Pakistanis

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Pakistanis
پاكِستانى قوم
Flag of Pakistan.svg
Total population
c. 242,341,368[a]
Map of the Pakistani Diaspora in the World.svg
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan233,500,636[1]
 Saudi Arabia2,600,000 (2017 estimate)[2]
 United Arab Emirates1,500,000 (2017 estimate)[3]
 United Kingdom1,174,983 (2011 official British census)[4][b]
 United States526,956 (2018 American Community Survey estimate)[5]
 Oman235,000 (2013 estimate)[6]
 Canada215,560 (2016 official Canadian census)[7]
 Kuwait150,000 (2009 estimate)[8]
 Qatar125,000 (2016 official Qatari estimate)[9]
 Germany124,000 (2019 official German estimate)
 Italy118,181 (2017 official Italian estimate)[10]
 Bahrain112,000 (2013 estimate)[6]
 France104,000 (2017 estimate)
 Spain82,738 (2018 official Spanish estimate)[11]
 Australia61,913 (2016 official Australian census)[12]
 Malaysia59,281 (2017 official Malaysian estimate)[13][14]
 China54,000[15]
 Norway38,000 (2019 official Norwegian estimate)[16]
 Hong Kong18,094 (2016 estimate)[17]
 Ireland12,891 (2016 estimate)[18][19]
Languages
Urdu, English (national)
Punjabi · Pashto · Sindhi · Saraiki · Balochi · Pahari-Pothwari · Hindko · Brahui · Kashmiri · others
Religion
Majority:
Islam (96.28%)
(85–90% Sunni, 10–15% Shia)
Minority:
Hinduism, Christianity, Ahmadiyya, Baháʼí Faith, Kalasha, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism[20]

Pakistanis (Urdu: پاكِستانى قوم, romanizedPākistānī Qaum, lit.'Pakistani Nation'), (formerly West Pakistanis) are the citizens and nationals of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. According to the 2017 Pakistani national census, the population of Pakistan stood at over 213 million people, making it the world's fifth-most populous country.[21]

Located in South Asia, the country is also the source of a significantly large diaspora, most of whom reside in the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, with an estimated population of 4.7 million.[22] The second-largest Pakistani diaspora resides throughout both Northwestern Europe and Western Europe, where there are an estimated 2.4 million; over half of this figure reside in the United Kingdom (see British Pakistanis).[23][4]

Ethnic subgroups[edit]

Having one of the fastest-growing populations in the world, Pakistan's people belong to various ethnic groups, with the overwhelming majority being speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages.[24]

The major ethnolinguistic groups of Pakistan include Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Balochs, Pothoharis/Paharis[c] and Brahuis,[25][note 1] with significant numbers of Kashmiris, Chitralis, Shina, Baltis, Kohistanis, Torwalis, Hazaras, Burusho, Wakhis, Kalash, Siddis and other various minorities.[27][28]

Culture[edit]

Men dressed in Shalwar kameez in a general store on the road to Kalash, Pakistan

The existence of Pakistan as an Islamic state since 1956 has led to the large-scale injection of Islam into most aspects of Pakistani culture and everyday life, which has accordingly impacted the historical values and traditions of the Muslim-majority population. Marriages and other major events are significantly impacted by regional differences in culture, but generally follow Islamic jurisprudence where required. The national dress of Pakistan is the shalwar kameez, a unisex garment widely-worn,[29][30] and national dress,[31] of Pakistan. When women wear the shalwar-kameez in some regions, they usually wear a long scarf or shawl called a dupatta around the head or neck.[32] The dupatta is also employed as a form of modesty—although it is made of delicate material, it obscures the upper body's contours by passing over the shoulders. For Muslim women, the dupatta is a less stringent alternative to the chador or burqa (see hijab and purdah).

Languages[edit]

Pakistan is a multilingual country with dozens of languages spoken as first languages.[33][34] The majority Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.[35][36]

Urdu is the national language and the lingua franca of Pakistan, and while sharing official status with English, it is the preferred and dominant language used for inter-communication between different ethnic groups.[33][34] Numerous regional languages are spoken as first languages by Pakistan's various ethnolinguistic groups. Languages with more than a million speakers each include Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki, Urdu, Balochi, Hindko, Pahari-Pothwari[d] and Brahui.[37]

Ethnologue lists 74 languages in Pakistan. Of these, 66 are indigenous and 8 are non-indigenous. In terms of their vitality, 7 are classified as 'institutional', 17 are 'developing', 37 are 'vigorous', 10 are 'in trouble', and 3 are 'dying'.[38]

Religion[edit]

Pakistan officially endorses Islam as a state religion and utilizes Sharia in governance across the entire country to a large degree. The overwhelming majority of Pakistanis identify as Muslims, and the country has the second-largest population of Muslims in the world after Indonesia.[39][40] Other minority religious faiths include Hinduism, Christianity, Ahmadiyya, Sikhism, the Baháʼí Faith, Zoroastrianism, and Kalasha. Pakistan's Hindu and Christian minorities comprise the second- and third-largest religious groups in the country, respectively.

Irreligion[edit]

Irreligion, agnosticism, and atheism are present amongst a minority of Pakistanis, the majority of whom belong to the newer generations.[41][42][43] According to a 2005 Gallup World Poll, 1 percent of Pakistani respondents identified themselves as atheists. By 2012, the figure had risen to 2 percent. The same poll also surveyed 2,700 other people in Pakistan, of whom 54 were self-declared irreligious.[20]

Diaspora[edit]

Distribution of Pakistani diaspora
  Pakistan
  + 1,000,000
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

The Pakistani diaspora maintains a significant presence in the Middle East, Europe, North America, and Australia. According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Pakistan has the seventh-largest diaspora in the world.[44] According to the Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development of the Government of Pakistan, approximately 8.8 million Pakistanis live abroad, with the vast majority (over 4.7 million) residing in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.[45]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 238,181,034 total population of Pakistan according to the United States Census[1] including estimated population of Overseas Pakistani.
  2. ^ This census figure may not include recent immigrants or people of partial Pakistani ancestry.
  3. ^ Major ethnolonguistic group in Azad Kashmir. Lack of exact numbers of the ethnic population due to the language not being represented in the previous censuses. Upcoming 2022 Census of Pakistan will include Pahari-Pothwari as an option. Baart (2003, p. 10) provides an estimate of 3.8 million, presumably for the population in Pakistan alone. Lothers & Lothers (2010, p. 9) estimate the Pakistani population at well over 2.5 million and the UK diaspora at over 0.5 million. The population in India is reported in Ethnologue (2017) to be about 1 million as of 2000.
  4. ^ Lack of exact numbers of speakers of the language due to not being represented in the previous censuses. Upcoming 2022 Census of Pakistan will include Pahari-Pothwari as an option. Baart (2003, p. 10) provides an estimate of 3.8 million, presumably for the population in Pakistan alone. Lothers & Lothers (2010, p. 9) estimate the Pakistani population at well over 2.5 million and the UK diaspora at over 0.5 million. The population in India is reported in Ethnologue (2017) to be about 1 million as of 2000.
  1. ^ Ethnolinguistic groups with a population of more than a million each.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. and World Population Clock". United States Census Bureau.
  2. ^ "Economic Survey 2014–15: Ishaq Dar touts economic growth amidst missed targets". The Express Tribune. 4 June 2015.
  3. ^ "Statement showing number of Overseas Pakistanis living, working and studying in different regions/countries of the world, as on 31st December, 2017 - Region-Wise distribution" (PDF). Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development. 31 December 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  4. ^ a b "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  5. ^ "Asian alone or in any combination by selected groups". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables - Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". www12.statcan.gc.ca.
  8. ^ Al-Qarari, Hussein (29 March 2009). "Pakistanis celebrate National Day in Kuwait". Kuwait Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  9. ^ (2017)"Population of Qatar by nationality - 2017 report". priyadsouza.com. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  10. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.istat.it. 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  11. ^ "TablaPx". Ine.es. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  12. ^ "2016 Census of Population and Housing: General Community Profile: Catalogue No. 2001.0" (ZIP). censusdata.abs.gov.au. 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  14. ^ Thursday, 27 July 2017 08:15 PM MYT. "Home Ministry says there are 1.7 million legal foreign workers in Malaysia as of June 30 | Malay Mail". www.malaymail.com.
  15. ^ 출입국·외국인정책본부. "통계연보(글내용) < 통계자료실 < 출입국·외국인정책본부". Immigration.go.kr. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  16. ^ "Innvandrerbefolkningen". kommunefakta.no.
  17. ^ "Main Tables | 2016 Population By-census". www.bycensus2016.gov.hk.
  18. ^ "Census summary" (PDF). www.cso.ie. 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  19. ^ "Indian Community In Ireland". irelandindiacouncil.ie. Ireland India Council. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018.
  20. ^ a b Husain, Irfan (27 August 2012). "Faith in decline". Dawn. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2012. Interestingly, and somewhat intriguingly, 2 per cent of the Pakistanis surveyed see themselves as atheists, up from 1pc in 2005.
  21. ^ Dawn.com (28 August 2017). "Census results show 59.7pc growth in Karachi's population, 116pc in Lahore's since 1998". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Overseas Pakistani". Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  23. ^ "2.43 million Pakistanis working in Europe". The Express Tribune. 23 April 2017.
  24. ^ Pakistan Population. (28 August 2019). Retrieved 2019-09-14, from http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/pakistan-population/
  25. ^ "Pakistan", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2 August 2022
  26. ^ "POPULATION BY MOTHER TONGUE, SEX AND RURAL/ URBAN" (PDF). www.pbs.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  27. ^ Qadeer, Mohammad (22 November 2006). Pakistan - Social and Cultural Transformations in a Muslim Nation. Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-134-18617-4.
  28. ^ Ali, Shaheen Sardar; Rehman, Javaid (1 February 2013). Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities of Pakistan: Constitutional and Legal Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-77868-1.
  29. ^ Marsden, Magnus (2005). Living Islam: Muslim Religious Experience in Pakistan's North-West Frontier. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-139-44837-6. The village's men and boys largely dress in sombre colours in the loose trousers and long shirt (shalwar kameez) worn across Pakistan. Older men often wear woollen Chitrali caps (pakol), waistcoats and long coats (chugha), made by Chitrali tailors (darzi) who skills are renowned across Pakistan.
  30. ^ Haines, Chad (2013), Nation, Territory, and Globalization in Pakistan: Traversing the Margins, Routledge, p. 162, ISBN 978-1-136-44997-0, the shalwar kameez happens to be worn by just about everyone in Pakistan, including in all of Gilgit-Baltistan.
  31. ^ Ozyegin, Gul (2016). Gender and Sexuality in Muslim Cultures. Routledge. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-317-13051-2. What is common in all the cases is the wearing of shalwar, kameez, and dupatta, the national dress of Pakistan.
  32. ^ Rait, Satwant Kaur (14 April 2005). Sikh Women In England: Religious, Social and Cultural Beliefs. Trent and Sterling: Trentham Book. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-85856-353-4.
  33. ^ a b Ashraf, Hina (22 March 2022). "The ambivalent role of Urdu and English in multilingual Pakistan: a Bourdieusian study". Language Policy: 1–24. doi:10.1007/s10993-022-09623-6. ISSN 1573-1863. PMC 8939399. PMID 35340722.
  34. ^ a b Ashraf, Muhammad Azeem; Turner, David A.; Laar, Rizwan Ahmed (January 2021). "Multilingual Language Practices in Education in Pakistan: The Conflict Between Policy and Practice". SAGE Open. 11 (1): 215824402110041. doi:10.1177/21582440211004140. ISSN 2158-2440. S2CID 232484396.
  35. ^ Rengel, Marian (15 December 2003). Pakistan: A Primary Source Cultural Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8239-4001-1.
  36. ^ Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. (27 March 2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2.
  37. ^ "POPULATION BY MOTHER TONGUE, SEX AND RURAL/ URBAN" (PDF). www.pbs.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  38. ^ "Pakistan". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019.
  39. ^ Singh, Dr. Y P (2016). Islam in India and Pakistan – A Religious History. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789385505638.
  40. ^ see: Islam by country
  41. ^ "Pakistani youths turning into atheists". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  42. ^ "Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism" (PDF). Gallup. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  43. ^ "The hardest part about being faithless". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  44. ^ Service, Tribune News. "India has largest diaspora population in world: UN". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Year Book 2017-18" (PDF). Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development. Retrieved 18 March 2020.

Further reading[edit]

  • Abbasi, Nadia Mushtaq. "The Pakistani diaspora in Europe and its impact on democracy building in Pakistan." International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2010).
  • Awan, Shehzadi Zamurrad. "Relevance of Education for Women's Empowerment in Punjab, Pakistan." Journal of International Women's Studies 18.1 (2016): 208+ online
  • Bolognani, Marta, and Stephen Lyon, eds. Pakistan and its diaspora: multidisciplinary approaches (Springer, 2011).
  • Eglar, Zekiya. A Punjabi Village in Pakistan: Perspectives on Community, Land, and Economy (Oxford UP, 2010).
  • Kalra, Virinder S., ed. Pakistani Diasporas: Culture, conflict, and change (Oxford UP, 2009).
  • Lukacs, John, ed. The people of South Asia: the biological anthropology of India, Pakistan, and Nepal (Springer, 2013).
  • Marsden, Magnus. "Muslim village intellectuals: the life of the mind in northern Pakistan." Anthropology today 21.1 (2005): 10-15.
  • Mughal, M. A. Z. "An anthropological perspective on the mosque in Pakistan." Asian Anthropology 14.2 (2015): 166-181.
  • Rauf, Abdur. "Rural women and the family: A study of a Punjabi village in Pakistan." Journal of Comparative Family Studies (1987): 403-415.
  • West Pakistanis