In 1983, Middlekauff became the President of Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California, until 1987. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1984. In 1987, Middlekauff became a professor at UC Berkeley.
Middlekauff is best known for The Glorious Cause, a history of the American Revolutionary War, which was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in 1983. He was the Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Professor of American History in 1996-7. In 1997, he was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1997.
- Ancients and Axioms: Secondary Education in Eighteenth-Century New England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963).
- The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596-1728, winner of the Bancroft Prize. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971) reprinted in paperback (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
- The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982, paperback ed., 1986) (Revised and Expanded Edition, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-516247-9).
- Benjamin Franklin and His Enemies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996; paperback ed., 1998).
- "Robert L. Middlekauff". history.berkeley.edu. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- "Expanding the Fellowship". huntington.org. April 19, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- "Robert Lawrence Middlekauff". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2021-12-10.
- "Skotheim to Direct Huntington Complex". latimes.com. January 30, 1988. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- Dixler, Elsa (2021-09-01). "Robert Middlekauff, Historian of Washington and His War, Dies at 91". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-09-02.
- "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 2021-12-10.
- Pokotylo, Katia (April 9, 2021). "Robert Middlekauff, professor emeritus of American history, dies at age 91". The Daily Californian. Retrieved April 25, 2021.