggs notation (Te, Fe, Se, Ne, Ti, Fi, Si, and Ni, respectively).[119]

Element Abstracted definition Gulenko Name Symbol Description
Extroverted Logic External dynamics of objects Pragmatism
(P)
Socionics symbol Te.svg Judgement of the efficiency of actions and technical processes, the prudence of a method or approach and how it will work practically. P is geared towards facts and assesses situations based on what happened, looking to convey information as accurately as possible, making communication dry and matter-of-fact. In this sense, it is the opposite of Emotions. P approaches systems in terms of how they can be improved, changing and adding to one's knowledge through empirical observation in order to increase functionality and profitability. In this sense, it is the inverse of Laws.
Extroverted Ethics Internal dynamics of objects Emotions
(E)
Socionics symbol Fe.svg Judgement of the infectiousness of expressions and emotional states, the appeal of a message or image and how someone will react emotionally. E is geared towards feelings and assesses situations based on how people feel, looking to convey one's emotions as authentically as possible, making communication exaggerated and charged with passion. In this sense, E is the opposite of Pragmatism. E approaches people in terms of how they are made to feel, provoking and changing people's emotions through expressive actions in order to raise excitement and enthusiasm. In this sense, is the inverse of Relations.
Extroverted Sensation External statics of objects Force
(F)
Socionics symbol Se.svg Perception of physical objects and the amount of space they take up in the real world, the impact something has on its environment and the threat it poses to other objects. F is geared towards action and decides immediately on quick assessments of superficial, concrete data, making the approach direct and imbued with a harsh determination. In this sense, it is the opposite of Ideas. F approaches reality in terms of the clash of opposing forces, winning over weaker opponents and looking to push a situation to their advantage, even if that requires an intense struggle. In this sense, it is the inverse of Senses.
Extroverted Intuition Internal statics of objects Ideas
(I)
Socionics symbol Ne.svg Perception of abstract concepts and the amount of potential they could hold, the multiple alternatives to any proposition and their latent capabilities. I is geared towards speculation and likes to consider different possibilities, giving unorthodox perspectives a chance, making the approach indirect and roundabout in a whimsical way. In this sense, it is the opposite of Force. I approaches what is possible in terms of expanding its variety, opening new doors and wandering wherever curiosity points next, avoiding any kind of limitation. In this sense, it is the inverse of Time.
Introverted Logic External statics of fields Laws
(L)
Socionics symbol Ti.svg Responsible for understanding logic and structure, categorizations, ordering and priorities, logical analysis and distinctions, logical explanations. L interprets information according to how it fits into a validating system. L is particularly aware of logical consistency and how concepts relate to each other in meaning and structure, independently of particular purposes.
Introverted Ethics Internal statics of fields Relations
(R)
Socionics symbol Fi.svg Responsible for understanding the quality, nature, and appropriate distance of personal relations; makes subjective judgments; and aspires to goodness of character. R has a strong understanding of a person's nature and intentions, one person's feelings towards another, their attitudes of like or dislike, and based on this information, how intimate or distant a relationship should be.
Introverted Sensation External dynamics of fields Senses
(S)
Socionics symbol Si.svg Responsible for detailed perception of physical sensations; questions of comfort, utility, and pleasure; and a sense of harmony and acclimation with one's environment (especially physical). S understands how well a person or thing's behavior agrees with its nature as well as the differences between comfortable behaviors and positions and uncomfortable ones.
Introverted Intuition Internal dynamics of fields Time
(T)
Socionics symbol Ni.svg Responsible for the imagination of how things will develop over time, a sense of what is meaningful or transcendent and the understanding that some things are inevitable. T understands how causes in the past lead through to outcomes in the future. T is acutely aware of long-term trends and tendencies that are occurring across any single present moment, and sees events as part of a continuous flow. T perceives the possible ramifications of future events and notices ties to the past.

The 16 types

Augustinavičiūtė usually used names like sensory-logical introvert (SLI) to refer to the types. In SLI the leading function is introverted sensation and the creative function is extraverted logic. She also introduced the practice of referring to types by the name of a famous person of the type (although types of these persons are not universally agreed upon, with the old name Napoleon for the SEE being replaced by Caesar after being deemed an inaccurate type assignment). For example, she called the SLI Gabin and the SEI Dumas. Also sometimes names such as Craftsman or Mediator are used to express the social role of the type—a convention introduced by socionist Viktor Gulenko in 1995.[120] Given the formal similarities present between Socionics and the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) abbreviations frequently used in English, some prefer to distinguish socionic type names from Myers–Briggs' names by writing the last letter (J or P) in lower case (for example, ENTp, ESFj)—a practice introduced by Sergei Ganin.[121] This is because the relationship between socionics and Myers–Briggs and Keirseyan types is controversial.

Dmitri Lytov and Marianna Lytova state that "main spheres of application of socionics are almost the same as for the Myers–Briggs Type Theory", and that observed differences in correlation "represent characteristic stereotypes of the socionics and the Keirsey typology.[122] Others state that MBTI and socionics "correlate in roughly 30% of cases," and that "there are many subtle differences".[123][clarification needed] J and P in Socionics and Myers–Briggs are completely different:[124] in Myers–Briggs, J and P stands for the first extraverted function (J—extraverted thinking or feeling, P—extraverted sensing or intuition); in Socionics, J and P stands for the first function (J—rational (thinking and feeling), P—irrational (sensing and intuition)). This formal conversion is carried out in accordance with the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.

In dividing the socion according to the four Jungian dichotomies, from this is formed 16 socionic types. The following tables provide a list of types with the names most commonly used in socionics:

4-letter
type acronym
(socionics)
Four functions
(Jung[125])
Model A
Two functions
(socionics)
Formal name Type alias Social role
ESTj Socionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svg P1 S2 E3 T4 R5 I6 L7 F8 Socionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Si.svg Logical Sensory Extravert (LSE) Stierlitz Administrator / Director
ENTj Socionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svg P1 T2 E3 S4 R5 F6 L7 I8 Socionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svg Logical Intuitive Extravert (LIE) Jack London Enterpriser / Pioneer
ESFj Socionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svg E1 S2 P3 T4 L5 I6 R7 F8 Socionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Si.svg Ethical Sensory Extravert (ESE) Hugo Bonvivant / Enthusiast
ENFj Socionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svg E1 T2 P3 S4 L5 F6 R7 I8 Socionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svg Ethical Intuitive Extravert (EIE) Hamlet Mentor / Actor
ESTp Socionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svg F1 L2 I3 R4 T5 E6 S7 P8 Socionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svg Sensory Logical Extravert (SLE) Zhukov Legionnaire / Conqueror
ESFp Socionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Ni.svg F1 R2 I3 L4 T5 P6 S7 E8 Socionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svg Sensory Ethical Extravert (SEE) Napoleon Politician / Ambassador
ENTp Socionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Si.svg I1 L2 F3 R4 S5 E6 T7 P8 Socionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svg Intuitive Logical Extravert (ILE) Don Quixote Seeker / Inventor
ENFp Socionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Si.svg I1 R2 F3 L4 S5 P6 T7 E8 Socionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Fi.svg Intuitive Ethical Extravert (IEE) Huxley Psychologist / Reporter
ISTp Socionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svg S1 P2 T3 E4 I5 R6 F7 L8 Socionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Te.svg Sensory Logical Introvert (SLI) Gabin Inspector / Pragmatist
INTp Socionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Se.svg T1 P2 S3 E4 F5 R6 I7 L8 Socionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Te.svg Intuitive Logical Introvert (ILI) Balzac Critic / Mastermind
ISFp Socionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svg S1 E2 T3 P4 I5 L6 F7 R8 Socionics symbol Si.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svg Sensory Ethical Introvert (SEI) Dumas Mediator / Peacemaker
INFp Socionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svgSocionics symbol Te.svgSocionics symbol Se.svg T1 E2 S3 P4 F5 L6 I7 R8 Socionics symbol Ni.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svg Intuitive Ethical Introvert (IEI) Yesenin Lyricist / Romantic
ISTj Socionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svg L1 F2 R3 I4 E5 T6 P7 S8 Socionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Se.svg Logical Sensory Introvert (LSI) Maxim Gorky Craftsman / Mechanic
ISFj Socionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Te.svg R1 F2 L3 I4 P5 T6 E7 S8 Socionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Se.svg Ethical Sensory Introvert (ESI) Dreiser Guardian / Conservator
INTj Socionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Fe.svg L1 I2 R3 F4 E5 S6 P7 T8 Socionics symbol Ti.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svg Logical Intuitive Introvert (LII) Robespierre Analyst / Scientist
INFj Socionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svgSocionics symbol Se.svgSocionics symbol Te.svg R1 I2 L3 F4 P5 S6 E7 T8 Socionics symbol Fi.svgSocionics symbol Ne.svg Ethical Intuitive Introvert (EII) Dostoyevsky Humanist / Empath

The second concept is the functional dimensions. It was introduced by Aleksandr Bukalov.[126] He defined the first dimension as the personal experience (Ex), the second dimension as social norms (Nr), the third dimension as the current situation (St), and the fourth dimension as the globality, or time perspective (Tm). This concept is useful because it best illustrates the difference in cognitive power (imagine measuring capability of 2D v. 3D measuring tool) and roughly describes abilities of each function to process and generate information. Still, definitions of dimensions require further research and clarification. For example, the vulnerable function tends to lose knowledge which have not been used.

Mathematics

Socionics, being Base-16, can be used with bitwise operations after Base-2 reduction
Relation Base 16 Base 10 Base 2 Type
Ident. 0 0 0000 ENTp
Quas. 1 1 0001 ENTj
Cong. 2 2 0010 ENFp
Requ. 3 3 0011 ENFj
Coop. 4 4 0100 ESTp
Requ. 5 5 0101 ESTj
Sego. 6 6 0110 ESFp
Actv. 7 7 0111 ESFj
Extn. 8 8 1000 INTp
Mirr. 9 9 1001 INTj
Mira. A 10 1010 INFp
Supr. B 11 1011 INFj
Semi. C 12 1100 ISTp
Supr. D 13 1101 ISTj
Dual. E 14 1110 ISFp
Conf. F 15 1111 ISFj

Since socionics is mathematically Base-16 and also a psychology of personality in the same way as the typology of Carl Jung and Myers–Briggs, it shares a similar degree of mathematical consistency, while enduring the same serious shortcomings in the experimental justification of these theories.[127]

Taking this, socionics also differs from other typologies in that it also includes a complementary Base-16 relationship set, with the intent of penning to paper the key social dynamic traits between grouped combinations of socionic types. Therefore, socionics could be considered to be within the realm of the science of social dynamics, intended to describe social behavior according to mathematical applications of Base-16, group theory, set logic, and reduction of the Gulenko-Jungian notation for socionics types to hexadecimal and Base-2 bitwise operation. While this mathematical approach is strictly theoretical and has been criticized for lack of empirical testing,[128] systems theory has been the tool of socionics theorist, such as Gregory Reinin to derive theorical dichotomies within socionics theory. In 1985, Augustinavičiūtė acknowledged the mathematical theories of Reinin and wrote a book titled The Theory of Reinin's Traits to describe the mathematical processes of socionics theory. Mathematical methods have been a standard part of socionics theory since this time.[citation needed]

Model T

In 2006, Viktor Talanov sought to identify cognitive correlates for functions.[129] Recent advances in cognitive psychology have facilitated understanding of information processing at the cognitive level.[130] Introversion has been correlated to high brain-blood levels; extroversion to lower levels. Viktor Talanov has proposed[citation needed] to identify the processing centers of the four Jungian functions—logic, ethics, intuition, and sensing—as a first step towards demonstrating the existence of the function types. (called simply "functions" in socionics).[131]

Development of socionics

Socionics has been brought up at conferences on psychology, where its practical applications were discussed. For instance, in 2005, socionics was discussed at the British and East European Psychology Meeting in Kraków, Poland, which was attended by British, American and Eastern European psychologists.[132][133]

Criticism

Psychophysiologist Sergey Bogomaz says there is no reason for considering socionics as a separate science. He considers socionic typology to be a Russian version of post-Jung typology, similar to the Myers-Briggs typology, but distinguished by a greater number of typological features and the formulation of prerequisites for the study of intertype relationships. Bogomaz considers the construction of the theory of intertype relationships to be an undoubted contribution of Augustinavičiūtė to the development of Jung typology, but criticized it by stating that there is little experimental data in socionics, there is no empirical verification of many claims, and by having many unsystematic pseudoscientific publications.[134]

Philosopher L. M. Monastirsky[135] identified the use of speculative categories as the first shortcoming of socionics. Secondly, he stated that it lacks clearly defined typing method and each socionics school defines methods of their own. At the same time Monastirsky, recognizing the potential of socionics, proposed to turn to the concept of a socionic type for carrying out some research in the field of the methodology of science.[135]

An important issue in the field of socionics is the problem of convergence between type diagnoses of different analysts. Vladimir Ermak showed that ignorance of model A of the type of information metabolism leads to numerous mistakes in the definition of a socionic type.[136] In the early 2000s, socionic analysts tried to develop more rigorous approaches to type diagnosis.[137]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mineev, V. V. (2014). Введение в историю и философию науки [Introduction to the history and philosophy of science] (in Russian). p. 84. ISBN 978-5-4458-7511-6. [The long list of pseudoscientific concepts today includes: theory of torsion fields, cold fusion projects, wave genetics, japhetic theory, the theory of "living matter", "new chronology", eugenics, dianetics, cryonics, socionics...]
  2. ^ a b Sergeev, A. G. (2017). "Синекдоха отвечания, или Защита гомеопатическая" [Synecdoche of Answering, or Homeopatic Defence] (PDF). В защиту науки [In defense of science] (in Russian) (19): 90. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-11-24. Retrieved 2020-07-14. [...there are dozens of true pseudosciences, such as astrology and palmistry, ESP and parapsychology, cryptobiology and bioenergetics, bioresonance and iridology, creationism and telegonia, UFOlogy and paleoastronautics, eniology and dianetics, numerology and socionics...]
  3. ^ Sokol'chik, V. N. (2017). "Феномен паранауки и проблема демаркации знания в постнеклассической науке" [The phenomenon of parascience and the problem of demarcation of knowledge in post-nonclassical science]. Труды БГТУ. Сер. 6, История, философия [Proceedings of BSTU (Belarus) Ser.6, History, philosophy] (in Russian). 1 (107): 113–117.
  4. ^ Zhilina V. A.; Nevelev A. B.; Kamaletdinova A. Ya. (2017). "Философия, наука, лженаука и наукообразность" [Philosophy, science, pseudoscience and sciolism]. Вестник Челябинского государственного университета [Bulletin of the Chelyabinsk state University] (in Russian). 4 (400) Философские науки (44): 89–94. [An example of pseudoscience is ... socionics (the idea of Lithuanian economist and psychologist A. Augustinavichiute about the existence of 16 sociotypes, which can be identified with well-known personalities)...]
  5. ^ Salpagarova L. A. (2019). "Самоопределение современной науки: проблема демаркации и ее социальный смысл" [Self-determination of modern science: the problem of demarcation and its social meaning] (PDF). Манускрипт (in Russian). 12 (8): 46–50. doi:10.30853/manuscript.2019.8.23. ISSN 2618-9690. [A special danger for culture is pseudoscience, which exists in the form of a wide variety of forms: from astrology to not so long ago appeared UFOlogy, "socionics", homeopathy, etc.]
  6. ^ Podymov L. I. (2018). Псевдонаука. Разоблачение обмана и заблуждений [Pseudoscience. The Disclosure of Deception and Delusion] (in Russian). p. 478. ISBN 978-5-17-100781-2. [There are also pure pseudosciences in the field of personal predictions that pretend to be serious theories. For example, socionics. Socionics is the concept of personality types and relationships between them. Based on Jung's teaching, socionics deduces the existence of 16 socionic types ... we will refer socionics to the category of pseudoscience, because, having a science-like form, it positions itself as an effective concept, in addition it earns money from its unconfirmed ideas.]
  7. ^ Volkov E. N. (2008). Воздействие психолога: принципы выбора мировоззренческой позиции и профессионального поведения [Influence of a psychologist: principles of choosing a worldview position and professional behavior]. Практическая психология в междисциплинарном аспекте: проблемы и перспективы. Материалы Первой Международной научно-практической конференции, 15-16 октября 2008 г., Днепропетровск [Practical psychology in an interdisciplinary aspect: problems and prospects. Materials of the First International scientific and practical conference, October 15–16, 2008, Dnepropetrovsk] (in Russian). [These concepts and discoveries of the human sciences, oddly enough, are still largely ignored by one part of the practicing psychological community, while another, even more numerous, is exploited exclusively in the form of pseudo-scientific or semi-occult mythological methods (such as NLP, "positive thinking", socionics, etc...)]
  8. ^ E.Ivashechkina; G.Chedzhemov (2019). "Соционика: наука или псевдонаука? Основы соционики" (PDF). Тенденции развития науки и образования (in Russian). 49 (3): 46–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-01-17. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
  9. ^ V. Ignatjev (2013). "Соционика -- псевдонаука в облике новейшей отрасли психологии". Вестник Рязанского государственного университета им. С. А. Есенина (in Russian). 2 (39).
  10. ^ T. Abashkina (2015). Формирование психологических терминов на основе прецедентной концептосферы (PDF) (in Russian). pp. 48–54.
  11. ^ [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  12. ^ a b c Augustinavichiute A. (1996). "Социон, или Основы соционики" [The Socion, or Socionics Basics]. Соционика, ментология и психология личности [Socionics, mentology and personality psychology] (in Russian). International Institute of Socionics (4–5).
  13. ^ Fink G.; Mayrhofer W. (2009). "Cross-cultural competence and management – setting the stage". European Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management. 1 (1): 42. doi:10.1504/EJCCM.2009.026733. Archived from the original on 2012-12-06.
  14. ^ Donnellan M. B.; Lucas R. E. (2008). "Age Differences in the Big Five Across the Life Span: Evidence from Two National Samples". Psychology and Aging. 23 (3): 558–566. doi:10.1037/a0012897. PMC 2562318. PMID 18808245.
  15. ^ a b Gerlach, M.; Farb, B.; Revelle, W.; Nunes Amaral, L. A. (2018). [h2ttps://amaral.northwestern.edu/media/publication_pdfs/2018_NHB_Personality-types.pdf "A robust data-driven approach identifies four personality types across four large data sets"] (PDF). Nature Human Behaviour. 2 (2): 735–742. doi:10.1038/s41562-018-0419-z. PMID 31406291. S2CID 52290166.
  16. ^ Никандров, В. В. (2009). Психология: учебник. Wolters Kluwer. p. 779. ISBN 978-5-466-00413-7.
  17. ^ "Socionics: Personality Types and Relationships". Retrieved 2008-05-09.
  18. ^ Sedikh R. (1994). Информационный психоанализ. Соционика как метапсихология [Informational psychoanalysis. Socionics as a metapsychology] (in Russian). НПП Менатеп-Траст. ISBN 5-900449-02-5. Archived from the original on 2010-06-26.
  19. ^ a b Blutner R.; Hochnadel E. (2010). "Two qubits for C.G. Jung's theory of personality" (PDF). Cognitive Systems Research. 11 (3): 243–259. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2009.12.002. S2CID 5417327.
  20. ^ a b c Horwood, J; Maw, A (1 March 2012). "Theatre Teams Assembled Using Personality Profiles Can Improve Predicted Teamworking Scores". The Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Royal College of Surgeons of England. 94 (3): 1–6. doi:10.1308/147363512x13189526439791. ISSN 1473-6357.
  21. ^ Bukalov A.V. The potential of the individual and the mysteries of human relationships. – Moscow, International Institute of Socionics, PG "Black Squirrel", 2009. ISBN 978-5-91827-004-2
  22. ^ Müller, H. J.; Malsch, Th.; Schulz-Schaeffer, I. (1998). "Socionics: Introduction and Potential". Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation. 1 (3).
  23. ^ Fisher, K.; Florian, M.; Malsch, Th. (2005). Socionics: Scalability of Complex Social Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer. p. 313. ISBN 978-3-540-30707-5. Google Books
  24. ^ International Institute of Socionics. "Журналы Международного института соционики" [Journals of the International Institute of Socionics] (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-07-07. Российской Академией естественных наук (РАЕН) соционика признана открытием, а ее создатель – Аушра Аугустинавичюте – награждена дипломом об открытии и медалью им.П.Л.Капицы [The Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS) recognized socionics as a discovery, and its creator, Aushra Augustinavichute, was awarded a diploma of discovery and a medal named after P. L. Kapitsa.]
  25. ^ "Регистрация открытий" [Registration of discoveries]. old.ihst.ru (in Russian).
  26. ^ Bukalov, A.V.; Karpenko, O.B.; Chykyrysova, G.V. "The effective management and staff consulting with the use of the socionics technologies" (PDF). International Institute of Socionics.
  27. ^ Bukalov A. at al. Socionics: Review of science. – International Institute of Socionics, Kyiv, 1992
  28. ^ a b Betty Lou Leaver Oxford, Rebecca TITLE Mentoring in Style: Using Style Information To Enhance Mentoring of Foreign Language Teachers.PUB DATE 2000-00-00 NOTE 35p.; In: Mentoring Foreign Language Teaching Assistants, Lecturers, and Adjunct Faculty. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series in Annual Volumes;
  29. ^ Fink G.; Mayrhofer W. (2009). "Cross-cultural competence and management — setting the stage". European Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management. 1 (1): 42. doi:10.1504/EJCCM.2009.026733. Archived from the original on 2012-12-06.
  30. ^ a b Blutner R.; Hochnadel E. (2010). "Two qubits for C.G. Jung's theory of personality" (PDF). Cognitive Systems Research. 11 (3): 243–259. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2009.12.002. S2CID 5417327. Socionics was developed in the 1970s and 1980s mainly by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė. The name 'socionics' is derived from the word 'society, since Augustinavicˇiute believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics. The system of socionics is in several respects similar to the MBTI; however, whereas the latter is dominantly used in the USA and Western Europe, the former is mainly used in Russia and Eastern Europe. For more information, the reader is referred to the website of the International Institute of Socionics and to several scientific journals edited by this institution<http://socionic.info/en/esocjur.html#top>. Despite of several similarities there are also important differences. For instance, the MBTI is based on questionnaires with so-called forced-choice questions. Forced choice means that the individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question. Obviously, such tests are self-referential. That means they are based on judgments of persons about themselves. Socionics rejects the use of such questionnaires and is based on interviews and direct observation of certain aspects of human behavior instead. However, if personality tests are well constructed and their questions are answered properly, we expect results that often make sense. For that reason, we do not reject test questions principally, but we have to take into account their self-referential character. Another difference relates to the fact that socionics tries to understand Jung's intuitive system and to provide a deeper explanation for it, mainly in terms of informational metabolism (Kepinski & PZWL, 1972). Further, socionics is not so much a theory of personalities per se, but much more a theory of type relations providing an analysis of the relationships that arise as a consequence of the interaction of people with different personalities.
  31. ^ Монастырский Л. М. (2015). МЕСТО И РОЛЬ ЛЖЕНАУКИ В ФОРМИРОВАНИИ СОВРЕМЕННОГО МИРОВОЗЗРЕНИЯ. Успехи современного естествознания (in Russian) (1–3): 506–510. Archived from the original on 2016-01-02. Retrieved 2018-12-17.
  32. ^ a b Е. Г. Плетухина СОЦИОНИКА КАК ОДИН ИЗ ИНСТРУМЕНТОВ ИНДИВИДУАЛЬНОГО ПОДХОДА В ВОСПИТАНИИ//PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF A PERSONALITY, Materials of the II international scientific conference on November 15–16, 2014. – Prague : Vědecko vydavatelské centrum "Sociosféra-CZ". ISBN 978-80-87966-723 http://www.sociosphera.com/files/conference/2014/k-11_15_14.pdf
  33. ^ "Introduction to Socionics". Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  34. ^ "Socionics.us". Archived from the original on 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
  35. ^ Burnett, Dean (19 March 2013). "Nothing personal: The questionable Myers-Briggs test". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
  36. ^ Pittenger, David J. (November 1993). "Measuring the MBTI...And Coming Up Short" (PDF). Journal of Career Planning and Employment. 54 (1): 48–52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  37. ^ Betty Lou Leaver, Madeline Ehrman, Boris Shekhtman: Achieving Success in Second Language Acquisition. – Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 052154663X
  38. ^ Moshenkov, Sergei; Wing, Tung Tang (2010). MBTI and Socionics: Legacy of Dr. Carl Jung. CreateSpace. p. 216. ISBN 978-1452835648.
  39. ^ Шмелев Александр Георгиевич (2010). УЖЕ НЕ СОЦИОНИКА, НО ЕЩЕ НЕ ДИФФЕРЕНЦИАЛЬНАЯ ПСИХОЛОГИЯ. Вестник ЮУрГУ [Bulletin of SUSU]. Psychology (in Russian). 27 (203): 104–108.
  40. ^ Богомаз С. А. (2000). Психологические типы К. Юнга, психофизиологические типы и интертипные отношения. Методическое пособие (PDF) (in Russian). Томск. p. 71.
  41. ^ "Journals issued by International Institute of Socionics". International Institute of Socionics. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  42. ^ основная образовательная программа высшего профессионального образования. Направление подготовки 040100 "Социология" Archived 2012-11-24 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Approximate basic educational program of higher education. Direction of training 040100 "Sociology"
  43. ^ International Institute of Socionics. "IIS main activities". International Institute of Socionics. Archived from the original on 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
  44. ^ Ivanova, Svetlana V. (2015). "Psychological Aspects of Innovations in Educational Institutions" (PDF). Modern European Researches (6). ISSN 2311-8806. Let's notice that the relation of psychologists to socionics is ambiguous. As it is noted by A.V. Bukalov and O.B. Karpenko, wide circulation of socionics as scientific direction is confirmed by that for the last 15 years socionics ideas and methods are used approximately in 800 theses according to all sections of the humanities and in a number of technical sciences. Now socionics is taught in more than 150 universities of Russia, Ukraine, the CIS countries and countries of the European Union.
  45. ^ "Соционика в учебном процессе: вузы, программы, учебные планы: по данным мониторинга публикаций, проводимого Международным институтом соционики" [Socionics in education: Universities, programs, curricula: According to monitoring of publications conducted by the International Institute of Socionics]. International Institute of Socionics (in Russian).
  46. ^ Струкчинская Е.М.; Струкчинский С.; Разгоняева Е.В. (2011). Соционика: Учебное пособие. Бийск [Biysk]: Алт. гос. техн. ун-та [Alt. state tech. un-ta]. ISBN 978-5-9257-0205-5.
  47. ^ Антошкин В.Н., Адиев М.Я., Гайбадуллин В.Р. и др. Соционика и социоанализ : учеб. пособие. – Уфа: БашГУ, 2003. ISBN 5-7477-0906-2
  48. ^ Гафаров А.А., Петрушин С.В. История и соционика. Метод социоанализа психологии ист. персонажей : Справ.-метод. пособие / Казан. гос. ун-т, Каф. полит. истории, Каф. психологии. – Казань.: КГУ, 1996.
  49. ^ Орловская Л.М., Орловский И.О. "Основы соционики". Был успешно апробирован и является основным учебно-методическим пособием по курсу "Основы соционики" для студентов психологов и менеджеров Красноярского государственного педагогического университета
  50. ^ Психология: учебник/ В.В. Никандров . – М.: Волтерс Клувер, 2009. ISBN 978-5-466-00413-7 Рекомендовано к изданию в качестве учебника редакционно-издательским советом факультета психологии Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета
  51. ^ Арутюнов В. Х., Мішин В. М., Свінціцький В. М. Методологія соціально-економічного пізнання Archived March 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Навч. посібник. — К.: КНЕУ, 2005. — 353 c. ((in Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: Arutyunov V. H., Mishin V. M. and Svintsitskyi V. M. Methodology of socio-economic knowledge)
  52. ^ a b Alexandrova N. H., Boyadjieva N., Sapundzhieva K., Kolarova C. D. "Социониката в социалната сфера Archived 2013-09-17 at archive.today"- Sofia Univ.izd. St. Kliment Ohridski, 2004. – 149 p. ISBN 954-07-1876-7
  53. ^ László-Kuţiuk M. Ghid de autocunoasţere. Elemente de socionică. – București, 2000. ISBN 973-97141-5-3.
  54. ^ Суртаева Н. Н., Иванова О. Н.Педагогическая соционика и проблемы конфликтных взаимодействий. — СПб. ИОВ РАО, 2002. ISBN 5-258-00021-4 (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Surtaeva N. N., Ivanova O. N. Educational socionics and problems of conflict interactions
  55. ^ Федорова В.К. Использование педагогической соционики в решении конфликтных взаимодействий субъектов образовательного процесса Автореферат дисс. канд. пед. наук. — Омск, 1998. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Fedorova V. K. Using Educational Socionics in resolving conflict interactions in educational process. – Summary of the thesis candidate. ped. sciences. – Omsk, 1998.)
  56. ^ Антошкин В. Н. Оптимизация управления системой коммуникативной деятельности в социальной работе (2004). (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Antoshkin V. N. Optimization of system management communication activity in social work
  57. ^ a b Ариничева Ольга Викторовна. Совершенствование методов управления ресурсами системы "экипаж – воздушное судно" путем снижения отрицательного влияния человеческого фактора на безопасность полетов : диссертация ... кандидата технических наук : 05.22.14 / Ариничева Ольга Викторовна; [Место защиты: С.-Пет. гос. ун-т граждан. авиации]. – Санкт-Петербург, 2008. – 256 с. : ил. РГБ ОД, 61:08-5/858 Socionics application in Aviation Archived 2011-04-18 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Типовая учебная программа по дисциплине: "Подготовка авиационного персонала в области человеческого фактора" ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Model curriculum for the discipline: Flight Crew Training in the field of human factors)
  59. ^ Грачев В. И. Библиотечная соционика — новое направление изучения библиотечной жизни // Научные и технические библиотеки. — 1993. — No. 7. — p. 19–20.((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Grachev V. I. Library socionics – a new direction of studying the life of the library // Scientific and technical libraries. – 1993. – No. 7. – P.19-20.)
  60. ^ Исаева Е.Н. Перспективы соционики в библиотечном менеджменте // Московский государственный университет культуры и искусств. — М., 1999—2008. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Isayeva E. N. Perspectives of Socionics in Library Management // Moscow State University of Culture and Arts. – M., 1999–2008.)
  61. ^ Гуленко В. В., Тыщенко В. П. Юнг в школе. Соционика — межвозрастной педагогике. — Новосибирск: изд-во Новосибирского университета, 1997. ISBN 5-89441-014-2. (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Gulenko V. V. and Tyshchenko V. P. Socionics to between-age pedagogy. – Novosibirsk: Publishing House of Novosibirsk State University, 1997.
  62. ^ Богданова І.М. Шляхи вдосконалення професійної підготовки майбутніх учителів // Наукa і освіта. — 2011. — No. 4. — Ch. 1. — p. 34–36. ((in Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: Bogdanova I. M. The ways to improve the training of future teachers // Science and education. – 2011. – No. 4. – Part 1. – Pp. 34–36.)
  63. ^ Бобков В. В. Дифференцированный подход к обучению Archived 2013-12-25 at the Wayback Machine: психо-информационная точка зрения. Часть 1 // Электронный научный журнал "Исследовано в России". — 2006. — p. 371—400.((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Bobkov V. V. A differentiated approach to teaching: psycho-informational point of view. Part 1 // Electronic Scientific Journal "Investigated in Russia". – 2006. – Pp. 371–400.)
  64. ^ Иванов Ю. В. Деловая соционика — М.: Бизнес-школа "Интел-Синтез", 2001. (Библиотека журнала "Управление персоналом"). ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Ivanov Ju. V. Business socionics – Moscow Business School "Intel-Synthesis", 2001. (Library of the "Personnel Management" Journal). )
  65. ^ Измайлова М. А. Психология рекламной деятельности. Практическое пособие. — М. ИТК "Дашков и К", 2009. ISBN 978-5-394-00261-8. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Izmailova M. A. Psychology of advertising. Practical Guide. – Moscow, 2009.)
  66. ^ Киселева Е.С. Роль и значение потребителя в системе маркетинга и способы управления поведением на основе соционики // Известия Томского политехнического университета. — 2008. — No. 6. — Т. 312. — p. 59–64.((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Kiseleva E. S. The role and importance of the consumer in the marketing system and ways of control consumer's behavior on the basis of socionics // Proceedings of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. – 2008. – No. 6. – Vol. 312. – p. 59-64.
  67. ^ Ласло-Куцюк М. Ключ до белетристики. — Бухарест: Мустанг, 2002. ISBN 973-99400-6-4. ((in Ukrainian). Title can be translated as: László-Kuţiuk M. The key to fiction. – București: Mustang, 2002.)
  68. ^ Комиссарова Л. М. Лингвосоционическая методология изучения языковой личности в русском языке. Автореф. дис. на соиск. учен. степ. канд. филол. наук — Барнаул: Изд-во АГУ, 2002. — 23 с. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Komissarova L. M. Linguistic-socionic methodology of study of language personality in the Russian language.)
  69. ^ Хачмафова З.Р. Лексико-тематическая группа "чувство" в лексиконе современной женской прозы. // Вестник Адыгейского государственного университета. — 2009. — No. 1. (in Russian). Title can be translated as: Hachmafova Z. R. Lexical-thematic group "feeling" in the lexicon of contemporary women's prose. // Bulletin of Adyghe State University. – 2009. – No. 1
  70. ^ Голев Н. Д., Кузнецова А. В. Лингвосоционическое моделирование экстравертного и интровертного типов языковой личности // Вестник КемГУ. Филология. — 2009. — No. 3 — p. 95–98. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Golev N. D. and Kuznetsova A. V. Linguistic-socionic modeling of extraverted and introverted types of language personality)
  71. ^ Залогина Е.М. Языковая личность: лингвистический и психологический аспекты: На материале романа «Бесы» и «Дневника писателя» Ф.М. Достоевского: Автореферат дисс. … канд. филол. наук. — М., 2005. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Zalogina E. M. Language personality: linguistic and psychological aspects: based on the novel "Demons" and "Diary of a Writer" by F. M. Dostoevsky.)
  72. ^ Букалов Г.К., Корабельников Р.В. Основы поиска новых методов повышения износостойкости рабочих органов текстильных машин. — Кострома: Изд-во КТГУ, 2001. ISBN 5-8285-0013-9. ((in Russian). Title can be translated as: Bukalov G.K., Korabelnikov R.V. Basics of search for new methods for increasing the wear resistance of the working body of textile machines. – Kostroma, 2001.)
  73. ^ a b Bukalov, A.B. (1998). "Интегральная соционика. Типы коллективов, наций, государств. Этносоционика" [Integral Socionics. Types of groups, nations and states. Ethnosocionics]. Соционика, ментология и психология личности [Socionics, mentology and personality psychology] (in Russian). International Institute of Socionics (5): 13–17.
  74. ^ a b Международный институт соционики (2005-06-26). "Соционика: иностранные публикации по соционике" (in Russian). Socionic.info. Archived from the original on 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  75. ^ "Наукова періодика України". Національна бібліотека України [National Library of Ukraine] (in Russian). Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  76. ^ Bukalov A.V., Karpenko O.B., Chykyrysova G.V. Effective Management and Staff Consultation with the use of Socionics Technologies // Proc. conf. of the British and East European Psychology Group "Psychology in the new Europe: methodology and funding". – Kraków, 2005. – P. 28. http://socionic.info/soctech.html#top Archived 2014-08-14 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ Hulenko V.V. Management in effective team. Socionics and socioanalyses for managers. – Novosybirsk, 1995.
  78. ^ Vice-president of Deutsche Bank Andrey Pluzhnikov: "In this case it is really important to recall for socionics and related fields ... its accessible methodology that helps to determine a person's type through numerous binary features. For example, it helps to understand is he an extrovert or an introvert, is he better in working with details and facts or he has more intuitive mind, is he able to finish his work or he is easy involved in a new activity. By creating this profile we can evaluate does the specific person is able to handle the exact task and only after that we have a look on his certificates and working experience. That's how we are working in Deutsche Bank." http://www.iemag.ru/interview/detail.php?ID=25314
  79. ^ Ivanov Y.V. Business socionics. 2nd ed., Rev. and add. – Moscow, Magazine: HR Management, 2004. ISBN 5-95630-011-6. Quote: Book dedicated to one of the most new and prospective areas in organizational psychology – socionics. Book is designed to assess the base criterion for evaluation individual-psychological and personal qualities in order to prognosis professional success of the person, it reflects two-years experience of using socionics model in evaluating staff at enterprises of company "Russian Aluminum".
  80. ^ Silin A.N. (2009). Social management: Dictionary-Handbook: Textbook. Moscow. Socionics is devoted to the study of how people interact with each other, compatibility of their sustainable types of thinking and behavior (sociotype) and patterns of relationships (information metabolism) between different sociotypes. Socionics as a new science derives a great deal from psychology, sociology, philosophy within social management. Carl Gustav Jung considered to be a forerunner of socionics and Augustinavičiūtė developed it to a new science in the early 1970s Socionics helps to define person's type and to prognoses relationships with other sociotypes (16 sociotypes, that formed from different combinations of extroverts and introverts, rationalists and irrationalists, logical, ethical, sensory or intuitive types). Different tools are used to define sociotypes, this involves observing and testing based on well-known test methods as MBTI, Buns, semantic differential. In recent years socionics tools are widely applied by Russian companies to recruitment
  81. ^ A.V. Malyshevsky, I.A. Parfenov. "Using socionics models for control and scheduling in the sphere of aircraft// Scientific Journal of the Moscow Technical State University of Civil Aviation, No.154, 2010. https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=15236207
  82. ^ Hurevych M.M., Kahanov V.Sh., Kondratiev O.I., Lebedev V.M., Mikhalkevych V.N., Morozov V.V., Nesterov V.N., Radomsky V.M. Engineering Small Business: Research publication. – M.; Samara Agrokonsalt, 1998. ISBN 5-89274-007-2
  83. ^ Kryzhko V. V. "Theory and practice of management education". – Kyiv, Ukraine Education, 2005. Quote: socionics is the science that treats people as bearers of certain types of information metabolism, that interacting with each other basing on social laws.
  84. ^ Khodakivskiy E.I., Bohoyavlenska Y. V., Grabar T.P. Psychology of Management. Textbook. 3rd ed. revised. and add. / Edited by Khodakivskiy Y. I. – Kyiv, 2011.
  85. ^ Krotov N. V., Clapper E. V. "Personnel Management": Textbook. – Moscow: Finance and Statistics, 2006. ISBN 5-279-02899-1
  86. ^ Lukashevich N.P.' Theory and practice of self-management. Textbook. – Kyiv, 1999. ISBN 966-7312-69-0
  87. ^ Avdeev V.P., Fetinina E.P. "Technology of multivariate professional orientation": Monograph. – Novokuznetsk, 2001. – 115. – ISBN 5-7806-0070-8
  88. ^ Ivasenko A.H., Nikonova Y.I., Tsevelev V. V. "Organizational Behavior: 100 exam answers: Tutorial". – M.: Flint, 2011 – 296.
  89. ^ "Knorring V. I. " theory, practice and art of management. – 2001. Quote: Socionics — "art of communication and understanding"
  90. ^ Genkin B. M. Introduction to meta economy and basics of economic sciences
  91. ^ Sisekin V. M. Management Psychology – Kaliningrad, 1998.
  92. ^ Rizhikov Y. I. Dissertation work in technical sciences. – St. Petersburg, 2007. ISBN 978-5-9775-0138-5
  93. ^ Lytvynov Y., The human factor on production safety, different approaches and their application to the NP Zaporizhzhya (PDF)
  94. ^ "Journal of Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, No. 4" (PDF) (in Russian). 19 March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-26.
  95. ^ V.V. Behun, S.V. Shyrokov, S.V. Behun, E.N. Pysmennny, V.V. Lytvynov, I.V. Kazachkov Security system in nuclear energetic. Textbook for students of technical universities in Ukraine. Second edition, expand. Chapter 4
  96. ^ Bukalov A.V. (2004). "About humans' interaction with electronic and technical systems in terms of socionics". Management and Personnel: Management Psychology, Socionics and Sociology. International Institute of Socionics (3): 35–37.
  97. ^ Surtayeva N.N., Ivanova O.N. Pedagogical socionics and problems in conflict relationships. – St. Petersburg, 2002. — 135 p. ISBN 5-258-00021-4
  98. ^ Fedorova V.K. Using pedagogical socionics in solving conflict relationships in educational process. Автореферат дисс. канд. пед. наук. — Omsk, 1998
  99. ^ Gulenko V.V., Tyshchenko V.P. Юнг в школе. Соционика — межвозрастной педагогике. — Novosibirsk, 1997. — 268 p. ISBN 5-89441-014-2
  100. ^ Bohdanova I.M. Ways of improving professional trainings for future teachers // Наука і освіта. — 2011. — No. 4. — Part 1 — p. 34-36
  101. ^ Bobkov V.V. Дифференцированный подход к обучению Archived 2013-12-25 at the Wayback Machine: psycho informatic point of view. Part 1// Electronic scientific journal "Investigated in Russia". — 2006. — p. 371—400
  102. ^ Rozhkob M.I. Editorial // Spirin L.F., Rumyanceva E.A., Rumyanceva T.A. Socionics for teachers and parents — Moscow, 1999. pp. 3–5
  103. ^ Иванов Ю.В. Деловая соционика — М.: Бизнес-школа «Интел-Синтез», 2001. (Библиотека журнала «Управление персоналом»)
  104. ^ Keneva I.P., Marchenko O.A., Minaev Y.P. Problem of accounting socionics type for future expert in forming his professional qualities. — Kamyanec Podilsky, 2008. — No. 14. — pp. 62–65
  105. ^ Keneva I.P., Marchenko O.A., Minaev Y.P. Socionics as educational discipline in humanitarian and social-economics trainings for science teaschers. — Kamyanec-Podilsky, 2009. — No. 15. — pp. 70–73
  106. ^ Bohdashevsky R.B. (1988). Socionics analyses of Russian-American crews on space station Mir. XI conference of space biology and aerospace medicine. Moscow.
  107. ^ Bukalov A.V.; Karpenko O.B.; Chykyrysova G.V. (2009). Forecasting psychological, business and informational compatibility in space flights, in aviation and aerospace technologies. 9th Ukrainian Conference on Space Research. Yevpatoria/Kyiv. p. 104.
  108. ^ a b "КОСМИЧЕСКИЙ ФОРУМ-2011: ПРОГРАММА" [Space Forum 2011: Program] (PDF) (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-20.
  109. ^ "Курсы повышения квалификации летного состава 8 часов; курсы повышения квалификации преподавателей ауц 60 часов" [Flight personnel advanced training courses 8 hours; advanced training courses for AEC teachers 60 hours] (in Russian). МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ [Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation]. 2000-02-18. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  110. ^ Maliszewski A.V.; Arinicheva O.V.; Parfeno I.A.; Petrova M.V.; Arakelyan D.A. (2009). "Socionics approach to improving professional psychological selection of aviation personnel". Scientific Bulletin of Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation (149): 83–90.
  111. ^ Kharchenko V.P., Shmeleva T.F., Sikirda Y..V., Zemlyanskyy A.V. Using socionics methods in forming professional navigation system groups // News NAU. — 2012. — No.1. – pp. 14–21. – ISSN 1813-1166
  112. ^ Jung, Carl G., Psychological Types (The Collected Works of Carl G. Jung, Vol.6), 1976 (1921), ISBN 0-691-01813-8 The chapter X, General description of types contains descriptions of basic psychological functions and 8 major psychological types.
  113. ^ "As a consequence of this one-sided development, one or more functions are necessarily retarded. These functions may properly be called inferior ..." (Jung, [1921] 1971:Def. Inferior Function, par. 763).
  114. ^ Augustinavičiūtė, А. (1995). "Комментарий к типологии Юнга и введение в информационный метаболизм" [A Commentary on Jung's Typology and an Introduction to the Information Metabolism]. Соционика, ментология и психология личности [Socionics, mentology and personality psychology] (in Russian) (2).
  115. ^ a b Augustinavičiūtė, А. (1978). Дуальная природа человека [The Dual Nature of Man] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2009-11-04.
  116. ^ "В.Д.Ермак: Взаимодействие психики человека с окружающим миром". socionika.info.
  117. ^ "Аспекты в соционике (аспектоника) | Школа Физиогномической Соционики Т. Духовского". psychotype.ru (in Russian).
  118. ^ Aaron, Jack Oliver (March 3, 2016). "World Socionics: WSS Shorthand Notation for Model A".
  119. ^ Butt, Joe (2011). "Functional Analysis of Psychological Types". TypeLogic.
  120. ^ Socionics.kiev.ua Archived April 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, "Methodology"
  121. ^ socionics.com, "Things to consider about MBTI® theory (Part 1)"
  122. ^ "Introduction into Socionics". www.socioniko.net.
  123. ^ "Introduction to Socionics – Socionics.us". Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
  124. ^ "Соционика в Днепропетровском клубе соционики и социальных технологий – Существует ли признак "статика-динамика"?". Socio.dp.ua. Archived from the original on 2016-02-21. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  125. ^ [1], Модель Юнга. ((in Russian), Jung's Model)
  126. ^ Boukalov, A. V. (1995). On the dimensions of the functions of information metabolism. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 2. International Institute of Socionics.
  127. ^ "The Five Differences Between Socionics and Myers-Briggs". Psychology Junkie. 20 April 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  128. ^ "Признаки, функции, модели... или Что нужно знать, чтобы определить тип". Typelab.ru. Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  129. ^ Таланов В.Л. "Краткое изложение модели "Т": физиологической модели информационного метаболизма в психике человека" (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-07-08. Модель «Т» впервые обнародована в научном докладе В.Л.Таланова 18, 20 и 22 сентября 2006 года в Киеве на XXII Международной конференции по соционике (в программе конференции доклад был озаглавлен "Содержательное наполнение и физиологическая интерпретация соционических признаков "конструктивисты-эмотивисты", "тактики-стратеги", "уступчивые-упрямые" и "беспечные-предусмотрительные", но по содержанию вышел за рамки названия). В журнал "Соционика, ментология и психология личности" в октябре 2006г. был отправлен цикл статей автора с подробным изложением, разбором и экспериментальным обоснованием новой предлагаемой соционической модели
  130. ^ GALLAGHER, JOHN P. (1979). "Cognitive/Information Processing Psychology and Instruction: Reviewing Recent Theory and Practice". Instructional Science. 8 (4): 393–414. doi:10.1007/BF00117014. ISSN 0020-4277. JSTOR 23368243. S2CID 144565784. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  131. ^ Stukas, V. A. (2008). "Bases of socionics". Management and Personnel: Psychology of Management, Socionics, and Sociology (Lecture series). International Institute of Socionics (12).
  132. ^ [2][dead link]
  133. ^ Hilarygray.btinternet.co.uk[dead link]
  134. ^ Bogomaz, Sergey (2000). Psychological types of C. Jung. Psychophysiological types and intertype relationships. Methodical aid (in Russian). Tomsk.
  135. ^ a b Monastirsky, L. M. (2015). "The Place and Role of Pseudo-Science in the Formation of Modern World Views". Successes of Contemporary Natural Sciences (in Russian) (1–3): 506–510.
  136. ^ Ermak, V. D. "The collapse of the illusion of socionics? No – the type!". socionicasys.org (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  137. ^ Eglit, I.M. "The accuracy of the diagnosis of TIM. Comparison of the two approaches". socionicasys.org. Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.

External links

Media
Video