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Portal:Numismatics

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The Numismatics Portal

Electrum coin from Ephesus, 520-500 BCE. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, medals and related objects.

Specialists, known as numismatists, are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, but the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other means of payment used to resolve debts and exchange goods.

The earliest forms of money used by people are referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in prison). As an example, the Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit, and gave small change in lambskins; the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horses are not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems. (Full article...)

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Early American currency went through several stages of development during the colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States. John Hull was authorized by the Massachusetts legislature to make the earliest coinage of the colony, the willow, the oak, and the pine tree shilling in 1652.

Since there were few coins minted in the Thirteen Colonies, that later became the United States, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated. Colonial governments, at times, issued paper money to facilitate economic activities. The British Parliament passed Currency Acts in 1751, 1764, and 1773, that regulated colonial paper money. (Full article...)
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United States penny, obverse, 2002.png

Credit: US Mint, User:Dbenbenn & Sniff

A stunning 2002 Lincoln cent proof with a mirror-like finish. Lincoln's profile is complemented by a frosty cameo finish.

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Newfoundland 2 dollar coin

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The back of an Italian florin coin
The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time. It had 54 grains (3.49914114 grams, 0.1125 troy ounce) of nominally pure or 'fine' gold with a purchasing power difficult to estimate (and variable) but ranging according to social grouping and perspective from approximately 140 to 1000 modern US dollars. The name of the coin comes from the Giglio bottonato (it), the floral emblem of the city, which is represented at the head of the coin. (Full article...)

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HUP 100MB 1946 obverse.jpg
Credit: User:Timur lenk.
100 000 000 b.‑pengő (1020 pengő). Highest numbered banknote issued during the worst hyperinflation in the history.

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Numismatic terminology

  • Bullion – Precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) in the form of bars, ingots or plate.
  • Error – Usually a mis-made coin not intended for circulation, but can also refer to an engraving or die-cutting error not discovered until the coins are released to circulation. This may result is two or more varieties of the coin in the same year.
  • Exonumia – The study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.
  • Fineness – Purity of precious metal content expressed in terms of one thousand parts. 90% is expressed as .900 fine.
  • Notaphily – The study of paper money or banknotes.
  • Scripophily – The study and collection of stocks and Bonds.

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Numismatic topics



List articles

Central banks • Currencies • Circulating currencies • Historical currencies • US community currencies • Canadian community currencies • Mints • Motifs on banknotes • Most expensive coins

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Most traded currencies

Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[1]
Rank Currency ISO 4217
code
Symbol Proportion of
daily volume,
April 2019
1
United States dollar
USD
US$
88.3%
2
Euro
EUR
32.3%
3
Japanese yen
JPY
円 / ¥
16.8%
4
Pound sterling
GBP
£
12.8%
5
Australian dollar
AUD
A$
6.8%
6
Canadian dollar
CAD
C$
5.0%
7
Swiss franc
CHF
CHF
5.0%
8
Renminbi
CNY
元 / ¥
4.3%
9
Hong Kong dollar
HKD
HK$
3.5%
10
New Zealand dollar
NZD
NZ$
2.1%
11
Swedish krona
SEK
kr
2.0%
12
South Korean won
KRW
2.0%
13
Singapore dollar
SGD
S$
1.8%
14
Norwegian krone
NOK
kr
1.8%
15
Mexican peso
MXN
$
1.7%
16
Indian rupee
INR
1.7%
17
Russian ruble
RUB
1.1%
18
South African rand
ZAR
R
1.1%
19
Turkish lira
TRY
1.1%
20
Brazilian real
BRL
R$
1.1%
21
New Taiwan dollar
TWD
NT$
0.9%
22
Danish krone
DKK
kr
0.6%
23
Polish złoty
PLN
0.6%
24
Thai baht
THB
฿
0.5%
25
Indonesian rupiah
IDR
Rp
0.4%
26
Hungarian forint
HUF
Ft
0.4%
27
Czech koruna
CZK
0.4%
28
Israeli new shekel
ILS
0.3%
29
Chilean peso
CLP
CLP$
0.3%
30
Philippine peso
PHP
0.3%
31
UAE dirham
AED
د.إ
0.2%
32
Colombian peso
COP
COL$
0.2%
33
Saudi riyal
SAR
0.2%
34
Malaysian ringgit
MYR
RM
0.1%
35
Romanian leu
RON
L
0.1%
Other 2.2%
Total[note 1] 200.0%

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Sources

  1. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair; one currency is sold (e.g. US$) and another bought (€). Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the U.S. Dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all trades, whereas the Euro is bought or sold 32% of the time.
  1. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2019" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. 16 September 2019. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-02-07. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
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