Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease quickly spread worldwide, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Transmission and life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, use of face masks or coverings in public, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms through supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

The pandemic caused severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruptions and panic buying. Reduced human activity led to an unprecedented temporary decrease in pollution. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed during 2020 and 2021. Telework became much more common for white-collar workers as the pandemic evolved. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights. (Full article)
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About the virus

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus—which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families. Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article)

Disease progress

As of 28 February 2024, 774,690,816 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 7,031,395 reported deaths.[1]


Updated February 28, 2024.
COVID-19 pandemic by location[1]
Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 774,690,816 7,031,395
European Union European Union[b] 185,570,287 1,259,953
United States United States 103,436,829 1,174,676
China China[c] 99,331,724 121,956
India India 45,028,053 533,472
France France 38,997,490 167,985
Germany Germany 38,437,756 174,979
Brazil Brazil 37,519,960 702,116
South Korea South Korea 34,571,873 35,934
Japan Japan 33,803,572 74,694
Italy Italy 26,709,711 196,495
United Kingdom United Kingdom 24,905,537 232,112
Russia Russia 23,931,163 402,097
Turkey Turkey 17,004,677 101,419
Spain Spain 13,980,340 121,852
Australia Australia 11,785,104 24,712
Vietnam Vietnam 11,624,000 43,206
Argentina Argentina 10,078,785 130,548
Taiwan Taiwan 9,970,937 17,672
Netherlands Netherlands 8,635,061 22,986
Mexico Mexico 7,702,809 334,958
Iran Iran 7,627,186 146,811
Indonesia Indonesia 6,828,326 162,050
Poland Poland 6,658,852 120,665
Colombia Colombia 6,377,200 142,727
Austria Austria 6,081,287 22,534
Portugal Portugal 5,642,588 28,109
Greece Greece 5,621,136 38,910
Ukraine Ukraine 5,538,535 109,918
Chile Chile 5,309,067 61,602
Malaysia Malaysia 5,273,996 37,347
Belgium Belgium 4,858,974 34,339
Israel Israel 4,841,558 12,707
Canada Canada 4,778,491 54,259
Thailand Thailand 4,766,751 34,564
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4,758,033 43,488
Peru Peru 4,536,733 221,583
Switzerland Switzerland 4,452,080 14,179
Philippines Philippines 4,140,383 66,864
South Africa South Africa 4,072,636 102,595
Romania Romania 3,523,438 68,697
Denmark Denmark 3,434,162 9,593
Singapore Singapore 3,001,665 2,024
Hong Kong Hong Kong 2,876,106 13,466
Sweden Sweden 2,750,659 27,172
Serbia Serbia 2,583,470 18,057
New Zealand New Zealand 2,484,766 3,803
Iraq Iraq 2,465,545 25,375
Hungary Hungary 2,230,094 49,040
Bangladesh Bangladesh 2,047,887 29,486
Slovakia Slovakia 1,877,452 21,221
Georgia (country) Georgia 1,855,289 17,132
Jordan Jordan 1,746,997 14,122
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 1,734,028 9,509
Pakistan Pakistan 1,580,631 30,656
Norway Norway 1,506,638 5,732
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,503,687 19,072
Finland Finland 1,499,712 11,462
Lithuania Lithuania 1,364,151 9,797
Slovenia Slovenia 1,355,698 10,017
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,328,660 38,690
Croatia Croatia 1,309,728 18,687
Morocco Morocco 1,278,988 16,303
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 1,252,713 5,938
Guatemala Guatemala 1,250,283 20,199
Lebanon Lebanon 1,239,904 10,947
Costa Rica Costa Rica 1,230,653 9,368
Bolivia Bolivia 1,198,010 22,382
Tunisia Tunisia 1,153,361 29,423
Cuba Cuba 1,115,043 8,530
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,067,030 2,349
Ecuador Ecuador 1,066,530 36,031
Panama Panama 1,039,328 8,656
Uruguay Uruguay 1,037,906 7,625
Mongolia Mongolia 1,011,459 2,284
Nepal Nepal 1,003,450 12,031
Belarus Belarus 994,037 7,118
Latvia Latvia 977,701 7,465
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 841,469 9,646
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 834,785 10,353
Paraguay Paraguay 735,759 19,880
State of Palestine Palestine 703,228 5,708
Bahrain Bahrain 696,614 1,536
Cyprus Cyprus 681,110 1,365
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 672,748 16,897
Kuwait Kuwait 667,139 2,570
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 661,180 4,384
Myanmar Myanmar 641,775 19,494
Moldova Moldova 634,759 12,216
Estonia Estonia 609,993 2,994
Venezuela Venezuela 552,695 5,856
Egypt Egypt 516,023 24,830
Qatar Qatar 514,524 690
Libya Libya 507,269 6,437
Ethiopia Ethiopia 501,117 7,574
Réunion Réunion 494,595 921
Honduras Honduras 472,606 11,114
Armenia Armenia 451,426 8,775
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 403,585 16,385
Oman Oman 399,449 4,628
Luxembourg Luxembourg 391,093 1,000
North Macedonia North Macedonia 350,533 9,973
Zambia Zambia 349,304 4,069
Kenya Kenya 344,094 5,689
Brunei Brunei 343,199 178
Albania Albania 334,863 3,605
Botswana Botswana 330,417 2,800
Mauritius Mauritius 326,805 1,069
Kosovo Kosovo 274,279 3,212
Algeria Algeria 272,010 6,881
Nigeria Nigeria 267,188 3,155
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 266,350 5,737
Montenegro Montenegro 251,280 2,654
Mozambique Mozambique 233,731 2,250
Afghanistan Afghanistan 231,990 7,982
Martinique Martinique 230,354 1,104
Laos Laos 218,931 671
Iceland Iceland 209,895 186
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe 203,235 1,021
El Salvador El Salvador 201,808 4,230
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 191,496 4,390
Maldives Maldives 186,694 316
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 175,081 1,016
Namibia Namibia 172,280 4,103
Uganda Uganda 171,890 3,632
Ghana Ghana 171,834 1,462
Jamaica Jamaica 156,753 3,592
Cambodia Cambodia 139,091 3,056
Rwanda Rwanda 133,208 1,468
Cameroon Cameroon 125,137 1,974
Malta Malta 121,380 902
Barbados Barbados 108,025 593
Angola Angola 107,325 1,937
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 99,338 1,468
French Guiana French Guiana 98,041 413
Malawi Malawi 89,168 2,686
Senegal Senegal 89,050 1,971
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 88,953 1,024
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 88,384 835
Suriname Suriname 82,496 1,405
New Caledonia New Caledonia 80,064 314
French Polynesia French Polynesia 79,254 650
Eswatini Eswatini 75,191 1,427
Guyana Guyana 73,805 1,300
Belize Belize 70,799 688
Fiji Fiji 69,047 885
Madagascar Madagascar 68,486 1,426
Jersey Jersey 66,391 161
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 64,474 417
Sudan Sudan 63,993 5,046
Mauritania Mauritania 63,839 997
Bhutan Bhutan 62,697 21
Syria Syria 57,423 3,163
Burundi Burundi 54,555 15
Guam Guam 52,287 419
Seychelles Seychelles 51,220 172
Gabon Gabon 49,051 307
Andorra Andorra 48,015 159
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 46,864 670
Curaçao Curaçao 45,883 305
Aruba Aruba 44,224 292
Tanzania Tanzania 43,223 846
Mayotte Mayotte 42,027 187
Togo Togo 39,527 290
Guinea Guinea 38,572 468
The Bahamas Bahamas 38,084 844
Isle of Man Isle of Man 38,008 116
Lesotho Lesotho 36,138 709
Guernsey Guernsey 35,326 67
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 34,658 28
Haiti Haiti 34,276 860
Mali Mali 33,164 743
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 31,472 37
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 30,068 409
Benin Benin 28,036 163
Somalia Somalia 27,334 1,361
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 26,547 65
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 25,954 199
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands 25,389 132
San Marino San Marino 25,292 126
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 25,213 389
East Timor Timor-Leste 23,460 138
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 22,109 400
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 21,574 89
Gibraltar Gibraltar 20,550 113
Grenada Grenada 19,693 238
Bermuda Bermuda 18,860 165
South Sudan South Sudan 18,819 147
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,786 125
Monaco Monaco 17,181 67
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 17,130 183
Samoa Samoa 16,962 31
Tonga Tonga 16,950 12
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 16,138 17
Dominica Dominica 15,760 74
Nicaragua Nicaragua 15,729 245
Djibouti Djibouti 15,690 189
Central African Republic Central African Republic 15,440 113
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 14,341 41
The Gambia Gambia 12,626 372
Collectivity of Saint Martin Collectivity of Saint Martin 12,324 46
Vanuatu Vanuatu 12,019 14
Greenland Greenland 11,971 21
Yemen Yemen 11,945 2,159
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 11,922 41
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten 11,051 92
Eritrea Eritrea 10,189 103
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,674 124
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 9,614 177
Niger Niger 9,515 315
Comoros Comoros 9,109 160
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 9,106 146
American Samoa American Samoa 8,359 34
Liberia Liberia 7,930 294
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 7,779 125
Chad Chad 7,698 194
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands 7,392 64
Cook Islands Cook Islands 7,203 2
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 6,747 40
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 6,736 80
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 6,607 46
Palau Palau 6,265 9
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy 5,507 5
Nauru Nauru 5,393 1
Kiribati Kiribati 5,085 24
Anguilla Anguilla 3,904 12
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 3,550 8
Macau Macau 3,514 121
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 3,426 2
Tuvalu Tuvalu 2,943 1
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 2,166
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 1,923
Montserrat Montserrat 1,403 8
Niue Niue 993
Tokelau Tokelau 80 0
Vatican City Vatican City 26 0
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands 4
North Korea North Korea 1 6
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 0 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

About the symptoms

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The symptoms of COVID-19 are variable depending on the type of variant contracted, ranging from mild symptoms to a potentially fatal illness. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), with less common ones including headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple, and in moderate to severe cases, breathing difficulties. People with the COVID-19 infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; and a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, or throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of symptomatic cases. (Full article)

About the spread

COVID-19 is mainly transmitted when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets/aerosols and small airborne particles containing the virus. Infected people exhale those particles as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Transmission is more likely the closer people are. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.

Infectious particles range in size from aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time to larger droplets that remain airborne briefly or fall to the ground. Additionally, COVID-19 research has redefined the traditional understanding of how respiratory viruses are transmitted. The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, but can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, or mouth to infect. Aerosols are highest in concentration when people are in close proximity, which leads to easier viral transmission when people are physically close, but airborne transmission can occur at longer distances, mainly in locations that are poorly ventilated; in those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hours. (Full article)

Containment measures

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact.
Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behaviour changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into elimination and mitigation. Experts differentiate between" zero-COVID", which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community. Containment strategies consists of the use of public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software.These strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.

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4 December 2023 –
Gold prices reach a new peak of US$2,135.39 per ounce, surpassing the previous record from 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. (AFP via The Economic Times)

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences including the COVID-19 recession, the second largest global recession in recent history, decreased business in the services sector during the COVID-19 lockdowns, the 2020 stock market crash, which included the largest single-week stock market decline since the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the impact of COVID-19 on financial markets, the 2021–2023 global supply chain crisis, the 2021–2023 inflation surge, shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic including the 2020–present global chip shortage, panic buying, and price gouging. It led to governments providing an unprecedented amount of stimulus. The pandemic was also a factor in the 2021–2022 global energy crisis and 2022–2023 food crises.

Many fashion, sport, and technology events have been canceled or have changed to be online. While the monetary impact on the travel and trade industry is yet to be estimated, it is likely to be in the billions and increasing. (Full article)

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of COVID-19. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as remote work and flextime, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, social distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article)

Misinformation

False information, including intentional disinformation and conspiracy theories, about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main types of tests detect either the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread of COVID‑19 and reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19. According to a June 2022 study, COVID‑19 vaccines prevented an additional 14.4 to 19.8 million deaths in 185 countries and territories from 8 December 2020 to 8 December 2021. Many countries implemented phased distribution plans that prioritized those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers. (Full article)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 29 February 2024, there are 2,434 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ a b Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2024-02-28.

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