Pitt–Newcastle ministry

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Pitt–Newcastle ministry
William Pitt
Duke of Newcastle
Pitt (top) and Newcastle (bottom)

Between 1757 and 1762,[1] at the height of the Seven Years' War, the Pitt–Newcastle ministry governed the Kingdom of Great Britain. It was headed by Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, serving in his second stint as prime minister. The most influential and famous minister however was William Pitt the Elder, Secretary of State.

History[edit]

The ministry ended a period of political instability, in which Great Britain had struggled in the war. Pitt was a strong war leader, but lacked the support in Parliament necessary to provide effective leadership. Newcastle provided this, as he had a strong base of support in the House of Commons. They divided duties between each other; Pitt directed defence and foreign policy, while Newcastle controlled the nation's finances and patronage.

The ministry led Britain to many victories in the war, particularly in the so-called Annus Mirabilis of 1759, which put the country in a strong position by 1761; that year however, Pitt resigned over a dispute concerning the entry of Spain into the war. Since King George II's death in 1760, the ministry had been under pressure by the accession of George III, who disliked both Pitt and Newcastle and favoured John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. Bute, a Tory, was made Northern Secretary in March 1761, and following Pitt's resignation the ministry is otherwise referred to as the Bute–Newcastle coalition.[2]

In 1762 Newcastle was forced to resign, with his followers (the "Pelhamites") dismissed by Bute in what became known as the "Massacre of the Pelhamite Innocents";[3][4] this is traditionally considered to have been the moment the ministry collapsed.[5]

Ministry[edit]

It is unclear who was a member of the Cabinet.

Portfolio Minister Took office Left office
*1757 (1757)1762 (1762)
1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
1757 (1757)1762 (1762)
Lord President of the Council[9]1757 (1757)1762 (1762)
Lord Privy Seal[10]1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
In commission
1761 (1761)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Leader of the House of Commons*1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Secretary of State for the Southern Department[11]
William Pitt
*
1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Secretary of State for the Northern Department[11]1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Master-General of the Ordnance[12]1757 (1757)1758 (1758)
Vacant
1758 (1758)1759 (1759)
1759 (1759)1762 (1762)
First Lord of the Admiralty[13]1757 (1757)1762 (1762)
Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland[14]1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Lord Chamberlain of the Household[15]1757 (1757)1762 (1762)
Lord Steward of the Household1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster[16]1757 (1757)1758 (1758)
1758 (1758)1762 (1762)
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
The Duke of Bedford
1757 (1757)1761 (1761)
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Master of the Horse[17]1757 (1757)1760 (1760)
1760 (1760)1761 (1761)
The Duke of Rutland
1761 (1761)1762 (1762)
Paymaster of the Forces1757 (1757)1765 (1765)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1980, p. 11 closed access
  2. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1980, p. 12 closed access; Namier & Brooke 1985, p. 539
  3. ^ Roberts, Roberts & Bisson 2016, p. 311 closed access; Kelch 1974, p. 178 open access
  4. ^ Bloy, Marjorie (12 January 2016), "The Massacre of the Pelhamite Innocents", A Web of English History, retrieved 16 August 2017
  5. ^ Middleton 1985, p. 209
  6. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 112 icon of an open green padlock
  7. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 168 icon of an open green padlock
  8. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 105 icon of an open green padlock
  9. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 119 icon of an open green padlock
  10. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 147 icon of an open green padlock
  11. ^ a b Haydn 1851, p. 172 icon of an open green padlock
  12. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 192 icon of an open green padlock
  13. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 160 icon of an open green padlock
  14. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 401 icon of an open green padlock
  15. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 206 icon of an open green padlock
  16. ^ Cook & Stevenson 1988, p. 45 closed access
  17. ^ Haydn 1851, p. 209 icon of an open green padlock

References[edit]

Preceded by Government of Great Britain
27 June 1757 – 26 May 1762 (1757-06-27 – 1762-05-26)
Succeeded by