Rao Farman Ali

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Rao Farman Ali
راؤ فرمان علی
Rao Farman Ali.jpg
Rao Farman in 1970
Minister of Petroleum and Natural Resources
In office
23 March 1985 – 29 May 1988
Prime MinisterMuhammad Khan Junejo
3rd National Security Advisor
In office
29 March 1985 – 17 August 1988
Preceded byTikka Khan
Succeeded byTariq Aziz
Managing Director of Fauji Foundation
In office
Personal details
Rao Farman Ali Khan

Rohtak, Punjab, British Raj
Present-day Haryana, India
Died20 January 2004(2004-01-20) (aged 80–81)
Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
Resting placeWestridge Cemetery
CitizenshipBritish Raj British India (1915–1947)
 Pakistan (1947–2004)
Nationality Pakistan
Military service
Branch/service British Indian Army (1935–1947)
 Pakistan Army (1947–1972)
Years of service1943–1972
RankOF-7 Pakistan Army.svg US-O8 insignia.svg Major-General
Unit1st Artillery Regiment, Regiment of Artillery
CommandsMil.Adv Govt. of EP
DG Military Operations (DGMO)
DG Military Training (DGMT)
Battles/warsWorld War II
Bangladesh Liberation War
AwardsSitara-e-Quaid-e-Azam (1957-76).pngSitara-e-Quaid-e-Azam
Sitara-e-Khidmat (SK) (1957-86).pngSitara-e-Kidmat
Service numberPA – 1364

Major General Rao Farman Ali SQASK (Urdu: راؤ فرمان علی ; January 1, 1922 – 20 January 2004) was a Major General in Pakistan Army, and political figure who is widely considered a key architect of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide the Bangladesh Liberation War.[1][2][3]

Commissioned in September, 1943 as a forward observer in Regiment of Artillery, he served as military adviser to the Pakistan army, and oversaw the deployment of military police aided with local militias (razarkars) during the Bangladesh Liberation War.[4] He testified his responsibilities in the Hamoodur Rahman Commission in 1972 but denied allegations of genocide committed in Bangladesh in spite of the Hamoodur Rahman Commission which proved the involvement of misconducts and genocide of Pakistani military personnel.[5]

Upon being forced to retire, he joined the Fauji Foundation as an agronomist, and founded the Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited in 1978.[6] From 1985–88, he served as petroleum minister and National Security Advisor in President Zia-ul-Haq's administration, and went into hiding after Zia's death.[6]


Rao Farman Ali was born into a Haryanvi Ranghar Rajput family in Rohtak, East Punjab, then under the British Colonial rule in 1923.[7] His date of birth is read as 1 January 1923, according to the official headstone written in Urdu in his grave which is located in the Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi. Very little is known about his early life in the literature based on Pakistani military, and not much is published about his educational background.

He gained his commission as a second lieutenant in the Regiment of Artillery of the British Indian Army and participated in World War II in 1943.[8] At the partition of British India in 1947, he opted for the Pakistan Army and joined the Military Police.[7] His military career saw his repeated deployment in East Pakistan as a political adviser and later ascended as military adviser to East Pakistan Army.[7] In the 1960s, Farman was posted at the Army GHQ. He served there in the Directorate of Military Operations and as the Director, Military Training.[clarification needed][6]

It is not known if Rao took participation in war with India in 1965, since he was stationed in East.[9] In 1967, he was again stationed in East as an officer commanding of the 14th Battalion; he was posted again and sent back to West.[9] In 1969, President Ayub Khan handed over the presidency to his Commander-in-Chief General Yahya Khan who posted Ali upon the request of Major-General Muzaffaruddin– the martial law administrator of East Pakistan.[9]

The posting came at the behest of the East Pakistani government requesting him due to his experiences in East.[9] He was the military adviser to the East Pakistan Army and elevated as the Defence Secretary of the East Pakistani government, serving from 1969–71.[10][self-published source] He enjoyed full support of President Yahya Khan serving under several governors and oversaw various civil affairs in the government.757-759[8] He helped raise the paramilitary units such as the Volunteers (Razakars), Peace Committee, Al Badr, and Al Shams to aid the genocide of the Pakistan army.: 758–759 [8]

In 1971, when the talks with Awami League failed, Ali along with Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan launched the military crackdown on the people of erstwhile East Pakistan under direction of President Yahya Khan.[4] Ali is held responsible for widespread genocide and massacre took place in Dhaka University.[11] Hamoodur Rahman Commission though heavily criticized other senior military staff of Pakistan Army in East Pakistan at the time including confirmation of mass atrocities, cleared Ali citing the fact that he was not involved in any direct Military Operation due to the nature of his post which was mostly Administrative.[12]

Altaf Gohar, an East Pakistani civil servant, recounted an incident from his memory that a hit list had been drawn up for elimination of certain Bangalis.: 27–30 [2] A friend of Altaf Gohar was also in the list and his friends and relatives requested Gohar if he could do something to save his friend.: 28 [2] Gohar held a meeting with Farman and requested him to drop the name from his hit list. " Farman took, said Gohar, a diary out of his drawer and crossed the name out. The name was of Mr. Sanaul Huq and he was spared.": 29 [2]

Pages of this very diary with lists of intellectuals were recovered from the debris of Rao Farman's office, the then Governor's House, which was bombed by Indian Air Force on 14 December.A note book was found in Rao farman Ali's office in Dhaka, One page contained a list of university teachers with addresses, with tick marks besides some of the names like "M. Haider Chy. Bangali" or "Saduddin-Sociology, 16-D, UQ" (university quarter). It is up to the readers to find out the reality of this page, and the meaning of the marks, bearing in mind that the last entry was most probably on 13 December.[1]

After the civil war in 1971 ended, Farman's diary was recovered from the ruins of the Governor's house. The copy of a page from the diary shows the list of intellectuals from Dhaka University. Out of which, 14 of them were killed on 14 December 1971.[13] In 1971, he, along with Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, sent a telegram to the U.S. Embassy in Dacca to transmit the surrender proposal to New Delhi.[14] Farman Ali also sent a request for a cease-fire to the United Nations, but it was quickly countermanded by a message from President Yahya Khan which described Farman Ali's request as "unauthorized".[15]

About the Bangladesh Liberation War, General A.A.K. Niazi maintained that Farman requested the latter on multiple occasions to stationed him back to Pakistan after the Farman's gained notoriety over his involvement in the killing of the intellectuals.[11] A.A.K. Niazi wrote in his book, "The Betrayal of East Pakistan that Farman had quoted: "Mukti Bahini would kill him of his alleged massacre of the Bangalees and intellectuals on the night of 15–16 December. It was a pathetic sight to see him pale and almost on the verge of break down."[11] He is also alleged to have written in his Diary as: "Green Land of East Pakistan will be painted Red."[16] However, Farman Ali had denied all the accusations leveled against him, and branded these accusations as "lies."[9][better source needed]

In 1972, Ali testified against A.A.K. Niazi in the Hamoodur Rahman Commission and noted that Niazi's morale collapsed as early as 7 December and cried fanatically over the progress report presented to the Abdul Motaleb Malik.[17] Controversy regarding his own involvement in the political events of East had arisen since he had denied all accusations leveled against him despite testifying his responsibilities as military adviser to East Pakistani military command.[9]

Farman Ali was forcefully retired from the military in 1972 but appointed as Managing Director of Fauji Foundation in 1974 which he remained in that position until 1984.[6] He served as an agronomist at the Fauji Foundation and helped create the chemical fertilizer and served its first director of the Fauji Fertilizer Company in 1978.[6] In 1985, he was appointed as Minister of Petroleum and Natural Resources and National Security Advisor in President Zia-ul-Haq's administration, which he served until 1988.[6]

After sudden death of President Zia-ul-Haq, Farman Ali reportedly went into hiding and lived a very quiet life in Rawalpindi on a pension.[6] Throughout the 1990s, he fought a brief illness and authored a book, Sar Gazisht, based on the East Pakistan crises.[6] On 20 January 2004, Farman Ali died and was laid to rest with military honors in Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.[6]

Awards and decorations[edit]






(General Service Medal)

1. 1965 War Clasp

2. 1971 War Clasp

Tamgha-e-Jang 1965 War

(War Medal 1965)

Tamgha-e-Jang 1971 War

(War Medal 1971)

Pakistan Tamgha

(Pakistan Medal)



(Republic Commemoration Medal)


Burma Star War Medal


Queen Elizabeth II

Coronation Medal


Foreign decorations[edit]

Foreign Awards
 UK Burma Star
War Medal 1939-1945
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Mahfuz, Asif (13 December 2014). "Rao Farman Ali's master plan". The Daily Star (newspaper). Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Ibrahim, Muntassir Mamoon ; translated from Bengali by Kushal (2000). The Vanquished Generals and the Liberation War of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Somoy Prokashan. pp. 70–71. ISBN 9789844582101.
  3. ^ Tripathi, Salil (January 2016). The Colonel Who Would Not Repent: The Bangladesh War and Its Unquiet Legacy. Yale University Press. pp. 186–187. ISBN 9780300218183.
  4. ^ a b Ganguly, Sumit (April 2002). Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions Since 1947. Columbia University Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 9780231507400.
  5. ^ "Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report" (PDF). 7 January 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Rao Farman Ali passes away". Dawn Newspapers. 21 January 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  7. ^ a b c "Rao Farman Ali - Pakistan Who's Who". sites.google.com. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Bhattacharya, Brigadier Samir (December 2013). NOTHING BUT!. Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482816266.
  9. ^ a b c d e f (arup), অরূপ (13 March 2010). "অরূপকথা: Interview of Major General Rao Farman Ali AKA "The Butcher of Bengal"". অরূপকথা. অরূপকথা.
  10. ^ Foundation, Bhashani (8 October 2010). Searching for Bhasani Citizen of the World: The Life and Times of (Earnest) Mozlum Leader Maulana Bhasani. Xlibris Corporation. p. 197. ISBN 9781453573136. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  11. ^ a b c "Major General Rao Farman Ali Khan". www.genocidebangladesh.org/major-general-rao-farman-ali-khan/. Bangla Desh source. 18 September 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  12. ^ Hamood ur Rehman Commission Report on Dunya TV News website Retrieved 22 May 2021
  13. ^ Mamoon, Muntassir; translation by Kushal Ibrahim (June 2000). The Vanquished Generals and the Liberation War of Bangladesh (First ed.). Somoy Prokashon. p. 29. ISBN 984-458-210-5.
  14. ^ Abbas, Hassan (26 March 2015). Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. Routledge, Abbas. pp. 56–66. ISBN 9781317463283.
  15. ^ Singh, V. K. (23 March 2005). Leadership in the Indian Army: Biographies of Twelve Soldiers. SAGE. pp. 207–208. ISBN 9780761933229.
  16. ^ Dogra, Wg Cdr C. Deepak (9 December 2015). Pakistan: Caught in the Whirlwind. Lancer Publishers LLC. ISBN 9781940988221.
  17. ^ Jones, Owen Bennett (2002). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press, Jones. p. 183. ISBN 0300101473.

External links[edit]