Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism
|Part of a series on|
Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism refers to the involvement of Pakistan in terrorism through the backing of various designated terrorist organizations. Pakistan has been frequently accused by various countries, including its neighbours Afghanistan, India, and Iran, as well as by the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France, of involvement in a variety of terrorist activities in both its local region of South Asia and beyond. Pakistan's northwestern tribal regions along the Afghanistan–Pakistan border have been described as an effective safe haven for terrorists by Western media and the United States Secretary of Defense, while India has accused Pakistan of perpetuating the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir by providing financial support and armaments to militant groups, as well as by sending state-trained terrorists across the Line of Control and de jure India–Pakistan border to launch attacks in Indian-administered Kashmir and India proper, respectively. According to an analysis published by the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution in 2008, Pakistan was reportedly, "with the possible exception of Iran, perhaps the world's most active sponsor of terrorist groups... aiding these groups that pose a direct threat to the United States. Pakistan's active participation has caused thousands of deaths in the region; all these years Pakistan has been supportive to several terrorist groups despite several stern warnings from the international community." Daniel Byman, a professor and senior analyst of terrorism and security at the Center For Middle East Policy, also wrote that, "Pakistan is probably 2008's most active sponsor of terrorism". In 2018, the former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif, suggested that the Pakistani government (see The Establishment) played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attacks that were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based Islamist terrorist group. In July 2019, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan, on an official visit to the United States, acknowledged the presence of some 30,000–40,000 armed terrorists operating on Pakistani soil. He further stated that previous administrations were hiding this truth, particularly from the United States, for the last 15 years during the War on Terror.
The United States' State Sponsors of Terrorism designation list describes Pakistan as a "terrorist safe haven" where individual terrorists and terrorist groups are able to organize, plan, raise funds, communicate, recruit, train, transit, and operate in relative security because of inadequate/supportive governance, political will, or both. Osama bin Laden, the leader of al-Qaeda and mastermind behind the September 11 attacks on the United States in 2001, was killed by U.S. Navy SEALs during Operation Neptune Spear at his compound near the Pakistan Military Academy in Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Until Pakistan became a key ally in the War on Terrorism, the US Secretary of State included Pakistan on the 1993 list of countries which repeatedly provide support for acts of international terrorism. In fact, many consider that Pakistan has been playing both sides in the fight against terror, on the one hand, demonstrating to help curtail terrorist activities while on the other, stoking it. Pakistani journalist Ahmed Rashid and author Ted Galen Carpenter have accused Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of providing help to the Taliban and terrorists in Kashmir.
Allegations of state-sponsored terrorism
Author Gordon Thomas states that whilst aiding in the capture of Al Qaeda members, Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war of attrition against India". Journalist Stephen Schwartz notes that several terrorist and criminal groups are "backed by senior officers in the Pakistani army, the country's ISI intelligence establishment and other armed bodies of the state". According to Ted Galen Carpenter, a senior fellow for defense and foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute, "Without the active support of the government in Islamabad, it is doubtful whether the Taliban could ever have come to power in Afghanistan. Pakistani authorities helped fund the militia and equip it with military hardware during the mid-1990s when the Taliban was merely one of several competing factions in Afghanistan’s civil war. Only when the United States exerted enormous diplomatic pressure after the 11 Sept. attacks did Islamabad begin to sever its political and financial ties with the Taliban. Even now it is not certain that key members of Pakistan’s intelligence service have repudiated their Taliban clients.
Afghanistan is not the only place where Pakistani leaders have flirted with terrorist clients. Pakistan has also assisted rebel forces in Kashmir even though those groups have committed terrorist acts against civilians. A disproportionate number of the extremist madrasas schools funded by the Saudis operate in Pakistan." Pakistan's former ambassador to the U.S., Husain Haqqani has said Pakistan sponsors terrorism.
Author Daniel Byman states, "Pakistan is probably today's most active sponsor of terrorism." Writing in an article published by The Australian he stated, "following the terror massacres in Mumbai, Pakistan may now be the single biggest state sponsor of terrorism, beyond even Iran, yet it has never been listed by the US State Department as a state sponsor of terrorism".
Former Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf has conceded that his forces trained militant groups to fight India in Indian-administered Kashmir. He confessed that the government ″turned a blind eye″ because it wanted to force India to enter into negotiations, as well as raise the issue internationally. He also said Pakistani spies in the Inter-Services Intelligence directorate (ISI) cultivated the Taliban after 2001 because Karzai's government was dominated by non-Pashtuns, who are the country's largest ethnic group, and by officials who were thought to favour India.
Inter-Services Intelligence and terrorism
The ISI, has often been accused of playing a role in major terrorist attacks across India including terrorism in Kashmir, the July 2006 Mumbai Train Bombings, the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, the 2006 Varanasi bombings, the August 2007 Hyderabad bombings, and the November 2008 Mumbai attacks.
The ISI is also accused of supporting Taliban forces and recruiting and training mujahideen to fight in Afghanistan and Kashmir. Based on communication intercepts, US intelligence agencies concluded Pakistan's ISI was behind the attack on the Indian embassy in Kabul on 7 July 2008, a charge that the governments of India and Afghanistan had laid previously.
The Pakistani intelligence agency, the ISI, is believed to be aiding these organisations in eradicating perceived enemies or those opposed to their cause, including India, Russia, China, Israel, the United States, the United Kingdom and other members of NATO. Satellite imagery from the FBI suggest the existence of several terrorist camps in Pakistan, with at least one militant admitting to being trained in the country as part of the going Kashmir Dispute, Pakistan is alleged to be supporting separatist militias Many nonpartisan sources believe that officials within Pakistan's military and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) sympathise with and aid Islamic terrorists, saying that the "ISI has provided covert but well-documented support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed".
President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai has regularly reiterated allegations that militants operating training camps in Pakistan have used it as a launch platform to attack targets in Afghanistan. He has also urged Western military allies to target extremist hideouts in neighbouring Pakistan. In response to the militants from Afghanistan hiding in the mountainous tribal region of Pakistan, the US and Pakistan agreed to allow US Drone Strikes in Pakistan.
Links to terrorist groups
Pakistan is alleged to be a safe haven for terrorist groups including:
- Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT)
- Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)
- Jaish ul-Adl
- Al Badr Mujahideen
- Harkat ul Mujahideen
Pakistan has, however, denied providing safe haven to any terrorist group.
Pakistan is also accused of giving aid to the Taliban, "which include[s] soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and on several occasions apparently directly providing combat support", as stated by the Human Rights Watch. In 2008, the US stated that the next attack on the US could originate in Pakistan. There are instances of Pakistan hosting terrorist camps such as the following:
- In June 2009, India's army chief, General Deepak Kapoor, used a meeting with US national security adviser Jim Jones to claim that Pakistan was home to 43 "terrorist camps".
- Many Kashmiri groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, which is cited as further proof by the Indian Government.
- Open public fund raising and recruitment of terrorists from Pakistani society.
Militant outfits about Pakistan
Sympathizing with militants
Jaish-e-Mohammed – Other resources also concur, stating that Pakistan's military and ISI both include personnel who sympathize with and help Islamic militants, adding that "ISI has provided covert but well-documented support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including the Jaish-e-Mohammed." Pakistan has denied any involvement in the terrorist activities in Kashmir, arguing that it only provides political and moral support to the so-called 'secessionist' groups. Many Kashmiri groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, which is cited as further proof by the Indian Government.
The normally reticent United Nations Organization (UNO) has also publicly increased pressure on Pakistan on its inability to control its Afghanistan border and not restricting the activities of Taliban leaders who have been declared by the UN as terrorists.
Alleged Pakistani Army support of terrorists
Former Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf has admitted that Pakistan supported and trained terrorist groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) in 1990s to carry out militancy in Kashmir. From 1979 Pakistan was in favour of religious militancy. "The Kashmiri freedom fighters including Hafiz Saeed and Lakhvi were our heroes at that time. We trained Taliban and sent them to fight against Soviet Union. Taliban, Haqqani, Osama Bin Laden and Zawahiri were our heroes then (during the Soviet-Afghan war). Later they became villains" says Pervez Musharraf.
According to Pervez Hoodhboy, "Bin Laden was the 'Golden Goose' that the army had kept under its watch but which, to its chagrin, has now been stolen from under its nose. Until then, the thinking had been to trade in the Goose at the right time for the right price, either in the form of dollars or political concessions".
Pakistan was also alleged to be responsible for the evacuation of about 5000 of the top leadership of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda who were encircled by Nato forces in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. This event known as the Kunduz airlift, which is also popularly called the "Airlift of Evil", involved several Pakistani Air Force transport planes flying multiple sorties over a number of days. However, the validity of these claims have been questioned by the Pentagon. Both United States and Pakistan have rejected that any such airlift took place. General Richard Myers, chief of staff, claimed that Kunduz airfield has been "disabled" by United States attacks. Although part of airfield could be used, the runway was not long enough for transport aircraft to take off or land. Donald Rumsfeld, US defense secretary, claimed that he received no such report that validate or verify these claims of aircraft moving in or out of the city. He further said that he doubted these claims. According to a 2001 article titled "Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism" issued by the US Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, "In South Asia, the United States has been increasingly concerned about reports of Pakistani support to terrorist groups and elements active in Kashmir, as well as Pakistani support, especially military support, to the Taliban, which continues to harbor terrorist groups, including al-Qaida, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan." In 2011, American troops reportedly recovered Pakistani military supplies from Taliban insurgents in Afghanistan.
LeT began carrying out operations in Indian-controlled Kashmir in the 1990s. It actively infiltrated militants across the Line of Control (LoC) from Pakistan to carry out sabotage activities with the help of the ISI and the Pakistan Army. Pakistan Army and Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI) have long considered Lashkar-e-Taiba to be the country's most reliable proxy against India and the group still provides utility in this regard as well as the potential for leverage at the negotiating table.
Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jamaat-ud-Dawa
The militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) is widely blamed for the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. The US has put a $10m bounty for its founder Hafiz Muhammad Saeed. Saeed now heads the Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD) group, widely seen as a front for LeT. LeT was banned by Pakistan in 2002 after it allegedly carried out an attack on the Indian parliament. JuD is currently banned by the US, the EU, India and Russia as a terrorist organisation. In June 2014, Washington declared JuD an LeT affiliate and announced head money for JuD's political wing chief and Saeed's brother-in-law Abdur Rahman Makki. Zaki ur-Rehman Lakhvi, the leader of Lashkar-e-Taiba and allegedly the planner of 2008 Mumbai attacks was released in Pakistan which caused condemnations in India.
JuD regularly conducts mass rallies and congregation, advocating jihad in Kashmir. For its December 2014 rally, Pakistan ran two special trains to carry the crowd to Lahore. India's foreign ministry termed this as 'nothing short of mainstreaming of terrorism and a terrorist'. The congregation was held near Pakistan's national monument, the Minar-e-Pakistan and a security of 4000 policemen was provided. JuD also asks donations for its anti-India and pro-jihad campaigns.
Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of US, Mike Mullen described the Haqqani Network as the 'veritable arm of Pakistan's ISI'. Mullen said the country's main intelligence agency ISI was supporting Haqqani network, who are blamed for an assault on the US embassy in Kabul in September 2011 and also the September 2011 NATO truck bombing which injured 77 coalition soldiers and killed five Afgan civilians.
"Operation Zarb-e-Azb has helped disrupt Haqqani network's ability to launch attacks on Afghan territory", a senior commander for US and NATO forces in Afghanistan, Lieutenant General Joseph Anderson said in a Pentagon-hosted video briefing from Afghanistan. He added that the Haqqani network was now fractured too.
In a November 2014 interview to BBC Urdu, Adviser to the Pakistani Prime Minister on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Sartaj Aziz said that Pakistan should not target militants like the Afghan Taliban and Haqqani Network, who do not threaten Pakistan's security. After it was raised in Pakistan's parliament, Pakistan's Foreign Office clarified that the statement was said in historical context.
In September 2016, the Chairman of the US House Subcommittee on Terrorism, Congressman Ted Poe from Texas, along with Dana Rohrabacher from California, introduced a bill in the United States House of Representatives calling for a declaration of Pakistan as a "state sponsor of terrorism". The bill HR 6069 requires the US president to issue a report within 90 days detailing Pakistan's role in supporting international terrorism followed by discussion from the US Secretary of State. Ted Poe said in a statement that Pakistan was not only an untrustworthy ally but it has also aided and abetted the enemies of the United States. He called the 2016 Uri attack the "latest consequence of Pakistan’s longstanding irresponsible policy of supporting and providing operational space for 'jihadi' terrorist groups". U.S. Senator John McCain said that the bill would not be successful, and pointed out that it was moved by a small minority within the Congress. McCain also acknowledged Pakistan's losses in the fight against terrorism.
In July 2010, British Prime Minister David Cameron accused the Pakistani government of double standards: "We cannot tolerate in any sense the idea that this country is allowed to look both ways and is able, in any way, to promote the export of terror, whether to India or whether to Afghanistan or anywhere else in the world." However, UK Foreign Secretary William Hague, who was travelling with the prime minister Cameron, clarified Cameron's remarks: "He wasn't accusing anybody of double dealing. He was also saying that Pakistan's made great progress in tackling terrorism. Of course there have been many terrorism outrages in Pakistan itself." Cameron's remarks sparked a diplomatic row with Pakistan, where he came under attack by officials and politicians who strongly criticised his comments. In December 2010, he attempted to visit Pakistan while on a tour to Afghanistan in an effort to mend relations. However, his visit was refused by Pakistan, notably as a snub to his remarks.
US intelligence officials claim that Pakistan's ISI sponsored the 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul. They say that the ISI officers who aided the attack were not renegades, indicating that their actions might have been authorised by superiors. The attack was carried out by Jalaluddin Haqqani, who runs a network that Western intelligence services say is responsible for a campaign of violence throughout Afghanistan, including the Indian Embassy bombing and the 2008 Kabul Serena Hotel attack. Citizenship and Immigration Minister of Canada Chris Alexander called Pakistan a state sponsor of terrorism that threatens world security in 2014.
In response to the Afghan War documents leak, The Guardian had a very different take on allegations that Pakistan is sponsoring terrorism. Its Sunday, 25 July 2010 article by Declan Walsh states: "But for all their eye-popping details, the intelligence files, which are mostly collated by junior officers relying on informants and Afghan officials, fail to provide a convincing smoking gun for ISI complicity. Most of the reports are vague, filled with incongruent detail, or crudely fabricated. The same characters – famous Taliban commanders, well-known ISI officials – and scenarios repeatedly pop up. And few of the events predicted in the reports subsequently occurred. A retired senior American officer said ground-level reports were considered to be a mixture of "rumours, bullshit and second-hand information" and were weeded out as they passed up the chain of command".
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations have become more strained after the Afghan government began openly accusing Pakistan of using its ISI spy network in aiding the Taliban and other militants. Pakistan usually denies these allegations but has said in the past that it does not have full control of the actions of the ISI. There have been a number of reports about the Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes, which usually occur when army soldiers are in hot pursuit chasing insurgents who cross the border back and forth. This leads to tensions between the two states, especially after hearing reports of civilian casualties.
After the May 2011 death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many prominent Afghan figures began being assassinated, including Mohammed Daud Daud, Ahmad Wali Karzai, Jan Mohammad Khan, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, Burhanuddin Rabbani and others. Also in the same year, the Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes intensified and many large scale attacks by the Pakistani-based Haqqani network took place across Afghanistan. This led to the United States warning Pakistan of a possible military action against the Haqqanis in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The U.S. blamed Pakistan's government, mainly Pakistani Army and its ISI spy network as the masterminds behind all of this.
"In choosing to use violent extremism as an instrument of policy, the government of Pakistan, and most especially the Pakistani army and ISI, jeopardizes not only the prospect of our strategic partnership but Pakistan's opportunity to be a respected nation with legitimate regional influence. They may believe that by using these proxies, they are hedging their bets or redressing what they feel is an imbalance in regional power. But in reality, they have already lost that bet."
U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan, Cameron Munter, told Radio Pakistan that "the attack that took place in Kabul a few days ago, that was the work of the Haqqani network. There is evidence linking the Haqqani Network to the Pakistan government. This is something that must stop." Other top U.S. officials such as Hillary Clinton and Leon Panetta made similar statements. Despite all of this, Afghan President Hamid Karzai labelled Pakistan as Afghanistan's "twin brother". Such words in diplomatic talks mean that Afghanistan cannot turn enemy against the state of Pakistan to please others. The two states are working together to find solutions to the problems affecting them. This includes possible defence cooperation and intelligence sharing as well as further enhancing the two-way trade and abolishment of visas for "holders of diplomatic passports to facilitate visa free travel for the diplomats from the two nations."
After the May 2017 Kabul attack, the Afghan National Directorate of Security (NDS) claimed that the blast was planned by the Afghan insurgent group Haqqani Network, and reiterated allegations that those elements had support and presence across the border in Pakistan. Afghan President Ashraf Ghani stated that Pakistan has instigated an "undeclared war of aggression" against the country. Pakistan's Foreign Ministry spokesman, Nafees Zakaria rejected the Afghan allegations as "baseless".
The Washington Post claimed that the 2021 Taliban offensive was "inextricably linked to Pakistan". According to the New York Times, "Afghan tribal leaders said that the Pakistani military waved a surge of new fighters across the border from sanctuaries inside Pakistan".
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2019)
The government of Pakistan has been accused of aiding terrorist organisations operating on their soil who have attacked neighbouring India. Pakistan denies all allegations, stating that these acts are committed by non-state actors.
India alleged that the 2008 Mumbai attacks originated in Pakistan, and that the attackers were in touch with a Pakistani colonel and other handlers in Pakistan. The testimony of David Headley, who was implicated for his role in the Mumbai attacks, points to significant ISI involvement in the activities of the LeT, including the Mumbai attacks. This led to a UN ban on one such organisation, the Jama'at-ud-Da'wah, which the Pakistani government is yet to enforce.
On 5 April 2006, the Indian police arrested six Islamic militants, including a cleric who helped plan bomb blasts in Varanasi. The cleric is believed to be a commander of a banned South Asian Islamic militant group, Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, and is linked to the ISI.
Pakistan denied involvement in militant activities in Kashmir, though President Asif Ali Zardari admitted in July 2010 that militants had been "deliberately created and nurtured" by past governments "as a policy to achieve some short-term tactical objectives" stating that they were "heroes" until 9/11.
In October 2010, former Pakistan President and former head of the Pakistan Army, Pervez Musharraf revealed that Pakistani armed forces trained militant groups to fight Indian forces in Kashmir. Many Kashmiri militant groups designated as terrorist organisations by the US still maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. This is cited by the Indian government as further proof that Pakistan supports terrorism. Many of the terrorist organisations are banned by the UN, but continue to operate under different names. Even the normally reticent United Nations (UN) has also publicly increased pressure on Pakistan on its inability to control its Afghanistan border and not restricting the activities of Taliban leaders who have been declared by the UN as terrorists. Both the federal and state governments in India continue to accuse Pakistan of helping several banned terrorist organisations, including the Indian organisations unhappy with their own Government, like the ULFA in Assam.
Apart from Kashmir, Pakistan has also been accused by India of supporting insurgency in Punjab province of India. India alleges that Pakistan has provided support to separatist Sikh outfits in an attempt to create independent state of Khalistan. Pakistan has rejected all accusations made by India. An Indian MLA from Punjab believes that Pakistan support to Sikh separatist outfits is an attempt to seek revenge for Indian role during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Former Pakistani army chief Mirza Aslam Beg in an interview embraced jihad against India and opportunity to use Kartarpur corridor to assist Khalistan movement.
In 2019, Pakistani Prime Minister publicly discouraged Pakistani people from going to Kashmir to do jihad. People who went to Kashmir will do an "injustice to the Kashmiri people". Most of the Pakistani militants who had crossed the border over the years and were caught by the Indian security forces were found to belong to the Punjab province of Pakistan.
In two separate incidents officials of the Pakistani High Commission in Dhaka, were alleged to be financing the terrorist activities of the banned Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) organization. Diplomatic official Mazhar Khan was charged by Bangladesh's foreign ministry of running an illegal Indian currency business in Dhaka beside alleged links with militants. However, Pakistan's foreign office maintains that allegations against him are baseless and the incident is unfortunate.
In December 2015, Pakistan decided to withdraw second secretary Farina Arshad after the Bangladeshi authorities asked the diplomat to leave for reportedly having "extended financial support to a suspected militant who faces spying charges." JMB operative Idris Sheikh, who also holds Pakistani nationality had claimed he had received money from her and was in contact with her for some time. Pakistan has withdrawn one of its diplomats from Bangladesh after "harassment", the foreign ministry said. A formal statement from Islamabad dismissed the charges as "baseless", adding: "an incessant and orchestrated media campaign was launched against her on spurious charges"
Pakistan has been threatened in the past of international isolation on allegations of its inability in counter terrorism. The 2016 SAARC summit which was to be held in Islamabad in 2016 was cancelled after being boycotted by four nations – India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Bhutan. Pakistan is listed on the FATF greylist for alleged money laundering and terrorism financing, which makes it difficult for the country to get financial help from international institutions, including the International Monetary Fund, World Bank Asian Development Bank, and European Union.
Al Qaeda leaders killed or captured in Pakistan
Critics had accused Pakistan's military and security establishment of protecting Osama bin Laden, until he was found and killed by US forces. This issue was expected to worsen US ties with Pakistan. Bin Laden was killed in his residence of more than five years, in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It was an expensive compound, less than 100 kilometres' drive from the capital, Islamabad, probably built specifically for Bin Laden. The compound is 1.3 kilometres (3⁄4 mile) southwest of the Pakistan Military Academy (PMA), a prominent military academy that has been compared to Sandhurst in Britain and West Point in the United States. Pakistan's President Zardari has denied that his country's security forces may have sheltered Osama bin Laden.
Steve Coll states that as of 2019 there is no direct evidence showing Pakistani knowledge of bin Laden's presence in Abbottabad. Documents captured from the Abbottabad compound generally show that bin Laden was wary of contact with Pakistani intelligence and police, especially in light of Pakistan's role in the arrest of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. According to Coll: "C.I.A. and other Obama administration officials have said they possess no evidence—no intercepts, no unreleased documents from Abbottabad—that Kayani or Pasha or any other I.S.I. officer knew where bin Laden was hiding. Given the hostility toward Pakistan prevalent in the American national security bureaucracy by 2011, if the United States possessed such hard evidence, it almost certainly would have leaked." In response to America's exposure of bin Laden's hiding place, Pakistan moved to shut down the informant network that led the Americans there.
- Inter-Services Intelligence activities in Afghanistan
- Inter-Services Intelligence activities in India
- Iran and state-sponsored terrorism
- Israel and state-sponsored terrorism
- Qatar and state-sponsored terrorism
- Saudi Arabia–United States relations#Allegations of funding terrorism
- Terrorism and the Soviet Union
- United States and state-sponsored terrorism
- Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "India, Afghanistan deny Pakistan's allegation of 'terrorism' | DW | 16.11.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "Iran Says Pakistan Backs Suicide Bombers, Warns 'Revenge' at Funeral of Victims". 16 February 2019.
- International Terrorism: Threats and Responses: Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary By United States Congress House Committee on the Judiciary, ISBN 0-16-052230-7, 1996, pp. 482.
- "(I) Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism". 3 April 2006. Archived from the original on 3 April 2006.
- ANI (28 February 2019). "Combat terror outfits operating in your soil: Germany to Pakistan". Business Standard India. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "Germany backs India's cross-border strikes against terrorists in Pakistan administered Kashmir". GPIL - German Practice in International Law. 15 November 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "US, UK, France, India voice concern at FATF meet over Pakistan inaction against Terrorism". economictimes.com. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "UK says Pakistan must stop infiltration across LoC". Daily Times. 29 May 2002. Archived from the original on 4 April 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Back to Camp-Dawn July 2005
- "Coalition Vows to Regain Afghan Town Seized by Taliban". The New York Times. 18 July 2006.
- "Leon Panetta: U.S. "reaching the limits of our patience" with Pakistan terror safe havens". Wayback Machine. 7 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "A safe haven for terrorists". The Economist. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Dean Nelson in New Delhi (7 December 2010). "Nicolas Sarkozy launches attack on Pakistan over terrorist safe havens". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "India accuses Pak of giving pensions to terrorists". The Statesman. 3 March 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "Pakistan's updated terror list 'glaringly omits' key 26/11 Mumbai attackers, says India". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Scroll Staff. "At UN, India accuses Pakistan of delisting 4,000 terrorists, changing PoK demography". Scroll.in. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Sibal •, Kanwal (25 November 2020). "12 Years After Mumbai, the Fight Against Terrorism Continues". Fair Observer. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Miglani, Sanjeev (28 June 2020). "India seeks extradition from Pakistan of suspected Mumbai attack mastermind". Reuters. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "Zero infiltration along LoC for second year due to upgraded infrastructure, heavy snowfall". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "LoC silent in March, militant infrastructure in Pakistan remains intact: Gen Naravane". Kashmir Reader. Press Trust of India. 25 March 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Daniel L. Byman. "The Changing Nature of State Sponsorship of Terrorism" (PDF). Brookings.edu. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
- Deadly Connections: States That Sponsor Terrorism By Daniel Byman, ISBN 0-521-83973-4, 2005, Cambridge University Press, pp 155
- Farmer, Ben (24 September 2019). "Pakistan trained al-Qaeda, says Imran Khan". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
Pakistan's security apparatus has in the past angrily rejected politicians linking it to militancy. Nawaz Sharif, the former prime minister, faced treason charges last year after an interview where he suggested the Pakistani state played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attack that killed 166 people.
- "30,000–40,000 terrorists still present in Pak: Imran Khan". Rediff. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Chapter 5: Terrorist Safe Havens (Update to 7120 Report)". United States Department of State. 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Country Reports on Terrorism 2016". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- Rotondi, Jessica Pearce. "9 Unexpected Things Navy SEALs Discovered in Osama bin Laden's Compound". HISTORY. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- "Osama Bin Laden Killed". NPR.org. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Savage, Charlie (28 October 2015). "How 4 Federal Lawyers Paved the Way to Kill Osama bin Laden". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- Marks, Julie. "How SEAL Team Six Took Out Osama bin Laden". HISTORY. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
- The Christian Science Monitor. "Pakistan said to play both sides on terror war". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Rory McCarthy. "Pakistan's ISI playing dangerous game". the Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Maitra, Gautam (2009). For whom the bell tolls : America or the jihadists?. Victoria, BC, Canada: Trafford Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 9781426906152.
- "Terrorist Sponsors: Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, China". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on 4 September 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Stephen Schwartz (19 August 2006). "A threat to the world". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
- "Terrorist Sponsors: Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, China". cato.org. 16 November 2001.
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (22 October 2013). "Ex-Pakistani Ambassador: My Country Supports Terrorism". BloombergView. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Asia's Islamism engine Archived 6 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Australian, 4 December 2008
- "SPIEGEL Interview with Pervez Musharraf: 'Pakistan is Always Seen as the Rogue' – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Boone, Jon (13 February 2015). "Musharraf: Pakistan and India's backing for 'proxies' in Afghanistan must stop". The Guardian.
- "BBC News – Musharraf admits Kashmir militants trained in Pakistan". Bbc.co.uk. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Terrorism Havens: Pakistan – Council on Foreign Relations Archived 2 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Kashmir Militant Extremists – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Pakistan 'role in Mumbai attacks'". BBC News. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Terrorist Attack on the Parliament of India – December 13, 2001". Indianembassy.org. Archived from the original on 17 December 2001. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "ISI now outsources terror to Bangladesh". In.rediff.com. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Hyderabad blasts: The ISI hand". In.rediff.com. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "ISI may be behind Hyderabad blasts: Jana Reddy". Ibnlive.com. 26 August 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "U.S. official: Indian attack has Pakistani ties". NBC News. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Baqir Sajjad Syed (6 December 2008). "Rice tells Pakistan to act 'or US will'". Dawn.com. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Ali, Mahmud (9 October 2006). "Pakistan's shadowy secret service". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Rashid, Ahmed (6 October 2006). "Nato's top brass accuse Pakistan over Taliban aid". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 October 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Gall, Carlotta (21 January 2007). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "A NATION CHALLENGED: THE SUSPECTS; Death of Reporter Puts Focus on Pakistan Intelligence Unit". The New York Times. 25 February 2002. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Pakistanis Aided Attack in Kabul, U.S. Officials Say". The New York Times. 1 August 2008.
- "Lashkar-e-Taiba (Army of the Pure) (aka Lashkar e-Tayyiba, Lashkar e-Toiba; Lashkar-i-Taiba) – Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Profile: Lashkar-e-Taiba". BBC News. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "FBI identifies terror camp in Pakistan through satellite pictures". dna. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 14 June 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Terrorism Havens: Pakistan – Council on Foreign Relations". 18 July 2006. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006.
- Karzai wants action by allied forces in Pakistan 11 August 2008 Dawn, Pakistan
- Bergen, Peter; Tiedemann, Katherine (26 April 2010). "No Secrets in the Sky". The New York Times.
- "ISI allowed terrorists to attack India, says WikiLeaks." Press Trust of India, 9 May 2011.
- "WikiLeaks: ISI allowed terrorists to attack India, says Gitmo detainee". NDTV.com. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "ISI allowed terrorists to attack India, says WikiLeaks". Hindustan Times. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "ISI allowed terrorists to attack India, say Guantanamo detainees: Wikileaks". Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "The Key Reason the U.S. Lost in Afghanistan". Project On Government Oversight. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "The Potential for a New Strand of Islamist Extremism in Pakistan". Jamestown. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "Pakistan took modest steps yet remains safe haven for terrorists: US report". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "Pakistan Army and Terrorism; an unholy alliance". www.efsas.org. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Why did US declare an anti-Iran militant group terrorist? | DW | 05.07.2019". DW.COM. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "Terrorists openly collect funds in Pak for war on India". Rediff. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Islamic State attacks show group is intent on killing Afghan peace hopes". the Guardian. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "Pakistan denies it is a 'safe haven' for terrorists". BBC News. 30 September 2011.
- "Crisis of Impunity – Pakistan's Support of the Taliban". Hrw.org. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 12 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "US embassy cables: Pakistan home to 43 'terrorist camps' – Indian army chief". The Guardian. London. 10 December 2010.
- 'Pak feared exposure of militant camps' – Rediff 16 October 2005
- Loomis, George. "Pakistan should crack down on Taliban, UN official says". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 10 January 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "BBC Story". BBC News. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Osama bin Laden, Taliban were heroes for Pakistan: Pervez Musharraf". ibnlive.com. 28 October 2015.
- "Pakistan supported, trained terror groups: Musharraf". The Hindu. 28 October 2015.
- "Pak fanning militancy in Kashmir: Musharraf". 29 October 2015.
- "The curious case of Osama bin Laden". 3 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Mystery of Taliban 'flown out by Pakistan'". The Telegraph. 27 November 2001.
- "Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism". 30 April 2001. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Swami, Praveen. "Taliban receiving Pakistan military equipment, U.S. investigation reveals." The Hindu, 9 January 2012.
- Cassman, Daniel. "Lashkar-e-Taiba – Mapping Militant Organizations". stanford.edu.
- "Lashkar-e-Taiba". newamerica.org.
- "US puts $10m bounty on Lashkar-e-Taiba's Hafiz Saeed". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Amjad Mahmood. "Footprints: JuD's show of strength". Dawn.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Joshi, Rohan. "Should Pakistan Be Designated A State Sponsor of Terror?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Wanted in U.S. and India, Hafiz Saeed leads mass rally in Pakistan | Reuters". web.archive.org. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "Pak runs special trains for Hafiz Saeed meet". 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- Vishnu Varma (5 December 2014). "'Mainstreaming Terror': India's Reaction to Hafiz Saeed Rally". NDTV.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "US Admiral: 'Haqqani is veritable arm of Pakistan's ISI'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "U.S. says Pakistan's ISI supported Kabul embassy attack". Wayback Machine. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "Pakistan's Spy Agency Is Tied to Attack on U.S. Embassy". The New York Times. 23 September 2011.
- Agencies. "Haqqani network is a "veritable arm" of ISI: Mullen". Dawn.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "NATO: 77 U.S. troops injured after Taliban hit Afghan coalition base". Wayback Machine. 11 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "Taliban Bombing at U.S. Base in Afghanistan Wounds Nearly 80 Americans". Fox News. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "US commander commends Zarb-e-Azb for disrupting Haqqani network's ability to target Afghanistan". The Express Tribune. 6 November 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "انھیں کیوں نشانہ بنائیں جو ہمارے لیے خطرہ نہیں؟". BBC Urdu. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Militants not dangerous to Pakistan should not be targeted: Sartaj". Dawn.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Pakistan's National Security Advisor Sartaj Aziz calls Afghan counterpart after remarks on terror". Wayback Machine. 20 November 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ANI (20 November 2014). "Sartaj Aziz under fire for 'not to act against friendly terrorists' gaffe". business-standard.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Mateen Haider. "Sartaj Aziz statement on militant groups taken out of context: FO". Dawn.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Foreign Office clarifies Sartaj Aziz statement on ties with militant groups". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "'Pak's double standards on terror not acceptable' – Rediff.com India News". News.rediff.com. 16 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- H.R.6069 – Pakistan State Sponsor of Terrorism Designation Act, Bill sponsored by Rep. Ted Poe, United States Congress, 20 September 2016.
- US lawmakers move bill to designate Pakistan a terrorist state, The Express Tribune, 21 September 2016.
- "Chairman Poe introduces the Pakistan State Sponsor of Terrorism Designation Act". Wayback Machine. 20 September 2016. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "State sponsor of terrorism: US bill unlikely to gain Congressional support". The Express Tribune. 25 September 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
- "UK PM cautions Pakistan over 'terror exports'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Nicholas Watt. "Cameron sparks diplomatic row with Pakistan after 'export of terror' remarks". the Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- James Lyons (8 December 2010). "David Cameron snubbed by Pakistan over terrorism slur". mirror. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Schmitt, Mark Mazzetti and Eric. "Pakistanis Aided Attack in Kabul, U.S. Officials Say". nytimes.com.
- Harris, Kathleen. "Immigration minister lashes out against Pakistan's 'state sponsorship of terrorism'". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Walsh, Declan (25 July 2010). "Afghanistan war logs: Clandestine aid for Taliban bears Pakistan's fingerprints". The Guardian. London.
- "Push launched against Haqqanis in border areas | Pajhwok Afghan News". Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "President Karzai Address to the Nation on Afghanistan's Peace Efforts". The Embassy of Afghanistan in Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Panetta: U.S. will pursue Pakistan-based militants". USA Today. September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "U.S. blames Pakistan agency in Kabul attack". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Pakistan condemns US comments about spy agency". Associated Press. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- Naumann, Qasim (17 September 2011). "U.S. links Pakistan to group it blames for Kabul attack". Wayback Machine. Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Clinton Presses Pakistan to Help Fight Haqqani Insurgent Group". Fox News. 18 September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Pakistan a twin brother, talks to go on: Karzai". Wayback Machine. 5 October 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "Reports: Kabul may consider Pakistan offer". UPI. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- "Pakistan to release more Taliban prisoners". Pajhwok Afghan News. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- Gul, Ayaz. "Deadly Truck Bomb Rocks Kabul". VOA.
- Kay, Chris; Najafizada, Eltaf (6 June 2017). "Ghani Says Afghanistan Hit by 'Undeclared War' From Pakistan". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- "Afghanistan blames Pakistan and Taliban for Kabul blast". Aljazeera.com.
- "Pakistan's hand in the Taliban's victory". Washington Post. Washington, D.C. 18 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
- "The Real Winner of the Afghan War? It's Not Who You Think". The New York Times. New York. 26 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
- John Pike. "Zardari blames 'non-state actors' for Mumbai attack". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Non-state actors Pak's responsibility: Zardari". NDTV.com. 16 December 2008. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Tran, Mark (26 February 2009). "India names Pakistani colonel in connection with Mumbai terror attacks". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Pakistan not to ban Jamaat-ud-Dawa". The Times of India. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012.
- "Experts welcome UN ban on Jamaat-ul-Dawa; put doubts on Pak". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "Indian Police Arrest Islamic Cleric for Blasts". Wayback Machine. Reuters. 5 April 2006. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- World PakistanPhotosVideoBlog: New York Diaries (8 July 2009). "Zardari says Pak created and nurtured militants – CNN IBN News". Ibnlive.in.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Musharraf admits Kashmir militants trained in Pakistan". BBC News. 5 October 2010.
- "Assam accuses Pakistan High Commission of helping ULFA". Expressindia.com. 15 March 2000. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Khaira, Rachna (21 November 2018). "Interview: Punjab CM Amarinder Singh Says Pakistan's ISI Is Supporting Pro-Khalistan Groups". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "Pakistan Denies Supporting Khalistan Movement, Photos Show Otherwise". News 18. 17 April 2018.
- "Aujla justifies Pak's support to Khalistan". The Times of India. 2 December 2018.
- "Pakistan will use Kartarpur for Khalistan terror: Former army chief".
- "'Historic day': PM Imran inaugurates 24/7 border crossing at Torkham". DAWN.COM. 18 September 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- Puri, Luv (27 November 2019). "The many faces of Pakistani Punjab's militancy". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- "Diplomat back from BD after terror funding allegation". Dawn. 5 February 2015.
- Star Online Report. "'Terror financing': Pak diplomat withdrawn from Bangladesh". The Daily Star. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Pakistan withdraws diplomat from Bangladesh: foreign ministry". The Indian Express. 25 December 2015.
- "'Greater SAARC' and Pakistan's regional isolation", Deutsche Welle, 13 October 2016
- "Surgical strike and Pak's isolation", Daily Excelsior, 17 October 2016
- "Greater South Asia with China, Iran: Isolated Pakistan seeks bigger SAARC to counter India's influence", India Today, 12 October 2016
- "Pakistan unlikely to exit 'grey' list of global terror funding watchdog until June". The Hindu. Islamabad. PTI. 17 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
- [dead link]
- "Pakistan admits it wasn't part of US operation to kill Osama bin Laden – World – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 11 September 2001. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Perlez, Jane (11 September 2001). "Nation & World | Bin Laden's death casts more suspicion on Pakistan | Seattle Times Newspaper". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Coll, Steve (2019). Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Penguin Group. pp. 551–552. ISBN 9780143132509.
- "Interesting Facts About Osama bin Laden's Compound – International Business Times". Au.ibtimes.com. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Westhead, Rick (1 April 2011). "Questions about bin Laden embarrassing to Pakistan". thestar. Toronto. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- "Bin Laden's front yard" (May 3, 2011). The Economist.
- Toosi, Nahal (11 September 2001). "The Canadian Press: Pakistan's president dismisses suspicions that his country was sheltering bin Laden". Retrieved 3 May 2011.[dead link]
- Your name. "Zardari defends Pakistan over bin Laden intel". Emirates 24/7. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Coll, Steve (2019). Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Penguin Group. pp. 547–554. ISBN 9780143132509.
- "Pakistan Arrests C.I.A. Informants in Bin Laden Raid." New York Times, 14 June 2011.
- "Al Qaeda leaders killed or captured in Pakistan." Reuters, 2 May 2011.