Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
حرية، ديمقراطية، وحدة (Arabic)
Libertad, Democracia, Unidad (Spanish)
"Freedom, Democracy, Unity"
|Anthem: يا بني الصحراء|
Yā Banī aṣ-Ṣaḥrāʾ
"Oh, Sons of the Sahara!"
|Status||State partially recognised by 46 UN member states and South Ossetia|
and largest city
|El Aaiún (de jure)|
|Government||Unitary one-party semi-presidential republic|
|Bucharaya Hammudi Beyun|
|Legislature||Sahrawi National Council|
|14 November 1975|
• Republic declared
|27 February 1976|
• Sovereignty disputed with Morocco
|266,000 km2 (103,000 sq mi) (claimed)|
90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi) (controlled) (77th)
• Water (%)
|Currency||Sahrawi peseta (de jure) (EHP)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (WAT)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (AD)|
|ISO 3166 code||EH|
|Internet TLD||.eh (reserved)|
|Part of a series on the|
|Western Sahara conflict|
The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic,[d] also known as the Sahrawi Republic and Western Sahara, is a partially recognized state, recognised by 46 UN member states and South Ossetia, located in the western Maghreb, which claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, but controls only the easternmost one-fifth of that territory. Between 1884 and 1975, Western Sahara was known as Spanish Sahara, a Spanish colony (later an overseas province). The SADR is one of the two African states in which Spanish is a significant language, the other being Equatorial Guinea.
The SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on 27 February 1976, in Bir Lehlou, Western Sahara. The SADR government calls the territories under its control the Liberated Territories or the Free Zone. Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory, and calls these lands its Southern Provinces. The claimed capital city of the SADR is El-Aaiún (Laayoune) (the former capital of Western Sahara). Since SADR does not control El-Aaiún, it has a temporary capital in Tifariti. The seat of the SADR government is in the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria.
The SADR maintains diplomatic relations with 46 United Nations states, and is a full member of the African Union. With a population of about half a million, it is the most sparsely populated in Africa, and the second-most sparsely populated in the world.
The name Sahrawi is the romanization of the Arabic word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي, meaning 'Inhabitant of the Desert'. The word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي then is derived from the Arabic word Ṣaḥrāʼ (صحراء), meaning 'desert'.
Following the evacuation of the Spaniards, due to the Moroccan Green March, Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords on 14 November 1975, six days before Francisco Franco died. Morocco and Mauritania responded by annexing the territory of Western Sahara. On 26 February 1976, Spain informed the United Nations (UN) that as of that date it had terminated its presence in Western Sahara and relinquished its responsibilities, which left the region devoid of any Administering Power. Neither Morocco nor Mauritania gained international recognition, and war ensued with the independence-seeking Polisario Front. The UN considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, and maintains that the people of Western Sahara have a right to "self-determination and independence".
The creation of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed on 27 February 1976, as the Polisario declared the need for a new entity to fill what they considered a political void left by the departing Spanish colonizers. While the claimed capital is the former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún (which is in Moroccan-controlled territory), the proclamation was made in the government-in-exile's provisional capital, Bir Lehlou, which remained in Polisario-held territory under the 1991 ceasefire (see Settlement Plan). On 27 February 2008, the provisional capital was formally moved to Tifariti. Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf Province, Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community.
A new 1999 Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic took a form similar to the parliamentary constitutions of many European states, but with some paragraphs suspended until the achievement of "full independence". Among key points, the head of state is constitutionally the Secretary General of the Polisario Front during what is referred to as the "pre-independence phase", with provision in the constitution that on independence, Polisario is supposed to be dismantled or separated completely from the government structure. Provisions are detailed for a transitory phase beginning with independence, in which the present SADR is supposed to act as Western Sahara's government, ending with a constitutional reform and eventual establishment of a state along the lines specified in the constitution.
The broad guidelines laid down in the constitution for an eventual Western Saharan state include eventual multi-party democracy with a market economy. The constitution also defines Sahrawis as a Muslim, African and Arab people. The Constitution also declares a commitment to the principles of human rights and to the concept of a Greater Maghreb, as a regional variant of Pan-Arabism.
Since August 1982, the highest office of the republic has been the President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a post held by the secretary-general of the Polisario Front, presently Brahim Ghali, who appoints the Prime Minister, presently Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun. The SADR's government structure consists of a Council of Ministers (a cabinet led by the Prime Minister), a judicial branch (with judges appointed by the President) and the parliamentary Sahrawi National Council (SNC; the present speaker is Hamma Salama). Since its inception in 1976, the various constitutional revisions have transformed the republic from an ad hoc managerial structure into something approaching an actual governing apparatus. From the late 1980s the parliament began to take steps to institute a division of powers and to disentangle the republic's structures from those of the Polisario Front, although without clear effect to date.
Its various ministries are responsible for a variety of services and functions. The judiciary, complete with trial courts, appeals courts and a supreme court, operates in the same areas. As a government-in-exile, many branches of government do not fully function, and has affected the constitutional roles of the institutions. Institutions parallel to government structures also have arisen within the Polisario Front, which is fused with the SADR's governing apparatus, and with operational competences overlapping between these party and governmental institutions and offices. A 2012 report mentioned the existence of the Sahrawi Bar Association. In 2016, the bar association (going by the name Union of Sahrawi Lawyers) issued a report calling for the implementation of political and civil rights. Unfortunately, there is no clear indication as to how certain demographic groups, such as women, have fared in the legal field.
The SNC is weak in its legislative role, having been instituted as a mainly consultative and consensus-building institution, but it has strengthened its theoretical legislative and controlling powers during later constitutional revisions. Among other things, it has added a ban on the death penalty to the constitution, and brought down the government in 1999 through a vote of no-confidence.
The Sahrawi National Council is composed of 53 members, all from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro.
The Sahrawi People's Liberation Army is the defence force of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and previously served as the armed wing of the Polisario Front prior to the foundation of the Republic.
The SADR in its controlled territories uses the Sahrawi Peseta although the majority of the country uses the Moroccan Dirham.
All data about demographic information regarding Western Sahara are extremely error-prone, regardless of source. Most countries take censuses every ten years, and some every five in order to stay abreast of change and miscounts; the last count was conducted in 1970, and even that data by colonial Spain is considered unreliable due to large nomadic populations.
Following the 1975 Green March, the Moroccan state has sponsored settlement schemes enticing thousands of Moroccans to move into the Moroccan-occupied part of Western Sahara (80% of the territory). By 2015, it was estimated that Moroccan settlers made up at least two thirds of the 500,000 inhabitants. Under international law, Morocco's transfer of its own civilians into Non-Self-Governing territory is in direct violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.The religion in Western Sahara is Sunni Islam. The major ethnic groups are Arab and Berbers. The most common languages are Hassaniya Arabic and Moroccan Arabic.
The predominant religion practiced by Sahrawis is the Maliki school of Sunni Islam, which is constitutionally recognised as the official religion of the SADR and a source of law. Virtually all Sahrawis identify as Muslim according to the CIA World Factbook, which makes the country one of the most religiously homogeneous nations in the world.
The Catholic Church had an important presence during Spanish rule, with 20,000 Spanish Catholics present before Spain abandoned the territory (30% of the population). Today around 300 people in the Moroccan-controlled areas are Catholic (mostly of Spanish origin), being able to attend the St. Francis of Assisi Cathedral in El Aaiún and the Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Dakhla.
Modern Standard Arabic is the sole constitutionally recognised official and national language of the Sahrawi Republic. Hassaniya, a variety of Arabic also spoken in neighbouring countries such as Mauritania, is the common vernacular language of the Sahrawi people.
Spanish was introduced during the Spanish colonisation in the late 19th century, and remains as the preferred second language of the Sahrawi, also enjoying a de facto working language status. Instituto Cervantes estimates that around 20,000 Sahrawis have limited competencies in Spanish
The SADR acted as a government administration in the Sahrawi refugee camps located in the Tindouf Province of western Algeria. It is headquartered in Camp Rabouni, south of Tindouf, although some official events have taken place in towns in the Free Zone, including the provisional capitals, first Bir Lehlou until 2008, then Tifariti. The government of the SADR claims sovereignty over all of the Western Sahara territory, but has control only within the Free Zone. Several foreign aid agencies, including the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and non-governmental organizations, are continually active in the camps.
International recognition and membership
As of September 2022, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has been recognized by 85 states. Of these, 39 have since "frozen" or "withdrawn" recognition for a number of reasons. A total of 29 UN states maintain an embassy from the SADR, with Vietnam being the only nation not hosting an embassy but only sending their own mission [Sahrawi embassies exist in 18 states]. 6 UN states have other diplomatic relations, while a further 9 UN nations and South Ossetia also recognise the state either by previous regimes or through international agreements in the past, but do not have any active relations at the moment [See 'Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic' for more details].
Although it is not recognised by the UN, the SADR has held full membership of the African Union (AU, formerly the Organisation of African Unity, OAU) since 1982. Morocco withdrew from the OAU in protest during 1984, and from the time of South Africa's admittance to the OAU in 1994 was the only African UN member not also a member of the AU, until it was readmitted on 30 January 2017. The SADR participates as a guest in meetings of the Non-Aligned Movement and the New Asian–African Strategic Partnership, over Moroccan objections to SADR participation.
The SADR also participated in a conference of the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of the Latin American and the Caribbean (COPPPAL) in 2006; the SADR ambassador to Nicaragua participated in the opening conference of the Central American Parliament in 2010, and a SADR delegation participated in the meeting of COPPPAL and International Conference of Asian Political Parties in Mexico City in 2012.
On 27 February 2011, the 35th anniversary of the proclamation of SADR was held in Tifariti, Western Sahara. Delegations, including parliamentarians, ambassadors, NGOs and activists from many countries participated in this event.
Proposed Western Sahara Authority
Under the Baker Plan created by James Baker, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's personal envoy to Western Sahara, the SADR would have been replaced with a five-year transitional Western Sahara Authority (WSA), a non-sovereign autonomous region supervised by Morocco, to be followed by a referendum on independence. It was endorsed by the UN in 2003. As Morocco has declined to participate, however, the plan appears dead.
In April 2007, the government of Morocco suggested that a self-governing entity, through the Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS), should govern the territory with some degree of autonomy for Western Sahara. The project was presented to the UN Security Council in mid-April 2007. A stalemate over the Moroccan proposal led the UN, in an April 2007 "Report of the UN Secretary-General", to ask the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.
|Date||Name||Original event / Notes|
|27 February||Independence Day||Proclamation of the SADR in Bir Lehlou, 1976|
|8 March||First Martyr|
|10 May||Foundation of the Polisario Front||The anniversary of the front's establishment in 1973|
|20 May||20 May Revolution||Start of the armed struggle against Spain in 1973|
|9 June||Day of the Martyrs||Day on which El-Ouali died in 1976|
|17 June||Zemla Intifada||Harakat Tahrir riots in El-Aaiun, 1970|
|12 October||Day of National Unity||Celebrating the commemoration anniversary of the Ain Ben Tili Conference, 1975|
|Muharram 1||Islamic New Year||The anniversary of the Hijra from Mecca to Medina and the beginning of the lunar Islamic year|
|Dhul Hijja 10||Eid al-Adha||Sacrifice feast|
|Shawwal 1||Eid al-Fitr||End of Ramadan|
|Rabi' al-awwal 12||Mawlid||Birth of Muhammad|
- Elections in Western Sahara
- Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- International recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- List of cities in Western Sahara
- Moroccan Western Sahara Wall
- Outline of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- Polisario Front
- Political status of Western Sahara
- Politics of Western Sahara
- It is described as the SADR's second official language
- In the Moroccan-occupied territories.
- The euro is informally accepted in the Sahrawi refugee camps.
- // sə-RAH-wee; SADR; also known as Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic; Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية, romanized: al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʿArabīyah aṣ-Ṣaḥrāwīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah; Spanish: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática
- SADR. "Constitution of the SADR" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- János Besenyő; R. Joseph Huddleston; Yahia H. Zoubir (2022). Conflict and Peace in Western Sahara The Role of the UN's Peacekeeping Mission (MINURSO). Taylor & Francis. p. 51. ISBN 978-10-0080733-2.
- Dawn Chatty (2010). Deterritorialized Youth Sahrawi and Afghan Refugees at the Margins of the Middle East. Berghahn Books. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-84545-653-5.
- Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh (2015). South-South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development Views from the Caribbean, North Africa and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-135-07667-2.
- Martos, Isabel. "Linguistic Policy in the Camps of Sahrawi Refugees". researchgate. Universidad de Alcalá. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "El Español en los Campamentos de Refugiados Saharauis (Tinduf, Algeria)" (PDF). Cvc.cervantes.es. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Los campamentos de refugiados saharauis" [The Sahrawi refugee camps] (in Spanish). Una mirada al Sáhara Occidental. Retrieved 21 October 2023.
La divisa local es el dinar argelino, aunque se puede pagar casi todo en euros. La moneda mínima para hacer compras en los campamentos es el billete de 10€.[The local currency is the Algerian dinar, although you can pay almost everything in euros. The minimum currency to make purchases in the camps is the €10 bill.]
- "Western Sahara Population 2023 (Live)".
- "Letter dated 29 January 2002 from the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel, addressed to the President of the Security Council". United Nations. 29 January 2002. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- "A/RES/34/37. Question of Western Sahara" (PDF). General Assembly—Thirty-fourth Session. United Nations. 1979. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
- "Sahara Occidental – Actualités 2008, février". February 2008. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- "Sahara Info" (PDF). March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- Article 6 of the Sahrawi constitution. Article 2 prescribes that "Islam is the state religion and source of law".
- Zunes S; Mundy J (2010). Western Sahara: War, Nationalism, and Conflict Irresolution Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- "Report of the Fact-Finding Mission to the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic" (PDF). African Commission on Human & Peoples' Rights. September 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "تقرير موازي بمناسبة استعراض التقرير السادس للملكة المغربية حول تنفيذ مقتضيات العهد الدولي للحقوق المدنية و السياسية". اتحاد المحامين الصحراويين.
- Shefte, Whitney (6 January 2015). "Western Sahara's stranded refugees consider renewal of Morocco conflict". the Guardian.
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- Article 3 of the Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (2023-01-17)
- Martos 2014, p. 1199–1202. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMartos2014 (help)
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- South African Broadcasting Corporation (1 September 2006). "Asia-Afro partnership meeting kicked off today". South African Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2006.
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- [dead link]
- "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara" (PDF). UN Security Council. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.[dead link]
Official SADR pages
- (in Spanish) Polisario.es (Official website of the Sahrawi Delegation in Spain)
- (in Arabic, English, French, and Spanish) Sahara Press Service (SPS) (official SADR press agency)
- (in Arabic and Spanish) RASD TV (official TV channel)
- (in Arabic and Spanish) SADR National Radio (official radio channel)
- SADR Oil & Gas 2005 (SADR oil and gas licensing offer)
- (in Spanish) Sahara salud (dependency of the Health ministry of the SADR)
- (in Arabic and Spanish) Economic development ministry of the SADR
- (in Spanish) Ministry of Culture of the SADR
- (in Spanish) UJSARIO (Sahrawi Youth Union. Dakhla refugee camp section blog)
- (in Spanish) UNMS (Association of Sahrawi Women in Spain)
- (in Spanish) Sahara Today (Independent Digital Journal Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic)
- (in Arabic and Spanish) Futuro Saharaui (Saharawi first independent magazine founded in 1999)
- (in Spanish) EFA Abidin Kaid Saleh de la RASD Audiovisual Education School Abidin Kaid Saleh of the SADR)
- (in Spanish) ARTifariti (International Meetings of the Art in the Liberated Territories of SADR)