The 1920s Portal
The (pronounced "nineteen-twenties" often shortened to the " 1920s " or the " '20s Twenties") was a decade that began on January 1, 1920, and ended on December 31, 1929. In America, it is frequently referred to as the " Roaring Twenties" or the " Jazz Age", while in Europe the period is sometimes referred to as the " Golden Twenties" because of the economic boom following World War I (1914–1918). French speakers refer to the period as the " ("crazy years"), emphasizing the era's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.
The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations in Venezuela, which became the world's second-largest oil-producing nation. The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America and Europe. In the Soviet Union, the New Economic Policy was created by the Bolsheviks in 1921, to be replaced by the first five-year plan in 1928. The 1920s saw the rise of radical political movements, with the Red Army triumphing against White movement forces in the Russian Civil War, and the emergence of far-right political movements in Europe. In 1922, the fascist leader Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy. Other dictators that emerged included Józef Piłsudski in Poland, and Peter and Alexander Karađorđević in Yugoslavia. First-wave feminism made advances, with women gaining the right to vote in the United States (1920), Albania (1920), Ireland (1921), and with suffrage being expanded in Britain to all women over 21 years old (1928).
In Turkey, nationalist forces defeated Greece, France, Armenia and Britain in the Turkish War of Independence, leading to the Treaty of Lausanne (July 1923), a treaty more favorable to Turkey than the earlier proposed Treaty of Sèvres. The war also led to the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate. Nationalist revolts also occurred in Ireland (1919–1921) and Syria (1925–1927). Under Mussolini, Italy pursued a more aggressive domestic and foreign policy, leading to the nigh-eradication of the Sicilian Mafia and the Second Italo-Senussi War in Libya respectively. In 1927, China erupted into a civil war between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Civil wars also occurred in Paraguay (1922–1923), Ireland (1922–1923), Honduras (1924), Nicaragua (1926–1927), and Afghanistan (1928–1929). Saudi forces conquered Jabal Shammar and subsequently, Hejaz.
A severe famine occurred in Russia (1921–1922) due to the combined effects of economic disturbance because of the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War, exacerbated by rail systems that could not distribute food efficiently, leading to 5 million deaths. Another severe famine occurred in China (1928–1930), leading to 6 million deaths. The Spanish flu pandemic (1918–1920) and Russian typhus epidemic (1918–1922), which had begun in the previous decade, caused 25–50 million and 2–3 million deaths respectively. Major natural disasters of this decade include the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake (258,707~273,407 deaths), 1922 Shantou typhoon (50,000–100,000 deaths), 1923 Great Kantō earthquake (105,385–142,800 deaths), and 1927 Gulang earthquake (40,912 deaths).
Silent films were popular in this decade, with the highest-grossing film of this decade being either the American silent epic adventure- drama film or the American silent Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ war drama film , depending on the metrics used. The Big Parade Sinclair Lewis was a popular author in the United States in the 1920s, with his books and Main Street becoming best-sellers. Best-selling books outside the US included the Czech book Elmer Gantry , which sold 20 million copies. Songs of this decade included " The Good Soldier Švejk Mack the Knife" and " Tiptoe Through the Tulips".
During the 1920s, the world population increased from 1.87 to 2.05 billion, with approximately 700 million births and 525 million deaths in total. (
Selected article -
is a 1927 American The Jazz Singer part-talkie musical drama film directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros. Pictures. It is the first feature-length motion picture with both synchronized recorded music and lip-synchronous singing and speech (in several isolated sequences). Its release heralded the commercial ascendance of sound films and effectively marked the end of the silent film era with the Vitaphone sound-on-disc system, featuring six songs performed by Al Jolson. Based on the 1925 play of the same title by Samson Raphaelson, the plot was adapted from his short story "The Day of Atonement".
The film depicts the fictional story of Jakie Rabinowitz, a young man who defies the traditions of his devout
family. After singing popular tunes in a
, he is punished by his father, a
(cantor), prompting Jakie to run away from home. Some years later, now calling himself Jack Robin, he has become a talented
singer, performing in
. He attempts to build a career as an entertainer, but his professional ambitions ultimately come into conflict with the demands of his home and heritage. (
Did you know... Related portals Selected biography -
(born Calvin Coolidge John Calvin Coolidge Jr.; ; July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American attorney and politician who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929.
, Coolidge was a
who climbed the ladder of
politics, becoming the state's
. His response to the
Boston Police Strike
of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight as a man of decisive action. The next year, Coolidge was elected the country's 29th
and succeeded the presidency upon the sudden death of President
Warren G. Harding
in 1923. Elected in his own right in
, Coolidge gained a reputation as a
with a taciturn personality and dry sense of humor that earned him the nickname "Silent Cal". Though his widespread popularity enabled him to run for a second full term, Coolidge chose not to run again in
, remarking that ten years as president would be "longer than any other man has had it – too long!" (
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More Did you know (auto generated)
recorded a "timeless" Spain in her photographs of the 1920s? Ruth M. Anderson ... that 1920s and 1930s radio show actress
played the original radio advertisement voice for Artie Belle McGinty Aunt Jemima? ... that
, a coin dealer in Texas who made the hobby popular, advertised his "Mehl-ing list" in the 1920s? B. Max Mehl ... that
Cleo Damianakes 's 1920s book dust jacket designs "made sex respectable", but Hemingway did not like the "large misplaced breasts" on ? A Farewell to Arms ... that the serial arsonist who started the fatal
confessed to starting at least 25 other California fires in the early 1920s? Nihon Shōgakkō fire ... that in the 1920s, Australian journalist predicted military conflict in the Pacific between Japan and the United States? E. George Marks
Categories General images
The following are images from various 1920s-related articles on Wikipedia.
Adolf Hitler (standing) delivers a speech in February 1925 (from )
Jazz Age" (from )
The period from the end of the First World War until the start of the Depression in 1929 is known as the "
Robert Goddard and his rocket, 1926 (from )
Irving Berlin (left) and Al Jolson, c. 1927 (from )
Charlie Chaplin during the 1920s (from )
Third Tipperary Brigade Flying Column No. 2 under Seán Hogan during the ; Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol in accordance to the Irish War of Independence 18th amendment, which made in the United States throughout the entire decade; In 1927, Charles Lindbergh embarks on the first solo nonstop flight from New York to Paris on the alcoholic beverages illegal ; A crowd gathering on Spirit of St. Louis Wall Street after the , which led to the 1929 stock market crash Great Depression; Benito Mussolini and fascist Blackshirts during the in 1922; the March on Rome People's Liberation Army attacking government defensive positions in Shandong, during the ; The Chinese Civil War campaign leads to women's suffrage numerous countries granting women the right to vote and be elected; becomes the most famous baseball player of the time. (from Babe Ruth )
From left, clockwise:
flapper" look. (from )
The most memorable fashion trend of the Roaring Twenties was undoubtedly "the
Wall Street Crash of 1929 (from )
Crowd gathering after the
Babe Ruth in 1920 (from )
San Sebastián, prior to their departure to the Rif War. (from )
Spanish troops in
Flag map of the world from 1920, two years after World War I (from
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) is created in 1922. (from )
Prohibition agents emptying barrels of alcohol. (from
D. W. Griffith at a rolltop desk, c. 1925 (from )