|IPA Number||423, 428|
|Unicode (hex)||U+02E4 U+0334|
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods:
- A tilde or swung dash (IPA Number 428) is written through the base letter (typographic overstrike). It is the older and more generic symbol. It indicates velarization, uvularization or pharyngealization, as in [ᵶ], the guttural equivalent of [z].
- The symbol ⟨ˤ⟩ (IPA Number 423) – a superscript variant of ⟨ʕ⟩, the voiced pharyngeal approximant – is written after the base letter. It indicates specifically a pharyngealized consonant, as in [tˤ], a pharyngealized [t].
Since Unicode 1.1, there have been two similar superscript characters: IPA ⟨ˤ⟩ (U+02E4 ˤ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL REVERSED GLOTTAL STOP) and Semiticist ⟨ˁ⟩ (U+02C1 ˁ MODIFIER LETTER REVERSED GLOTTAL STOP). U+02E4 is formally a superscript ⟨ʕ⟩ (U+0295 ʕ LATIN LETTER PHARYNGEAL VOICED FRICATIVE, = reversed glottal stop), and in the Unicode charts looks like a simple superscript ⟨ʕ⟩, though in some fonts it looks like a superscript reversed lower-case letter glottal stop ⟨ɂ⟩. U+02C1 is a typographic alternative to ⟨ʿ⟩ (U+02BF ʿ MODIFIER LETTER LEFT HALF RING); which is used to transliterate the Semitic consonant ayin and which = reversed ⟨ʾ⟩, which itself transliterates the glottal Semitic consonants aleph and hamza. In the Unicode charts U+02C1 looks like a reversed ⟨ˀ⟩ (U+02C0 ˀ MODIFIER LETTER GLOTTAL STOP), which is used in the IPA for glottalization. There is no parallel Unicode distinction for modifier glottal stop. The IPA Handbook lists U+02E4 as the Unicode equivalent of IPA Number 423, the dedicated IPA symbol for pharyngealization.
The superimposed tilde is assigned Unicode character U+0334. This was originally intended to combine with other letters to represent pharyngealization. However, that usage is now deprecated (though still functional), and several precomposed letters have been adopted to replace it. These are the labial consonants ⟨ᵱ ᵬ ᵮ ᵯ⟩ and the coronal consonants ⟨ᵵ ᵭ ᵴ ᵶ ᵰ ᵲ ᵳ ɫ⟩.
|Unicode name||Latin letter pharyngeal voiced fricative||modifier letter small reversed glottal stop||modifier letter reversed glottal stop||modifier letter left half ring||combining tilde overlay|
|Numeric character reference||ʕ||ʕ||ˤ||ˤ||ˁ||ˁ||ʿ||ʿ||̴||̴|
Ubykh, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia and Turkey, used pharyngealization in 14 pharyngealized consonants. Chilcotin has pharyngealized consonants that trigger pharyngealization of vowels. Many languages (such as Salishan, Sahaptian) in the Plateau culture area of North America also have pharyngealization processes that are triggered by pharyngeal or pharyngealized consonants, which affect vowels.
The Tuu/“Khoisan” language Taa (or !Xóõ) has pharyngealized vowels that contrast phonemically with voiced, breathy and epiglottalized vowels. That feature is represented in the orthography by a tilde under the respective pharyngealized vowel. In Tuu languages, epiglottalized vowels are phonemic.
For many languages, pharyngealization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants. Dark l tends to be dental or denti-alveolar, but clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Examples of pharyngealized consonants
(Uvularized consonants are not distinguished.)
- pharyngealized voiceless alveolar stop ⓘ (in Chechen, Berber, Arabic, Kurmanji, Mizrahi and Classical Hebrew)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar stop ⓘ (in Chechen, Tamazight and Arabic)
- pharyngealized voiceless bilabial stop [pˤ] (in Kurmanji, Chechen and Ubykh)
- pharyngealized voiced bilabial stop [bˤ] (in Chechen, Ubykh, Siwa, Shihhi Arabic and Iraqi Arabic, allophonic in Adyghe and Kabardian)
- pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop [qˤ] (in Ubykh, Tsakhur, and Archi)
- pharyngealized voiced uvular stop [ɢˤ] (in Tsakhur)
- pharyngealized glottal stop [ʔˤ] (in Shihhi Arabic; allophonic in Chechen)
- pharyngealized voiceless velar plosive [kˤ] (in Kurmanji)
- pharyngealized voiced velar plosive [ɡˤ] (in Sorani)
- pharyngealized voiceless alveolar sibilant ⓘ (in Chechen, Kurmanji, Arabic, Classical Hebrew and Northern Berber)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar sibilant ⓘ (in Chechen, Berber, Arabic and Kurmanji)
- pharyngealized voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃˤ] (in Chechen)
- pharyngealized voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒˤ] (in Chechen)
- pharyngealized voiceless dental fricative [θˤ] (as [θ̬ˤ], a variant pronunciation in Mehri)
- pharyngealized voiced dental fricative ⓘ (in Arabic: ظ)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar lateral fricative ⓘ (in Classical Arabic)
- pharyngealized voiceless labiodental fricative [fˤ] (in Sorani)
- pharyngealized voiced labiodental fricative [vˤ] (in Ubykh)
- pharyngealized voiceless uvular fricative [χˤ] (in Ubykh, Tsakhur, Archi and Bzyb Abkhaz)
- pharyngealized voiced uvular fricative [ʁˤ] (in Ubykh, Tsakhur and Archi)
- pharyngealized voiceless glottal fricative [hˤ] (in Tsakhur)
- pharyngealized voiceless alveolar affricate [tsˤ] (in Chechen)
- pharyngealized voiced alveolar affricate [dzˤ] (in Chechen)
- pharyngealized voiceless postalveolar affricate [tʃˤ] (in Chechen and Kurmanji)
- pharyngealized voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒˤ] (in Chechen)
- pharyngealized bilabial nasal [mˤ] (in Chechen, Ubykh, Moroccan Darija, and Iraqi Arabic)
- pharyngealized alveolar nasal [nˤ] (in Chechen)
- pharyngealized labialized velar approximant [wˤ] (in Shihhi Arabic, Chechen and Ubykh)
- pharyngealized alveolar lateral approximant [lˤ] (in Chechen, and Northern Standard Dutch)
- pharyngealized labialized postalveolar approximant ⓘ (an // variant in American English)
- pharyngealized velar approximant [ɹ̈ˤ], with the body of the tongue bunched up at the velum (in some dialects of American English and Dutch)
Examples of pharyngealized vowels
- pharyngealized open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔˤ] (in Northern Standard Dutch)
- pharyngealized vowels [ɪˤ ɜˤ ʊˤ ɛˤ ~ æˤ ɐˤ ~ aˤ ɔˤ aˤ ~ ɑˤ] in the Air Tamajeq language
- pharyngealized vowels [iˤ uˤ oˤ ɑˤ] in Even
- pharyngealized vowels [iˤ uˤ eˤ əˤ oˤ aˤ] in Tsakhur
- pharyngealized vowels [iˤ uˤ ɛˤ ɔˤ ɑˤ] in Udi
- pharyngealized vowels [iˤ uˤ eˤ oˤ aˤ] in ǃXóõ
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005). Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.). Blackwell.
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005). "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878. S2CID 14140079.
- International Phonetic Association, ed. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press.