The Telecommunication Portal
Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the human voice, but with a similar scale of expediency; thus, slow systems (such as postal mail) are excluded from the field.
The transmission media in telecommunication have evolved through numerous stages of technology, from beacons and other visual signals (such as smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs), to electrical cable and electromagnetic radiation, including light. Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels, which afford the advantages of multiplexing multiple concurrent communication sessions. Telecommunication is often used in its plural form.
Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages, such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, television and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, optical fiber, and communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (inventors of the telegraph), Antonio Meucci and Alexander Graham Bell (some of the inventors and developers of the telephone, see Invention of the telephone), Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest (inventors of radio), as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (some of the inventors of television).
The early telecommunication networks were created with copper wires as the physical medium for signal transmission. For many years, these networks were used for basic phone services, namely voice and telegrams. Since the mid-1990s, as the internet has grown in popularity, voice has been gradually supplanted by data. This soon demonstrated the limitations of copper in data transmission, prompting the development of optics. (Full article...)
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The history of the Internet has its origin in information theory and the efforts of scientists and engineers to build and interconnect computer networks. The Internet Protocol Suite, the set of rules used to communicate between networks and devices on the Internet, arose from research and development in the United States and involved international collaboration, particularly with researchers in the United Kingdom and France.Computer science was an emerging discipline in the late 1950s that began to consider time-sharing between computer users, and later, the possibility of achieving this over wide area networks. J. C. R. Licklider developed the idea of a universal network at the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Independently, Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation proposed a distributed network based on data in message blocks in the early 1960s, and Donald Davies conceived of packet switching in 1965 at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), proposing a national commercial data network in the United Kingdom. (Full article...)
Tage Erlander using an Ericsson videophone to speak with Lennart Hyland, a popular TV show host (1969) (from History of videotelephony)Swedish Prime Minister
Norman Banks at the 3KZ microphone, in the late 1930s (from History of broadcasting)Naomi ("Joan") Melwit and
Picturephone, the result of decades long R&D at a cost of over $500M. (from History of telecommunication)The 1969 AT&T Mod II
Kerbango Internet Radio" was the first stand-alone product that let users listen to Internet radio without a computer. (from History of broadcasting)The "
Nipkow disk. This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes, which may also be square for greater precision. The area of the disk outlined in black shows the region scanned. (from History of television)The
Marconi Company was formed in England in 1910. The photo shows a typical early scene, from 1906, with Marconi employee Donald Manson at right. (from History of broadcasting)The
Philco Predicta, 1958. In the collection of The Children's Museum of Indianapolis (from History of television)The
Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) phone was introduced in Japan (1999). (from History of videotelephony)The Kyocera VP-210 Visual Phone was the first commercial mobile videophone. The
Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876. (from History of the telephone)
Manfred von Ardenne in 1933 (from History of television)
tin can or "lovers' telephone" (from History of the telephone)A 19th century acoustic
Australian Broadcasting Corporation logo, first introduced in 1975 and based on the Lissajous curve (from History of broadcasting)The
Regency TR-1, which used Texas Instruments' NPN transistors, was the world's first commercially produced transistor radio in 1954. (from History of radio)The
Gower telephone of 1912 at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris (from History of the telephone)A French
telegraph ticker machine by Thomas Edison (from History of telecommunication)Stock
Baird in 1925 with his televisor equipment and dummies "James" and "Stooky Bill" (right). (from History of television)
- Bell prototype telephone stamp(from History of the telephone)
Centennial Issue of 1976
John Ambrose Fleming in 1897 (from History of radio)Early experiment demonstrating refraction of microwaves by a paraffin lens by
Broadcasting House, opened in 1932. At right is the 2005 eastern extension, the John Peel wing. (from History of broadcasting)The British Broadcasting Corporation's landmark and iconic London headquarters,
test pattern, sometimes used when no program material is available. (from History of television)Color bars used in a
Sweden) (from History of the telephone)1896 Telephone (
Alexander Graham Bell in a 1926 silent film. Shows Bell's first telephone transmitter (microphone), invented 1876 and first displayed at the Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia. (from History of the telephone)Actor portraying
Labor Council of New South Wales. This photo was taken in earlier days when Voight was a prominent British athlete, and winner of the Gold Medal for the five mile race at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. (from History of broadcasting)Emil Voigt, founder of 2KY on behalf of the
Claude Chappe's semaphore towers (optical telegraph) in Nalbach, Germany (from History of telecommunication)A replica of one of
Thomas Edison invented the carbon microphone which produced a strong telephone signal. (from History of the telephone)
Audion vacuum tube radio transmitter, built in 1914 by Lee De Forest who invented the Audion (triode) in 1906 (from History of radio)The first commercial AM
Elisha Gray, 1876, designed a telephone using a water microphone in Highland Park, Illinois. (from History of the telephone)
Tivadar Puskás proposed the telephone switchboard exchange in 1876. (from History of the telephone)
printed circuit boards exposed (courtesy: Richard Diehl) (from History of videotelephony)Right side view, housing removed, one of its
rotary dial telephone, the W48 (from History of the telephone)A German
United States government publication, "Construction and Operation of a Simple Homemade Radio Receiving Outfit", showed how almost any person handy with simple tools could a build an effective crystal radio receiver. (from History of radio)In the 1920s, the
Philipp Reis, 1861, constructed the first telephone, today called the Reis telephone. (from History of the telephone)
Edison" combination videophone-television, conceptualized by George du Maurier and published in Punch magazine. The drawing also depicts then-contemporary speaking tubes, used by the parents in the foreground and their daughter on the viewing display (1878). (from History of videotelephony)"Fiction becomes fact": Imaginary "
Antonio Meucci's telephone. (from History of the telephone)
Antonio Meucci, 1854, constructed telephone-like devices. (from History of the telephone)
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Did you know (auto-generated) -
- ... that FCC chairman Ajit Pai has cited his hometown radio station, KLKC in Parsons, Kansas, in advocating for a revitalization of AM broadcasting?
- ... that the 1988 closure of WLEE, once one of the top radio stations in Richmond, Virginia, also took WBBL, a church station in existence for nearly 65 years, off the air for good?
- ... that Gernot Roll, considered an expert in literary adaptations, was the cinematographer for the 11-part television series The Buddenbrooks based on Thomas Mann's novel?
- ... that Lucy Feagin founded the Feagin School of Dramatic Art in New York City, where talent scouts for radio, screen, and stage were always present to watch her senior students' plays?
- ... that a new-age music format called "The Breeze" was a ratings failure for Nebraska radio station KLMS, causing a precipitous decline in listenership?
- ... that radio station WWBC in Cocoa, Florida, was forced to remove its transmitter tower from the Indian River when the site was sold to condominium developers?
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