|Nasal palatal velar click|
|Nasal palatal uvular click|
The palatal nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet for a nasal palatal click with a velar rear articulation is ⟨ŋ͡ǂ⟩ or ⟨ŋ͜ǂ⟩, commonly abbreviated to ⟨ŋǂ⟩, ⟨ᵑǂ⟩ or ⟨ǂ̃⟩. Linguists who prefer the old IPA letters use the analogous Beach convention of ⟨ŋ͡⟩ or ⟨ŋ͜⟩, abbreviated ⟨ŋ⟩, ⟨ᵑ⟩ or ⟨̃⟩. For a click with a uvular rear articulation, the equivalents are ⟨ɴ͡ǂ, ɴ͜ǂ, ɴǂ, ᶰǂ⟩ and ⟨ɴ͡, ɴ͜, ɴ, ᶰ⟩. Sometimes the accompanying letter comes after the click letter, e.g. ⟨ǂŋ⟩ or ⟨ǂᵑ⟩; this may be a simple orthographic choice, or may imply a difference in the relative timing of the releases.
Features of the palatal nasal click:
- The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
|Khoekhoe||ǂnauǃhuiǂgui||[ᵑǂə̀űᵑ̊ǃʰȕíᵏǂȕí] = [ᵑə̀űᵑ̊ǃʰȕíᵏȕí]||to give s.o. a bloody nose|
|Naro||ntcùú qhuri c’õa
(nçùú qhuri c’õa)
|[ᵑǂǔːǃʰūɾīŋǀˀõ̯ã] = [ᵑǔːʗʰūɾīŋʇˀõ̯ã]||the Milky Way|
|Taa||ǂnûm||[ᵑǂûm] = [ᵑûm]||two|
|Gǀui||[ᵑǂâː] = [ᵑâː]||to stare|
Glottalized palatal nasal click
palatal nasal click
All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.
|Khoekhoe||ǂamǁgû||[ᵑǂ͡ʔàm̀ᵏǁṹṹ] = [ᵑˀàm̀ᵏʖṹṹ]||to inadvertently bite a hard object|
|Gǀui||[ᵑǂ͡ʔáː] = [ᵑˀáː]||to hide (oneself)|
- Beach, Douglas Martyn (1938). The phonetics of the Hottentot language. London: W. Heffer & Sons.
- Afrika und Übersee. D. Reimer. 2005. pp. 93–94.
- Güldemann, Tom (2002-01-01). "Using older Khoisan sources: quantifier expressions in Lower Nosop varieties of Tuu". South African Journal of African Languages. 22 (3): 187–196. doi:10.1080/02572117.2002.10587508. ISSN 0257-2117. S2CID 124368056.