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Sunday, June 4, 2023


Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, making it the world's second-largest country by total area, with the world's longest coastline. Its border with the United States is the world's longest international land border. The country is characterized by a wide range of both meteorologic and geological regions. It is sparsely inhabited, with the vast majority residing south of the 55th parallel in urban areas. Canada's capital is Ottawa and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Canada is a parliamentary liberal democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country's head of government is the prime minister, who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons and is "called upon" by the governor general, representing the monarch of Canada, the ceremonial head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual (English and French) in the federal jurisdiction. It is very highly ranked in international measurements of government transparency, quality of life, economic competitiveness, innovation and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its history, economy, and culture. (Full article...)

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In this street battle scene, blue-coated American and British troops face each other in a blizzard. The high city walls are visible in the background to the left, and men fire from second-story windows of buildings lining the narrow lane. A body and scaling ladders lie in blood-stained snow in the foreground.
British and Canadian forces attacking Arnold's column in the Sault-au-Matelot, Charles William Jefferys

The Battle of Quebec (French: Bataille de Québec) was fought on December 31, 1775, between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came with heavy losses. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a motley assortment of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties. (Full article...)

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Jacques plante.jpg
Plante with the Quebec Citadelles in 1948

Joseph Jacques Omer Plante (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑk plɑ̃t]; January 17, 1929 – February 27, 1986) was a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender. During a career lasting from 1947 to 1975, he was considered to be one of the most important innovators in hockey. He played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1953 to 1963; during his tenure, the team won the Stanley Cup six times, including five consecutive wins. In 2017 Plante was named one of the "100 Greatest NHL Players" in history. (Full article...)

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An inuksuk at the Foxe Peninsula, Nunavut, Canada

An inuksuk (plural inuksuit) or inukshuk (from the Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ; alternatively inukhuk in Inuinnaqtun, iñuksuk in Iñupiaq, inussuk in Greenlandic) is a type of stone landmark or cairn built by, and for the use of, Inuit, Iñupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. These structures are found in northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska (United States). This combined region, north of the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks. (Full article...)

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The legal system of Canada is pluralist: its foundations lie in the English common law system (inherited from its period as a colony of the British Empire), the French civil law system (inherited from its French Empire past), and Indigenous law systems developed by the various Indigenous Nations. (Full article...)

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Northwest Crown Fire Experiment, Canada
Credit: (Photograph used by permission of the USDA Forest Service.)

Current events  

June 3, 2023 – 2023 Nova Scotia wildfires
A wildfire in Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, Canada, continues to burn out of control, becoming the largest wildfire in the province's history. (CBC News)
June 2, 2023 – 2023 Central Canada wildfires
The government of Sept-Îles, Quebec, Canada, declares a state of emergency and orders the evacuation of more than 10,000 residents following a series of wildfires in the eastern part of the country. (CNA)
May 24, 2023 – Canada–Saudi Arabia relations
Canada and Saudi Arabia agree to restore full diplomatic relations and to appoint new ambassadors for the first time since a breakdown in relations in 2018 over the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi. (Reuters)
May 11, 2023 – Nuclear power in Canada
The world's first micro-modular reactor is announced to be built at Chalk River Laboratories in Canada by Global First Power. (CTV News Ottawa)
May 9, 2023 – Canada–China relations
The Government of Canada expels Chinese diplomat Zhao Wei following allegations that Zhao targeted Canadian politician Michael Chong. China has denied the allegations and stated that the action would undermine bilateral relations. (CNN)
China expels Canadian diplomat Jennifer Lynn Lalonde in a tit-for-tat decision following the expulsion of Zhao Wei. (ABC News)

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Canada's national parks are protected areas under the Canada National Parks Act, owned by the Government of Canada and administered for the benefit, education, and enjoyment of the people of Canada and its future generations. National parks are administered by Parks Canada, a Crown agency operating under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. The goal of the national parks system is to set aside lands representing the country's 39 distinct natural regions described in the National Parks System Plan, primarily to protect the ecological integrity of the land, and secondarily to allow the public to explore, learn about and enjoy Canada's natural spaces. (Full article...)

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