Province of Quebec
Province de Québec (French)
|Common languages||French, English|
|Religion||Roman Catholicism, Protestantism|
• 1764-1766 (first)[a]
|10 February 1763|
|7 October 1763|
|22 June 1774|
|26 December 1791|
|ISO 3166 code||CA|
|Today part of|
The Province of Quebec (French: Province de Québec) was a colony in British North America which comprised the former French colony of Canada. It was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1763, following the conquest of New France by British forces during the Seven Years' War. As part of the Treaty of Paris, France gave up its claim to the colony; it instead negotiated to keep the small profitable island of Guadeloupe.
Following the Royal Proclamation of 1763, Canada was renamed the Province of Quebec, and from 1774 extended from the coast of Labrador on the Atlantic Ocean, southwest through the Saint Lawrence River Valley to the Great Lakes and beyond to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Portions of its southwest, those areas south of the Great Lakes, were later ceded to the newly established United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783) at the conclusion of the American Revolution; although the British maintained a military presence there until 1796 and the Jay Treaty. In 1791, the territory north of the Great Lakes was reorganised and divided into Lower Canada and Upper Canada.
In 1774, the Parliament of Great Britain, Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister, passed the Quebec Act that allowed Quebec to restore the use of French customary law (Coutume de Paris) in private matters alongside the English common law system, and allowing the Catholic Church to collect tithes. The act also enlarged the boundaries of Quebec to include the Ohio Country and part of the Illinois Country, from the Appalachian Mountains on the east, south to the Ohio River, west to the Mississippi River and north to the southern boundary of lands owned by the Hudson's Bay Company, or Rupert's Land.
Prince Edward Duke of Kent lived in Quebec City (Known as the Prince of Quebec)from 1791-1793 this was when Michigan territory was a part of Quebec and a member of Parliament. Detroit was transferred to Quebec under the Quebec Act of 1774 . It was then the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec, after Montreal and Quebec. 1792 Detroit, including settlements on both sides of the river, holds its first election, sending three representatives to the Parliament of Upper Canada. The Act Against Slavery, 1793, an anti-slavery act passed in Upper Canada. The Act was created partially in response to Loyalist refugees who brought slaves with them.
Michigan Territory was a part of Upper Canada from 1790-1796 British control of Detroit and Michigan after the American Revolution. When Quebec split into Lower and Upper Canada in 1791, Michigan was part of Kent County, Upper Canada. It held its first democratic elections in August 1792 to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake).
Western District was one of four districts of the Province of Quebec created in 1788 in the western reaches of the Montreal District which were later detached in 1791 to create the new colony of Upper Canada. Known as Hesse District (named after Hesse in Germany) until 1792.
Through Quebec, the British Crown retained access to the Ohio and Illinois Countries after the Treaty of Paris (1783) ceded control of this land to the United States. By well-established trade and military routes across the Great Lakes, the British continued to supply not only their own troops but a wide alliance of Native American nations through Detroit, Fort Niagara, Fort Michilimackinac, and so on, until these posts were turned over to the United States following the Jay Treaty (1794).
Quebec retained its seigneurial system after the conquest. Owing to an influx of Loyalist refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the demographics of Quebec came to shift and now included a substantial English-speaking Protestant element from the former Thirteen Colonies. These United Empire Loyalists settled mainly in the Eastern Townships, Montreal, and what was known then as the pays d'en haut west of the Ottawa River. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the colony in two at the Ottawa River, so that the western part (Upper Canada) could be under the English legal system, with English speakers in the majority. The eastern part was named Lower Canada.
- James Murray 1760–1766
- Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester 1766–1778
- Sir Frederick Haldimand 1778–1786
- Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester 1786–1796
There were also "lieutenant governors", but these were merely the deputies of the governors, and should not be confused with the subsequent to 1791 Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec.
- Guy Carleton (lieutenant governor to James Murray) 1766–1768
- Hector Theophilus de Cramahé (lieutenant governor to Guy Carleton) 1771–1782
- Henry Hamilton (lieutenant governor to Frederick Haldimand) 1782–1785
- Henry Hope (lieutenant governor to the Lord Dorchester) 1785–1788
- Alured Clarke (lieutenant governor to the Lord Dorchester) 1790
Counsellors to the governor
The Province of Quebec did not have an elected legislature and was ruled directly by the governor with advice from counsellors. A council responsible to advise the governor (then James Murray) on all affairs of state was created in 1764. In 1774, the Quebec Act created a Council for the Affairs of the Province of Quebec to advise the governor on legislative affairs. The Legislative Council served as an advisory council to the governor until a legislative assembly was established after 1791.
The individuals James Murray called into the council from 1764 to 1766:
|Chief Justice William Gregory||1764||served until 1766|
|Chief Justice William Hey (1733–1797)||1764||Chief Justice of Quebec 1766–1773|
|Attorney General George Suckling (1759–178?)||1764||lawyer; served until 1766; most of his career was in the West Indies|
|Lieutenant Paulus Aemilius Irving (1714–1796)||1764||served until 1768; acting President of the Council 1766–1768; commander-in-Chief of British Forces in Quebec and administrator 1766–1768|
|Hector Theophilus de Cramahé (1720–1788)||1764||served until 1766 Lieutenant Governor of Quebec 1771–1782; later member of the Legislative Council|
|Adam Mabane (1734–1792)||1764||served until 1766; British Army physician and judge; later member of the Legislative Council 1775–1792|
|Walter Murray (1701?–1772)||1764||served until 1771; relative to then Governor Murray; British Army officer under James Wolfe; head of the Port of Quebec and justice of the peace and Receiver General|
|Captain Samuel Holland (1728–1801)||1764||served until 1770?; British Army officer and served as first Surveyor General of British North America|
|Thomas Dunn (1729–1818)||1764||served until 1774; colonial administrator and soldier; merchant; master in the Court of Chancery 1764; later member of the Legislative Council|
|François Mounier (?–1769)||1764||served until 1769; Huguenot merchant, justice of the peace; examiner in the Court of Chancery and judge of the Court of Common Pleas 1764–1769|
|Captain James Cuthbert Sr. (1719–1798)||1766||served until 1774; army officer (15th Regiment of Foot), merchant, justice of the peace; Seigneur of Berthier|
|Benjamin Price (?–1768 or 1769)||1764||served until 1768; merchant, justice of the peace, master in the Court of Chancery 1764–1768|
List of councillors under Carleton from 1766 to 1774:
|Chief Justice William Hey||1766||appointed during Murray's term as Governor; Chief Justice of Quebec 1766–1773|
|Attorney General Francis Maseres (1731–1824)||1766||served until 1769; lawyer, office holder, and author|
|Lieutenant Paulus Aemilius Irving (1714–1796)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and till 1768; acting President of the Council 1766–1768; commander-in-chief of British Forces in Quebec and administrator 1766–1768|
|Hector Theophilus de Cramahé (1720–1788)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1771; Lieutenant Governor of Quebec 1771–1782; later member of the Legislative Council|
|Adam Mabane (1734–1792)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1766; British Army physician and judge; later member of the Legislative Council 1775–1792|
|Walter Murray (1701?–1772)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1771; relative to then Governor Murray; British Army officer under James Wolfe; head of the Port of Quebec and justice of the peace and Receiver General|
|Captain Samuel Holland (1728–1801)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1770; British Army officer and served as first Surveyor General of British North America|
|Thomas Dunn (1729–1818)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and unilt 1774; colonial administrator and soldier; merchant; master in the Court of Chancery 1764; later member of the Legislative Council|
|François Mounier||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1769; Huguenot merchant, justice of the peace; examiner in the Court of Chancery and judge of the Court of Common Pleas 1764–1769|
|Captain James Cuthbert Sr. (1719–1798)||1766||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1774; army officer (15th Regiment of Foot), merchant, justice of the peace; Seigneur of Berthier|
|Benjamin Price (?–1768 or 1769)||1764||appointed during Murray's term as governor and served until 1768; merchant, justice of the peace, master in the Court of Chancery 1764–1768|
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Around 1763 to 1764, the province was divided into two judicial districts:
- Montreal District – covering the western parts of Quebec along the St. Lawrence River including Montreal and much of Ontario (Eastern and Southern Ontario)
- Quebec District – covering the eastern parts of Quebec along the St. Lawrence and Labrador
In 1790, the Trois-Rivières District was formed out of part of Quebec District.
The Trois-Rivières and Quebec districts continued after 1791 when Lower Canada came into existence, while Montreal District west of the Ottawa River became Upper Canada and east of the Ottawa River was partitioned into many electoral districts.
- Colin G. Calloway (2006). The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford U.P. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-804119-1.
- "Province of Quebec 1763–91". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- "No. 11867". The London Gazette. 18 April 1778. p. 1.
- in collaboration with; Marshall, Peter (1979). "Hey, William". In Halpenny, Francess G (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. IV (1771–1800) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- As military governor from 1760 to 1764.
- First tenure; as acting governor from 1766 to 1768.
- Second tenure; as governor-in-chief of the Canadas from 1786 to 1796.
- Burt, Alfred LeRoy. The Old Province of Quebec. Toronto: Ryerson Press; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1933. Reprinted Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968.
- Lahaise, Robert and Vallerand, Noël. Le Québec sous le régime anglais : les Canadiens français, la colonisation britannique et la formation du Canada continental. Outremont, Québec : Lanctôt, 1999.
- Neatby, Hilda. Quebec: The Revolutionary Age, 1760–1791. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1966.