Pakistan Marines

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Pakistan Marines
بحریہَ پاکستان
Official emblem of the Pak Marines at a marine base HQ
Founded1 June 1971
(52 years, 8 months ago)[1]
Country Pakistan
Branch Pakistan Navy
TypeMarines
RoleAmphibious warfare, Naval infantry
Size18,000 (est.)[2]
Part of Pakistan Navy
HeadquartersManora Fort, Pak Marines Base in Karachi Coast, Sindh, Pakistan
Nickname(s)Pak Marines
Motto(s)Arabic: وَ اعْتَصِمُوْا بِحَبْلِ اللّٰهِ جَمِیْعًا وَّ لَا تَفَرَّقُوْا۪ Urdu: اور اللہ کی رسی مضبوط تھام لو سب مل کر اور آپس میں پھٹ نہ جانا (فرقوں میں نہ بٹ جانا) "And hold fast to the rope of Allah, all of you together, and do not be divided;" (Qur'an, 3:103)
Colors    
AnniversariesNavy Day: 6 September
Engagements
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Arif Alvi
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff General Sahir Shamshad Mirza NI(M)
CommandantVice Admiral Raja Rab Nawaz HI(M)
Arm BadgeMarines
Flag

The Pakistan Marines (Urdu: سمندری پاکستان or بحریہَ پاکستان)[3] or simply as Pak Marines, is an expeditionary and amphibious warfare uniform service branch within the Pakistan Navy, consisting of the naval officers and other personnel to perform their duties within the Marines.[4] Pakistan Marines are responsible for providing force protection in littorals, using the mobility of the Pakistan Navy to provide creeks defence, ground based air defence and Force protection.[5]

In the Pakistani military leadership structure, the Marines are the expeditionary and amphibious branch within the Navy, often working closely with the Pakistan Army for training, executing expeditionary operations and logistics purposes.[4]

Initially established and commissioned on 1 June 1971 in East-Pakistan, to assist Pakistan Army in riverine warfare. GHQ employed this infant force in successfully evacuating Pakistan Army units from encirclement by Indian Army. They were headquartered in PNS Bakhtiar and PNS Titumir to oversee the tactical riverine /waterborne operations. This small but valiant force soon started to make significant impact on retrograde waterborne operations of Pakistan and saved many lives. Post war scenario led to their decommissioning in 1974 due to no riverine area of operations left with Pakistan that time.[6]

On 25 November 1990, the Marines were re-organized and recommissioned under Cdr. Obaidullah–since then they have been a component of the Navy, conducting expeditionary operations with the special forces of army and the navy.[6] The Marines are primarily tasked with quick response and marine reconnaissance objectives to guard the coastal and amphibious regions of the country, and receives training at the School of Infantry and Tactics by the Pakistan Army's instructors.[4]

In 2010, Marines, in close co-ordination with the Pakistan Army, Navy, and Air Force, were working around the clock to rescue villagers trapped by the country's worst deluge in 80 years.[7]

History[edit]

The Pakistan Marines traces their history back to Eastern Pakistan when the infantry battalion, dedicated towards the amphibious operations with the Pakistan Army, was commissioned in the Navy on 1 June 1971.: 76 [3] Initially, the Marines were modeled based on the British Royal Marines and were aimed towards conducting independent expeditionary and amphibious operations in a geographical region that was essentially a dead-level plain, which made it difficult for the Pakistan Army to conduct mechanized operations, though an ideal theatre for amphibious ground forces.[8]

The Marines were initially tasked to counter the Indian Army in Chittagong and Khulna with only four patrol boat and improvised imported amphibious vehicles.[8] Due to lack of training and vessels, misunderstanding of the amphibious terrains, operational capabilities, the Marines failed to produced any significant results to counter the insurgency that resulted in their decommissioning in 1974.[8]

The battalion of Pakistan Marines landing and ashore off a landing craft utility during a training exercise in support of Operation Bright Star.

Nonetheless, the Marines continued to exists in its rudimentary form until 1988 to meet the fundamental security requirements of Pakistan Navy offshore establishments in the country.[9] Following the introduction of the Mistral weapon system in the Navy, the Marines were re-commissioned under Cdr. Obaidulla (PN. Service number 1558) with Manora Fort at the vicinity of the PNS Qasim serving its first forward base on 14 April 1990.[9][1]

Per Navy's request, the Pakistan Army undertook the training of the new Marines personnel at the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul and later at the School of Infantry and Tactics in Quetta, aiming to raise an infantry unit to guard the offshore establishments of the Navy.: 159 [10]

Initially, the Marines objectives were to provide security and cover to the offshore establishments of the Navy while aiding the federal government using the Navy's mobility.[9] Headquarters of the Marines was relocated from the PNS Himalaya (Navy's only boot camp) to the Manora Fort in the PNS Qasim that was renamed as Marine Base Qasim in 1994.[9] The commissioning Marines consisted of eighty commissioned officers, sixty seven chief petty officers from general service and forty three Marines.[9] Its first battalion was activated in September 1971.[9]

As part of the first combat assignment, the Marines were deployed at the Sir Creek region during the last decade, threat on the South-Eastern border increased manifolds, warranting an immediate response.[11][12][13]

Estimating the type and quantum of threat, the Pakistan Navy proposed deployment of a sizable force in the Sir Creeks region. The then-Rear Admiral Shahid Karimullah vigorously pursued the case of an additional battalion and its phase-wise development plan. Since its inception, Creeks Battalion is deployed in its designated Area of Responsibility.[14]

On 28 March 2013, Pakistan Navy commissioned the third battalion of Pakistan Marines in order to further strengthen the defense of the Gwadar Port and to enhance the security of vital Pakistan Navy assets and installations along the western coasts of Pakistan.[15]

Training center[edit]

Marine Training center is situated in Gwadar, Balochistan. Before Gwadar it was situated in PNS Qasim Manora Island Karachi but recently, shifted to Gwadar.

Marines Training Centre (MTC) conducts all levels of training for Marines. Additionally, it also conducts courses for the Pak Marines officers and allied countries. Marine Training Centre was established in 1990 in PNS Himalaya to impart Basic and Advance training to Pak Marines. Over a short period of time it has achieved excellence in imparting high standard of professional training to Marines. It is now fully capable of making a Marine proficient in Amphibious Warfare, Riverine Operations and Shore-based air Defence. Centre also conducts the basic and refresher training for PNP(Pakistan Naval Police).

MTC has achieved proficiency in imparting high standard of professional training. Consequently, it has been assigned the responsibility of conducting basic training of Pakistan Naval Police personnel as well. In pursuit of professional excellence, the Marines besides carrying out exercises and workups locally also participate in international exercises both inland and abroad

Pakistan Marine Training center

Organization[edit]

Marines Headquarters[edit]

A vintage cannon in the Manora Fort installed by the Royal Marines during the World War II.

The headquarters of the marines were initially set up in the Naval Base Dacca in East Pakistan in 1971 but relocated in the Karachi after the third war with India.[10] In 1990, the Marines were organized in PNS Himalaya initially, but the organizational command was relocated in Manora Fort located in the PNS Qasim that was renamed as Qasim Marine Base in 1995.: 50 [16][8][17] General military administration and logistics for the Marines are operated from the Qasim Marine Base in Karachi.[18]

The Marines maintains and control the inter-services liaison communication between the Army and the Marines from the Marine Base Qasim, overseeing the military training and instructions on the weapon system provided by the Army instructors and weapon system specialists.[19]

Marines bases, camps, and battalions[edit]

The Pakistan Marines operations are primarily controlled from the Qasim Marine Base but are stationed in Joint Army-Marine Base Sir Creek, Army Base Ormara, Gwadar Marine Camp and Marine Base Punjab.[20][21] Since 1998, the Army helped Navy to raise six infantry battalions (approximately ~800 personnel),[9] commanded by an officer with rank of Commander.[9]

Battalions Garrison/Headquarters Area of responsibility
Force Protection Marine Battalions
1st Marines Battalion[9] NHQ Pakistan Naval Complex
2nd Marines Battalion[22] PNS Qasim Karachi district
3rd Marines Battalion[23] PNS Akram Port of Gwadar
4th Marines Battalion PNS Bahadur Greater Karsaz Area
5th Marines Battalion PNS Aatish Karachi Western Area
6th Marines Battalion PNS Ahsan Jinnah Naval Base / Naval Air Station Ormara
7th Marines Battalion COMCEP / PNS Punjab COMCEP / Naval War College / PNS Punjab
8th Marines Battalion Chuhhar Jamali, Sindh Sir Creek / Kori
9th Marines Battalion Purposed Kalmat Naval Base / PNS Makran
10th Marines Battalion Purposed Coastal Sindh
Marine Amphibious Wing
Marines Amphibious Wing[24] PNS Qasim Karachi Coast
Creek Battalions
1st Creek Battalion[25] Sujawal District Sir Creek / Keti Bandar / Shahbandar
Air Defense Battalions
21st Air Defense Battalion[26] Jinnah Naval Base / COMWEST Gwadar District Coastal Areas
22nd Air Defence Battalion Purposed
23rd Air Defence Battalion[27] Sujawal Sir Creek / Kori

Personnel[edit]

Leadership and training[edit]

The Pakistan Marine unit members dressed in operational camouflage uniforms with their U.S. counterparts in 2009.

The Commander, Coastal Areas (COMCOAST), designated as the Chief of Staff Marines (CSM), is the highest-ranking officer in the Marines, usually at a rank of three-star, reporting directly to the Chief of Naval Staff.: 73 [28]

The officer candidates are directed to attend the Pakistan Naval Academy in Karachi in order to gain commissioned in the Marines, where the candidates pass out in courses relating the military history and training, training for the soldier recruits are conducted at the PNS Himalaya– the initial entry training center ("boot camp") of the Navy.[6] Following the award of their commissions, marines officers and personnel attend the Marine Training Center (MTC) located at the PNS Qasim to learn infantry and combined arms warfare, usually instructed by Pakistani Army specialists.[6] At the MTC, the Marines completes the Basic Marines Course that included the instructions on comprehensive physical training in unarmed combat, close-quarter battle, security duties, swimming, small-arms handling and infantry tactics.[29]

After passing the basic marine training course, the Marines are directed to attend the Pakistan Army's School of Infantry and Tactics in Quetta where they are trained together with army personnel.[4] Since 1999, the Marines have been instructed to operate the Mistral missile system, ordnance, and special security courses to protect naval bases on coastal areas.[30][better source needed][4]

The Marines formations and personnel wears the camouflage uniforms when deployed to an operational environment but otherwise they wear Navy dress uniforms in public and international ceremonies.[4]

Commissioned officers and Enlisted rank[edit]

The Marines are the branch within the Navy, therefore, using the same ranks and insignia as equivalent to the Pakistan Navy as contrary to the U.S. Marines in the United States and the Royal Marines in the United Kingdom.: 76 [3]

Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Pakistan Marines
Vice admiral Rear admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Sub-lieutenant Midshipman
Rank group Junior commissioned officers Non commissioned officer Enlisted
Pakistan Marines
No insignia
Master Chief Petty Officer Fleet Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer Leading Seaman Able Tech-I Ordinary Tech-II

Honours and awards[edit]

Wartime Gallantry Awards[edit]

Nishan-e-Haider (Order of the Lion)
Hilal-e-Jurat (Crescent of Courage)
Sitara-e-Jurat (Star of Courage)
Tamgha-e-Jurat (Medal of Courage)
Imtiazi Sanad (Mentioned in Despatches)[31]
Order of Wear

Nishan-e-Haider

(Order of the Lion)

Nishan-e-Imtiaz

(Civilian)

Nishan-e-Imtiaz

(Military)

Hilal-e-Jurat

(Crescent of Courage)

Hilal-e-Shujaat

(Crescent of Bravery)

Hilal-e-Imtiaz

(Civilian)

Hilal-e-Imtiaz

(Military)

Sitara-e-Jurat

(Star of Courage)

Sitara-e-Shujaat

(Star of Bravery)

Sitara-e-Imtiaz

(Military)

President's Award for

Pride of Performance

Sitara-e-Basalat

(Star of Good Conduct)

Sitara-e-Eisaar

(Star of Sacrifice)

Tamgha-e-Jurat

(Medal of Courage)

Tamgha-e-Shujaat

(Medal of Bravery)

Tamgha-e-Imtiaz

(Military)

Tamgha-e-Basalat

(Medal of Good Conduct)

Tamgha-e-Eisaar

(Medal of Sacrifice)

Imtiazi Sanad

(Mentioned in Despatches)

Tamgha-e-Diffa

(General Service Medal)

Sitara-e-Harb 1965 War

(War Star 1965)

Sitara-e-Harb 1971 War

(War Star 1971)

Tamgha-e-Jang 1965 War

(War Medal 1965)

Tamgha-e-Jang 1971 War

(War Medal 1971)

Tamgha-e-Baqa

(Nuclear Test Medal)

Tamgha-e-Istaqlal Pakistan

(Escalation with India Medal)

Tamgha-e-Azm

(Medal of Conviction)

Tamgha-e-Khidmat (Class-I)

(Medal of Service Class I)

Tamgha-e-Khidmat (Class-II)

(Medal of Service Class I)

Tamgha-e-Khidmat (Class-III)

(Medal of Service Class I)

10 Years Service Medal

20 Years Service Medal

30 Years Service Medal

35 Years Service Medal

40 Years Service Medal

Pakistan Tamgha

(Pakistan Medal)

Tamgha-e-Sad Saala Jashan-e-

Wiladat-e-Quaid-e-Azam

Tamgha-e-Jamhuria

(Republic Commemoration Medal)

Hijri Tamgha

(Hijri Medal)

Jamhuriat Tamgha

(Democracy Medal)

Qarardad-e-Pakistan Tamgha

(Resolution Day Golden Jubilee Medal)

Tamgha-e-Salgirah Pakistan

(Independence Day

Golden Jubilee Medal)

Command & Staff College Quetta

Instructor's Medal

Command & Staff College Quetta

Student Medal

Photo gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Pakistan Navy Chronology of Important Event from 1947 to June 2012". www.paknavy.gov.pk. ISPR Navy. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  2. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (25 February 2021). The Military Balance 2021. London: Routledge. p. 291. ISBN 9781032012278.
  3. ^ a b c Waters, Conrad (2011). Seaforth World Naval Review 2012. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Seaforth Publishing. p. 200. ISBN 9781783466320. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Pakistan Marines". Pakistan Navy promotional video (Only available in Urdu). Pakistan Navy Directorate for Public Press Release. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  5. ^ (Iiss), The International Institute of Strategic Studies (14 February 2017). The Military Balance 2017. Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Incorporated. ISBN 9781857439007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d PNS Qasim. "History". Pakistan Navy's Navy Inter-Services Public Relations (Naval ISPR). Navy Inter-Services Public Relations (Naval ISPR). Archived from the original on 4 July 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  7. ^ "Amid the Pakistan floods: 'A village slowly drowning'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Pakistan Marines (Global Security.org). "Pakistan Marines". Global Security.org. Pakistan Marines (Global Security.org). Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Marine Badges: Pakistan". www.marinebadges.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  10. ^ a b Siddiqa-Agha, A. (2001). Pakistan's Arms Procurement and Military Buildup, 1979-99: In Search of a Policy. Springer. ISBN 9780230513525. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  11. ^ Anis, Mohammad (14 April 2018). "Pakistan Navy set to strengthen coastal defence". The News International. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Naval chief visits forward posts adjoining Sir Creek". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  13. ^ "Passing-out parade of 29th batch of Pak Marines". News International. 10 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  14. ^ "PNS Qasim". paknavy.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Pakistan Navy commissions 3rd Pak Marines battalion at Gawadar". The News Tribe. 28 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  16. ^ Indian Defence Review. Lancer International. 1995. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  17. ^ Anwar, Dr Muhammad (2006). Stolen Stripes and Broken Medals: Autobiography of a Senior Naval Officer. Author House. ISBN 9781467010566. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  18. ^ Pns Qasim Archived 2006-07-04 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Khiyal, Lt-Cdr. Roshan (3 December 2010). "Pakistan Marines" (watch.tv) (in Urdu). Karachi, Pakistan: ISPR Marines. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Pak Marines pride of nation". www.thenews.com.pk. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  21. ^ "Pakistan Navy Marines' 21st Air Defence Battalion assigned to Ormara". Quwa. 16 July 2017. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  22. ^ Independent writers, reporters (17 October 2012). "Navy commissions 2nd Pak Marines Battalion and inducts air defence assets | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Karachi, Sindh, Pk.: Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  23. ^ reporters, et,al. (29 March 2013). "PN commissions 3rd Pak Marines Battalion". The Nation. Jiwani, Balochistan, Pakistan: The Nation. The Nation. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ "Pakistan Marines (PM)". 13 June 2018. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  25. ^ "KARACHI: Creek battalion commissioned in Sujawal". DAWN.COM. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  26. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20210123193734/https://www.paknavy.gov.pk/NAVY_NEWS/NN%20ENG%20Web%20Jul-17.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2023. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ "Pakistan Navy successfully test-fires surface-to-air missile (VIDEO)". Daily Pakistan Global. 8 December 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  28. ^ Waters, Conrad (2011). Seaforth World Naval Review 2012. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781783466320. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Passing Out Parade of 55th Basic Marines Course (BMC)". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 16 December 2018.[better source needed]
  30. ^ "IAF's Atlantique Kill Picture Gallery - Vayu Sena". vayu-sena-aux.tripod.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Honours and Awards". Pakistan Army. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2009.

External links[edit]