Rajanpur District

Coordinates: 29°06′17″N 70°19′32″E / 29.104650°N 70.325665°E / 29.104650; 70.325665
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Rajanpur District
ضِلع راجن پُور
Top: Masjid Deen Muhammad Khan, Jampur
View of desert region in the district
Rajanpur District highlighted within Punjab Province
Rajanpur District highlighted within Punjab Province
Country Pakistan
ProvincePunjab, Pakistan Punjab
DivisionDera Ghazi Khan
 • TypeDistrict Administration
 • Deputy CommissionerN/A
 • District Police OfficerN/A
 • District Health OfficerN/A
[1]: 13 
 • Total12,318 km2 (4,756 sq mi)
 • Total2,381,049
 • Density190/km2 (500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Number of Tehsils3
Main language(s)Saraiki, Balochi

Rajanpur (Urdu: ضِلع راجن پُور) is a district of the Pakistani province of Punjab, with its administrative headquarters the city of Rajanpur. Lying west of the Indus River, its inhabitants are mostly Saraikis and Baloch. According to the 1998 census, the district had a population of 1,100,000, and 14.27% of these were inhabitants of urban areas.[3]

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

The district of Rajanpur comprises three administrative subdivisions (Tehsil) and 44 Union Councils.[4]

Tehsil No. of Union Councils
Jampur 19
Rajanpur 16
Rojhan 9

Etymology and geography[edit]

The anatomy of Rajanpur district is associated with its town Rajanpur, which was founded by Makhdoom Sheikh Rajan Shah in 1770.[5][6] It was merged with Dera Ghazi Khan district in 1982. Rajanpur is situated in the west side of River Indus. Its north side is bounded by Dera Ghazi Khan district, and west by Dera Bugti district of Balochistan. The east side is bounded by Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan districts, while its south part is covered by Kashmore district of Sindh province. The Sulaiman Mountains rise to the west of the district.


The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that flourished in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Rajanpur was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and the Turk and Hindu Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005, he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire invaded and occupied Rajanpur district. The Muslims faced restrictions during the Sikh rule.[citation needed] During the period of British rule, Rajanpur district increased in population and importance.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Rajanpur district.

The district was home to the notorious Chotu gang in the Kacha areas, but they were wiped out in Operation Zarb-e-Ahan.


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1951 247,136—    
1961 304,020+2.09%
1972 456,391+3.76%
1981 638,921+3.81%
1998 1,103,618+3.27%
2017 1,996,039+3.17%
2023 2,381,049+2.98%

At the time of the 2017 census, Rajanpur district had 261,443 households and a population of 1,996,039. Rajanpur had a sex ratio of 979 females per 1000 males and a literacy rate of 33.75% - 43.43% for males and 23.49% for females. 337,296 (16.90%) lived in urban areas. 695,377 (34.84%) were under 10 years of age. 2,165 (0.11%) are from religious minorities, of which 1,442 are Hindu.[8] In 2023, the district had 354,271 households and a population of 2,381,049.[2]

Languages of Rajanpur district (2017)[8]

  Saraiki (74.61%)
  Balochi (18.75%)
  Urdu (2.93%)
  Punjabi (2.74%)
  Others (0.97%)

At the time of the 2017 census, 74.61% of the population spoke Saraiki, 18.75% Balochi, 2.93% Urdu and 2.74% Punjabi as their first language.[8]

The major tribes in this district are Jat, Arain, Rajput and Baloch.


Rajanpur has a total of 1,160 government schools out of which 41% (479 schools) are for female students. The district's public schools have 148,746 enrollments.[9]


Agriculture in Rajanpur depends solely upon canal irrigation since rainfall is negligible in the region. The five rivers of Punjab meet at the locality of Wang near Mithankot; hence these rivers provide water for irrigation as well as for domestic usage. Rainfall occurs during the monsoon season (July–September). Occasional heavy rainfall causes flooding in this region, but such floods are rare. In Rajanpur, floodwaters come from the Koh Sultan and Shacher torrents (rivulets), as well as the Indus.

Rajanpur district is famous for cotton and sugarcane crops, although they are cultivating wheat and rice as well and tobacco to a minimal extent too.


Rajanpur is also famous for its cotton business. There are many cotton industries in this district that play an essential role in fulfilling the needs of cotton for textile mills. However, some of the people also do agricultural work, which is a leading business of Rajanpur.

Irrigation system[edit]

Canal irrigation[edit]

The agriculture of Rajanpur depends upon canal irrigation in some areas of Rajanpur peoples drinking canal water in these areas Pachad include:

Rod-Kohi (Hill Torrents)[edit]

Major Rod-Kohi areas traversed by hill torrents constitute nearly 65 percent of the total area of Pakistan and encompass entire Balochistan, i.e. (Makran coastal Basin and Kharan closed Desert Basin). The other major hill torrent areas include D.G.Khan and D.I.Khan, FATA, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. In Sindh province, the systems are spread in the Dadu district (Kirthar range). There are around 17,130,000 acres (69,300 km2) as the potential area underhill torrent / Rod-Kohi / Sailaba fanning excluding riverine areas. Indigenous Spate Irrigation/ hill torrent-irrigation systems traditionally called Rod-Kohi. Rod means water channel, and Kohi pertains to mountains. In these areas, the major constraint is the use of flood flow, which is highly variable in quantity and distribution, both in time and space. Annual rainfall is low, uncertain, and patchy. Flow is laden with high silt in each flood. It is unfortunate that in spite of the scarcity of water, the major part of flood flows is lost due to mismanagement. Spate irrigation often takes place in environments that are arid and remote. Poverty in these areas is a significant issue. There are very few options for generating income and improvement of livelihood. Abject poverty in the areas affected by the Rod-Kohi water calls for rational and scientific management of flood flows.

Rod-Kohi or hill torrent cultivation is a unique system of agriculture being practiced in all the four provinces. In NWFP, D.I.Khan tract represents the major part of the system fed by five large tributaries locally named as "Zams." In Punjab, a significant portion of the system falls in the districts of D.G.Khan, Rajanpur, and Jampur. In Balochistan, this system falls in the areas of Barkhan, Musakhail, Loralai, Zhob, Bolan, and Lasbella. In Sindh province, the system is spread in Dadu & Larkana district (Kirthar range). The largest area under the regime of agriculture lies in Balochistan.

Spate Irrigation is a traditionally used system for diverting hill torrents into cultivable command areas for growing seasonal crops. Extreme events of floods and droughts characterize the farming system. It usually entails the construction of an earthen diversion weir across the torrent with an extensive channel on one or both sides of the river to convey floodwater across vast distances. These earthen diversion structures and water conveyance system has traditionally been constructed by the beneficiaries/communities themselves, making use of traditional technology. Farmers construct field by making embankments from 3 to 6 feet (1.8 m) high to store the water depending upon the soil type, share in water, and various other factors. Upon drying, crops are sown, which thrive on the moisture stored in the soil. There is no further irrigation except rains if any occurs. The economic significance of Rod-Kohi Irrigation agriculture is centered on subsistence agriculture and livestock raising, which are the primary sources of income. Another aspect of the Spate Irrigation System of Rod-Kohi areas is the occurrence of the perennial water (known as Kalapani), which is available throughout the year in the upper reaches. It contributes significantly to sustainable farming in the area and used for high-value crops like fodder, fruits, and vegetables. The development potential in Rod-Kohi Hill torrent areas is listed below.


In July 2015, due to the heavy rains caused floods in the town. Rajanpur district was badly affected by these flash floods.[10] In Rajanpur, flood water came from Koh Sultan and Shacher torrent (rivulet). This floodwater hit the different union councils of Rajanpur. Hundreds of houses were damaged fully and partially, and inhabitants had to spend time under the open sky. The displaced people have sought shelter in streets and other public buildings and around their chaks (villages).

Table of affected union councils (UCs) with current population and damage caused by the 2015 flood.

No. Population District/ Tehsil/ U/C Damage
01 34886 Rajanpur, Jahanpur Fully
02 34886 Fatih Pur Partially
03 22745 Jam Pur Hajji Pur Partially
04 30978 Rojhan Umer Kot Fully
05 20478 Daajil Tal Shuamili Partially
06 19456 Dajil Buriri wala Partially
07 21568 Daajil Noshira Gherbi Partially
08 23789 Daajil Noor Pur Partially


In assessment and initial findings from the flood-affected district Rajan Pur show that 04 union councils were destroyed U/C Jahan Pur, U/C Fatih Pur, U/C Hajji Pur, and Umer Kot U/C. There was an urgent need for non-food items (NFIs), including mattresses, mosquito nets, kitchen utensils, fuel for daily cooking, and hygiene kits. Yearly food stock was almost washed away, while livestock suffered considerable loss. Affected people faced critical conditions and had suffered economically for at least one whole year as their crops were damaged on a large scale. According to the effects, flood was more massive than the one, some 40 years ago.


Mithankot is the shrine of the great Sufi Saraiki poet Khawaja Ghulam Farid. It is the historical place in Kot Mithan. Thousands of his disciples come to Rajanpur every year on the anniversary of Khawaja Ghulam Farid.[11]

Fazilpur is the shrine of great Peer/Sufi Chan Charagh Shah Sain, a.k.a. Ghorrey Shah Sain. It is the historical place in Fazilpur. Fazilpur is situated in the center (heart) of Rajanpur district. And its importance in district Rajanpur is like a heart in every field, especially politics. Major caste living in Fazilpur are Bhutta, Gopang, Bosan, Mastoi, Mohajir (Yusafzai, Sherwani, Lodhi, Qureshi), Mashori, Dreshak, Korai, Thaheem, Bhatti, Zargar(Sunara) and Mughal Pathan.

Harrand Fort, built in the British era, is situated in the tribal area of Rajanpur.

Basti-Abdullah, named after Maulana Muhammad Abdullah and is also noted for being the resting place of Abdul Rashid Ghazi.[12]

Lalgarh is situated in the foot-hills of Suleman Range mountains.[13] It is HQ of Gorchani tribe. It is a small village, having a population of about 3000 inhabitants. Government offices include a police station, a higher secondary school, a girl's middle school, a civil dispensary, a veterinary dispensary, a telephone exchange & NADRA office.

Maari is the resort hill station in Rajanpur, similar to Muree. Its altitude is 4800  ft. It has freezing weather in summer. Dragal mountain is an altitude of 5,400 ft (1,600 m).

Ada Chiragh Shah is situated on the Indus Highway. There is a shrine of Baba Chiragh Shah, a Sufi peer.

Muhammad Pur Emergency Service Rescue 1122 is fully operational in Muhammad Pur district of Punjab.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ 1998 District Census report of Rajanpur. Census publication. Vol. 27. Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan. 1999.
  2. ^ a b "TABLE 1 : HOUSEHOLDS, POPULATION, HOUSEHOLD SIZE AND ANNUAL GROWTH RATE" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 2023.
  3. ^ 1998 Census figures – Urban Resource Centre Archived 2006-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Tehsils & Unions in the District of Rajanpur – Government of Pakistan Archived 2012-03-26 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Mahmood, Dr Shaukat (14 February 2021). "The mysterious Harrand Fort". thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  6. ^ "MC Rajanpur Website". MC Rajanpur Website. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Population by administrative units 1951-1998" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  8. ^ a b c "District Wise Results / Tables (Census - 2017)". www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  9. ^ "Punjab Annual Schools Census Data 2014–15". Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  10. ^ "Flood Situation in Rajanpur 2015". Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  11. ^ "Urs of Khwaja Ghulam Fareed Ends". Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  12. ^ "Pakistan villagers remember rebel cleric as pious". www.reuters.com. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  13. ^ "LALGARH TUMAN GORCHANI (Dera Nawab Jallab Khan Gorchani)".

External links[edit]

29°06′17″N 70°19′32″E / 29.104650°N 70.325665°E / 29.104650; 70.325665