Definitions of performance measurement tend to be predicated upon an assumption about why the performance is being measured.
- Moullin defines the term with a forward looking organisational focus—"the process of evaluating how well organisations are managed and the value they deliver for customers and other stakeholders".
- Neely et al. use a more operational retrospective focus—"the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of past actions".
- In 2007 the Office of the Chief Information Officer in the USA defined it using a more evaluative focus—"Performance measurement estimates the parameters under which programs, investments, and acquisitions are reaching the targeted results".
Defining performance measures or methods by which they can be chosen is also a popular activity for academics—for example a list of railway infrastructure indicators is offered by Stenström et al., a novel method for measure selection is proposed by Mendibil et al.
Operational standards often include pre-defined lists of standard performance measures. For example EN 15341 identifies 71 performance indicators, whereof 21 are technical indicators, or those in a US Federal Government directive from 1999—National Partnership for Reinventing Government, USA; Balancing Measures: Best Practices in Performance Management, August 1999.
Academic articles that provide critical reviews of performance measurement in specific domains are also common—e.g. Ittner's observations on non-financial reporting by commercial organisations,; Boris et al.'s observations about use of performance measurement in non-profit organisations, or Bühler et al.'s (2016) analysis of how external turbulence could be reflected in performance measurement systems.
The use of performance measurement system in company is very important, but is rarely used by Small and Medium Enterprises. The use of KPIs as a strategy of management in achieving performance in line with different purposes of an organization, such as research management of a research institute, could be considered as a complex scenario in this context. However, tools that facilitate unique, unambiguous, and homogeneous management of performance, for example KPI-index to integrate all performance indicators from bottom to top of each and every layer of an organization are supposed to act as strategies for better performance management of complex performance management systems.
There is little consensus about how to define or use performance measures apart from an agreement about it being linked to some kind of measurement of performance. This lead to the emergence of organising frameworks that incorporate performance measures. These frameworks often proscribe methods for choosing and using the appropriate measures for that application.
The most common such frameworks include:
- Balanced scorecard—used by organisations to manage the implementation of corporate strategies
- Key performance indicator—a method for choosing important/critical performance measures, usually in an organisational context
Key Performance Indicator
- Behn, Robert D. (2003). Why measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different Measures.
- Moullin, M. (2007) 'Performance measurement definitions. Linking performance measurement and organisational excellence', International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance,20:3,pp. 181-183.
- Moullin, M. (2002), 'Delivering Excellence in Health and Social Care', Open University Press, Buckingham.
- Neely, A.D., Adams, C. and Kennerley, M. (2002), The Performance Prism: The Scorecard for Measuring and Managing Stakeholder Relationships, Financial Times/Prentice Hall, London.
- Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) Enterprise Architecture Program (2007). Treasury IT Performance Measures Guide Archived 2008-12-10 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of the Treasury. May 2007
- FEA Consolidated Reference Model Document. whitehouse.gov May 2005.
- Stenström, C.; Parida, A.; Galar, D. (2012). "Performance Indicators of Railway Infrastructure". International Journal of Railway Technology. 1 (3): 1–18. doi:10.4203/ijrt.1.3.1.
- Mendibil, Kepa; Macbryde, Jillian, Designing effective team-based performance measurement systems: an integrated approach, Centre for Strategic Manufacturing, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, March 2005.
- CEN (2007). EN 15341: Maintenance – Maintenance key performance indicators. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels.
- Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F. (November 2003). "Coming up Short on Nonfinancial Performance Measurement". Harvard Business Review. 81 (11): 88–95, 139. PMID 14619154.
- Boris, Elizabeth T.; Kopczynski Winkler, Mary (2013). "The Emergence of Performance Measurement as a Complement to Evaluation Among U.S. Foundations". New Directions for Evaluation. 2013 (137): 69–80. doi:10.1002/ev.20047. S2CID 154575475.
- Bühler, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas (2016). "Accounting for external turbulence of logistics organizations via performance measurement systems" (PDF). Supply Chain Management. 21 (6): 694–708. doi:10.1108/SCM-02-2016-0040. hdl:10398/94796f75-a83b-464f-b6d5-46afc58dcd59.
- Garengo, Patrizia; Biazzo, Stefano; Bititci, Umit S. (2005). "Performance measurement systems in SMEs: A review for a research agenda". International Journal of Management Reviews. 7 (1): 25–47. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.2005.00105.x.
- Abeysiriwardana, Prabath Chaminda; Jayasinghe-Mudalige, Udith Krishantha (2022-06-01). "Role of key performance indicators on agile transformation of performance management in research institutes towards innovative commercial agriculture". Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management. 13 (2): 213–243. doi:10.1108/JSTPM-10-2020-0151. ISSN 2053-4620. S2CID 237685948.
- Abeysiriwardana, Prabath Chaminda; Jayasinghe-Mudalige, Udith K.; Kodituwakku, Saluka R. (2022-05-23). ""Connected researches" in "smart lab bubble": A lifeline of techno-society space for commercial agriculture development in "new normal"". New Techno Humanities. 2: 79–91. doi:10.1016/j.techum.2022.05.001. ISSN 2664-3294.
- Abeysiriwardana, Prabath Chaminda; Jayasinghe-Mudalige, Udith K. (2022-08-10). "Single window performance management: a strategy for evaluation integrated research culture in the commercial agriculture sector". SN Business & Economics. 2 (9): 128. doi:10.1007/s43546-022-00297-0. ISSN 2662-9399. S2CID 251504791.
- Abeysiriwardana, Prabath Chaminda; Jayasinghe-Mudalige, Udith K. (2022-12-31). "An Index for Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): A Lens to Probe the Performance Drivers of Research in Commercial Agriculture". Colombo Business Journal. 13 (2): 109–135. doi:10.4038/cbj.v13i2.126. ISSN 2579-2210.
- Kaplan, Robert S.; Norton, David P. (September 1993). "Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work". Harvard Business Review.
- "2GC Balanced Scorecard Usage 2020 Survey". 2GC Active Management. 21 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2021-05-24.
- Carol Fitz-Gibbon (1990), "Performance indicators", BERA Dialogues (2), ISBN 978-1-85359-092-4
- Weilkiens, Tim; Weiss, Christian; Grass, Andrea; Duggen, Kim Nena (2016). "Frameworks". OCEB 2 Certification Guide. Elsevier. pp. 149–169. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-805352-2.00007-8. ISBN 9780128053522.
KPI is a business metric that measures the degree of fulfillment of a goal or a Critical Success Factor (CSF). The CSF is an organization-internal or organization-external property that is necessary to achieve a specific goal. A CSF can involve multiple KPIs.
- "What is a Key Performance Indicator (KPI)". KPI.org. Retrieved 1 January 2022.