Secretary General of NATO
|Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization|
|Secrétaire général de l'OTAN|
|North Atlantic Treaty Organization|
|Member of||North Atlantic Council|
|Term length||Four years, renewable|
|Formation||24 March 1952|
|First holder||Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay|
|Website||Office of the Secretary General|
The secretary general of NATO is the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The officeholder is an international diplomat responsible for coordinating the workings of the alliance, leading NATO's international staff, chairing the meetings of the North Atlantic Council and most major committees of the alliance, with the notable exception of the NATO Military Committee, as well as acting as NATO's spokesperson. The secretary general does not have a military command role; political, military and strategic decisions ultimately rest with the member states. Together with the Chair of the NATO Military Committee and the supreme allied commander, the officeholder is one of the foremost officials of NATO.
The current secretary general is former Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, who took office on 1 October 2014. Stoltenberg's mission as secretary general was extended for another four-year term, meaning that he was to lead NATO until September 30, 2022. However, due to Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2022, his term was extended further by another year.
Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty requires NATO members to "establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented." Accordingly, the North Atlantic Council was formed. Initially the Council consisted of NATO members' foreign ministers and met annually. In May 1950, the desire for closer coordination on a day-to-day basis led to the appointment of Council deputies, permanently based in London and overseeing the workings of the organization. Deputies were given full decision-making authority within the North Atlantic Council, but their work was supplemented by occasional meetings of the NATO foreign ministers. The chairman of the deputies was given responsibility "for directing the organization and its work," including all of its civilian agencies.
The Council deputies met for the first time on July 25, 1950, and selected Charles Spofford, the United States deputy, as their chairman. Several important organisational changes quickly followed the establishment of Council deputies, most notably the establishment of a unified military command under a single supreme Allied commander. This unification and the growing challenges facing NATO led to rapid growth in the institutions of the organisation and in 1951, NATO was reorganized to streamline and centralize its bureaucracy. As part of the organization, the Council deputies were delegated with the authority to represent their governments in all matters, including those related to defense and finance, not just foreign affairs, greatly increasing their power and importance.
As the authority of the deputies increased, and the size of the organization grew, NATO established the Temporary Council Committee, chaired by W. Averell Harriman. This group established an official secretariat in Paris to command NATO's bureaucracy. The committee also recommended that "the agencies of NATO needed to be strengthened and co-ordinate", and emphasized the need for someone other than the Chairman of the North Atlantic Council to become the senior leader of the alliance. In February 1952, North Atlantic Council accordingly established the position of secretary general to manage all civilian agencies of the organization, control its civilian staff, and serve the North Atlantic Council.
After the Lisbon Conference, the NATO states began looking for a person who could fill the role of secretary general. The position was first offered to Oliver Franks, the British ambassador to the United States, but he declined. Then, on March 12, 1952, the North Atlantic Council selected Hastings Ismay, a general from the Second World War, and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations in the British cabinet as secretary general. Unlike later secretaries general who served as Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, Ismay was made the vice chairman of the council, with Spofford continuing to serve as chairman. Ismay was selected because of his high rank in the war, and his role "at the side of Churchill ... in the highest Allied Councils." As both a soldier and a diplomat, he was considered uniquely qualified for the position, and enjoyed the full support of all the NATO states.
Several months later, after Spofford retired from the NATO, the structure of the North Atlantic Council was changed slightly. One member of the council was selected annually as the president of the North Atlantic Council (a largely ceremonial role), and the secretary general officially became the Deputy President of the Council, as well as the chair of its meetings. Ismay served as secretary general until retiring in May, 1957.
After Ismay, Paul-Henri Spaak, an international diplomat and former prime minister of Belgium was selected as the second secretary general. Unlike Ismay, Spaak had no military experience, so his appointment represented a "deemphasis of the strictly military side of the Atlantic Alliance." When confirming Spaak's appointment in December 1956 during a session of the NATO foreign ministers, the North Atlantic Council also expanded the role of the secretary general in the organization. Largely as a result of the Suez Crisis, which had strained intra-alliance relations, the council issued a resolution to allow the secretary general "to offer his good officers informally at any time to member governments involved in a dispute and with their consent to initiate or facilitate procedures of inquiry, mediation, conciliation, or arbitration."
List of officeholders
The NATO countries selected the first secretary general on April 4, 1952. Since that time, twelve different diplomats have served officially as secretary general. Eight countries have been represented, with three secretaries general hailing from the United Kingdom, three from the Netherlands, two from Belgium, one from Italy, one from Germany, one from Spain, one from Denmark and one from Norway. The position has also been occupied temporarily on three occasions by an acting secretary general between appointments.
|No.||Portrait||Secretary General||Took office||Left office||Time in office||Previous office||Country of origin|
|24 March 1952||16 May 1957||5 years, 53 days||Secretary of State for |
|16 May 1957||21 April 1961||3 years, 340 days||Prime Minister of Belgium||Belgium|
|21 April 1961||1 August 1964||3 years, 102 days||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Netherlands|
|1 August 1964||1 October 1971||7 years, 61 days||Ambassador to |
the United Kingdom
|1 October 1971||25 June 1984||12 years, 268 days||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Netherlands|
|25 June 1984||1 July 1988||4 years, 6 days||Secretary of State for |
|1 July 1988||13 August 1994 †||6 years, 43 days||Minister of Defence||Germany|
|13 August 1994||17 October 1994||65 days||Deputy Secretary |
General of NATO
|17 October 1994||20 October 1995||1 year, 3 days||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Belgium|
|20 October 1995||5 December 1995||46 days||Deputy Secretary |
General of NATO
|5 December 1995||14 October 1999||3 years, 313 days||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Spain|
|14 October 1999||17 December 2003||4 years, 64 days||Secretary of State for Defence||United Kingdom|
|17 December 2003||1 January 2004||15 days||Deputy Secretary |
General of NATO
|11||Jaap de Hoop |
|1 January 2004||1 August 2009||5 years, 212 days||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Netherlands|
|12||Anders Fogh |
|1 August 2009||1 October 2014||5 years, 61 days||Prime Minister of Denmark||Denmark|
|1 October 2014||Incumbent||7 years, 314 days||Prime Minister of Norway||Norway|
Living former secretaries general
As of 2022, there are five living former NATO secretaries general. The most recent secretary general to die was Peter Carington (1919–2018).
- Willy Claes (1994–1995, born 1938), 83 years
- Javier Solana (1995–1999, born 1942), 80 years
- George Robertson (1999–2003, born 1946), 76 years
- Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (2004–2009, born 1948), 74 years
- Anders Fogh Rasmussen (2009–2014, born 1953), 69 years
The NATO secretary general chairs several of the senior decision-making bodies of NATO. In addition to the North Atlantic Council, he chairs the Defence Planning Committee and the Nuclear Planning Committee, two of NATO's important military organizations. The secretary general also leads the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the Mediterranean Cooperation Group, and serves as Joint Chairman of the Permanent Joint Council and the NATO-Ukraine Commission.
In a second role, the secretary general leads the staff of NATO. He directs the International Staff of the organization, and the Office of the Secretary General. The secretary general also directs his or her own Private Office. All of these bodies draw personnel from all members of NATO, so the secretary general must carefully coordinate. For assistance in his responsibilities, the secretary general also has a deputy appointed by the organization. The NATO Military Command Structure consists of two strategic commands, directed by the International Military Staff:
The commands under SACEUR - Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, Allied Joint Force Command Naples and Joint Force Command Norfolk are Operational Level Commands, while Headquarters Allied Air Command, Headquarters Allied Maritime Command and Headquarters Allied Land Command are Tactical Level Commands. SACEUR also has operational command of the Joint Support and Enabling Command.
- Liaison: Provides advice and support to the NAC
|Political strategic level:|
|North Atlantic Council|
|Secretary General of NATO|
|Military strategic level:|
Chair of the NATO Military Committee
(ACT, HQ SACT)
|JFCBS Brunssum, NL||JWC Stavanger, NO|
|AIRCOM Ramstein, DE||JALLC Lisbon, PT|
|MARCOM Northwood, GB||JFTC Bydgoszcz, PL|
|LANDCOM İzmir, TR|
|CIS GP Mons, BE|
|JFCNP Naples, IT|
|JFC-NF Norfolk, Virginia, US|
There is no formal process for selecting the secretary general. The members of NATO traditionally reach a consensus on who should serve next. This procedure often takes place through informal diplomatic channels, but it still can become contentious. For example, in 2009, controversy arose over the choice of Anders Fogh Rasmussen as secretary general, due to opposition from Turkey.
NATO's chief military officer, the supreme Allied commander Europe, is traditionally an American, and the secretary general has traditionally been a European. However, there is nothing in NATO's charter that would preclude a Canadian or American from becoming the secretary general.
Deputy Secretary General
|1||Jonkheer van Vredenburch||Netherlands||1952–1956|
|2||Baron Adolph Bentinck||Netherlands||1956–1958|
|4||Guido Colonna di Paliano||Italy||1962–1964|
|5||James A. Roberts||Canada||1964–1968|
|6||Osman Esim Olcay||Turkey||1969–1971|
|7||Paolo Pansa Cedronio||Italy||1971–1978|
|9||Eric da Rin||Italy||1981–1985|
|11||Amedeo de Franchis||Italy||1989–1994|
|13||Alessandro Minuto Rizzo||Italy||2001–2007|
|15||Alexander Vershbow||United States||2012–2016|
|16||Rose Gottemoeller||United States||2016–2019|
- Stikker resigned from his position a year early due to poor health.
- Wörner died in office on August 13, 1994, of cancer. The Deputy Secretary General, Sergio Balanzino, took over his daily responsibilities for the last several months on his life and then became acting Secretary General upon his death until the appointment of Willy Claes.
- Claes resigned as Secretary General after a bribery scandal, centering on his actions in the Belgian cabinet in the 1980s. After his resignation, Deputy Secretary General Sergio Balanzino served as acting Secretary General until the appointment of Javier Solana.
- George Robertson announced in January 2003 that he would be stepping down in December. Jaap de Hoop Scheffer was selected as his successor, but could not assume the office until January 2004 because of his commitment in the Dutch Parliament. Robertson was asked to extend his term until Scheffer was ready, but declined, so Minuto-Rizzo, the Deputy Secretary General, took over in the interim.
- Scheffer was named Secretary General of NATO effective January 1, 2004, but he did not take office until January 5, 2004.
- NATO Secretary General, NATO.
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- "NATO Chief Steps Down". The New York Times. December 18, 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- Crouch, Gregory (January 6, 2004). "New NATO Chief Takes Over". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- "Civilian Organisation and Structures: The Secretary General". www.nato.int.
- "Command Structure" (PDF). NATO. Retrieved 19 October 2019. and "Military Command Structure". shape.nato.int. Supreme Head Allied Powers Europe. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- "MILITARY COMMAND STRUCTURE". shape.nato.int. NATO. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
- Boeke, Sergei (13 January 2020). "Creating a secure and functional rear area : NATO's new JSEC Headquarters". nato.int. NATO. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
JSEC is part of the NATO Force Structure and under the operational command of the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).
- Kardas, Saban. "Ankara Debates Rasmussen's Candidacy for NATO Secretary-General". The Jamestown Foundation.
- "NATO Secretary General: How is he or she selected and for how long".
- "NATO Who's who? – Deputy Secretaries General of NATO". NATO. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Brosio, Manlio (1969). NATO: Facts and Figures. NATO Information Service.
- Ismay, Hastings (1954). NATO: The First Five Years. NATO.
- Fedder, Edwin (1973). NATO:The Dynamics of the Alliance in the Postwar World. Dodd, Mead & Company. ISBN 0-396-06621-6.
- "Fonds. NATO Secretary General". NATO.