Party of National Brotherhood
Party of National Brotherhood
حزب الاخاء الوطني
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
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The Party of National Brotherhood or National Brotherhood Party (Arabic: حزب الاخاء الوطني, romanized: Hizb al-Ikha al-Watani, HIW) was an Iraqi political party formed in 1930–1931 by Yasin al-Hashimi, Naji al-Suwaydi, and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani. A pan-Arabist and strongly nationalist party, it became associated with opposition to the British Empire. It dominated Iraqi governments from its foundation until the 1936 coup.
HIW was formed in 1930/1931 as a merger between the minor National and People's parties and other like-minded nationalist groups. It gathered opponents of then Prime Minister Nuri Pasha al-Said who had concluded the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930. The new party soon gained the support of Jam'iyat Ashab al-San'a (Artisans' Society), the largest trade union in Iraq. The party held its first meeting in Baghdad in March of the same year, attracting 2000 followers to a rally where they called for a new government and a redefinition of the relationship between Iraq and the United Kingdom. In order to demonstrate its importance the party organised strikes in July, although there was no direct political motive behind the move, other than showing that the HIW had support.
The party formed a pact with the Nationalist Party in 1932 and used this to gain influence in the Iraqi parliament. With this influence secured they forced out the government of Naji Shawkat and soon established an HIW government, despite the fact that the majority of the chamber had been elected on an anti-HIW ticket. However the initial government was not to last long as advisers close to the new king Ghazi convinced him that the HIW government was responsible for tribal unrest. As such the government was removed and al-Kaylani and his right-hand man Yasin Pasha were to be excluded from future governments. This remained the case for future HIW administrations, although al-Kaylani returned to the top job after Ghazi's death.
During the Kingdom of Iraq period that party supplied the Prime Minister on five occasions. Those governments identified as Party of National Brotherhood were:
- Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, March 20, 1933 – November 9, 1933
- Yasin al-Hashimi, March 17, 1935 – October 30, 1936 (partnership with the military)
- Hikmat Sulayman, October 30, 1936 – August 17, 1937
- Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, March 31, 1940 – February 3, 1941
- Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, April 13, 1941 – May 30, 1941
- ^ a b c Ghareeb, Edmund A. (2004). "National Brotherhood Party". Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Scarecrow Press. p. 169.
- ^ a b c Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2005). "Iraq under British Mandate". History of Middle East. Atlantic. p. 50.
- ^ a b c Davis, Eric (2005). Memories of State: Politics, History, and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq. University of California Press. p. 14.
- ^ a b Makiya, Kanan (1989). Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq. University of California Press. p. 176.
- ^ Peretz, Don (1994). "Iraq". The Middle East Today (Sixth ed.). Praeger. p. 444.
- ^ Tarbush, Mohammad A. (2010). The Role of the Military in Politics: A case study of Iraq to 1941. Routledge. p. 63.
- ^ Kedourie, Elie (1974). "Political Parties in the Arab World". Arabic Political Memoirs and Other Studies. Frank Cass & Co. p. 46.
- ^ S. Helmsley Longrigg, Iraq 1900 to 1950, London: Oxford University Press, 1953, p. 184.
- ^ P. Sluglett. Britain in Iraq, London: Ithaca Press, 1976, p. 206.
- ^ Sluglett, op cit, p. 207.
- ^ Helmsley Longrigg, op cit, p. 184.
- ^ Helmsley Longrigg, op cit, p. 229.
- ^ Helmsley Longrigg, op cit, p. 230.
- ^ Helmsley Longrigg, op cit, p. 240.
- ^ World Statesmen Iraq page
- 1930 establishments in Iraq
- 1941 disestablishments in Iraq
- Arab nationalism in Iraq
- Arab nationalist political parties
- Conservative parties in Iraq
- Defunct political parties in Iraq
- Iraqi nationalism
- Nationalist parties in Iraq
- Organizations based in Baghdad
- Pan-Arabist political parties
- Political parties disestablished in 1941
- Political parties established in 1930