Outline of economics

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Economics classes make extensive use of supply and demand graphs like this one to teach about markets. In this graph, S and D refer to supply and demand and P and Q refer to the price and quantity.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics:

Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact.

Description of economics[edit]

Economics can be described as all of the following:

  • Academic discipline – body of knowledge given to, or received by, a disciple (student); a branch or sphere of knowledge, or field of study, that an individual has chosen to specialize in.
  • Field of science – widely recognized category of specialized expertise within science, and typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature. Such a field will usually be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer-reviewed research is published. There are many economics-related scientific journals.
  • Social science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society.

Branches of economics[edit]

  • Macroeconomics – branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets.
  • Microeconomics – branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of limited resources.

Subdisciplines of economics[edit]

Methodologies or approaches[edit]

Multidisciplinary fields involving economics[edit]

Types of economies[edit]

Economysystem of human activities related to the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area.

Economies, by political & social ideological structure[edit]

Economies, by scope[edit]

Economies, by regulation[edit]

Economic elements[edit]

Economic activities[edit]

Economic forces[edit]

Economic problems[edit]

Trends and influences[edit]

Economic measures[edit]

Economic participants[edit]

Economic politics[edit]

Economic policy[edit]

Economic policy





Types of markets[edit]

Aspects of markets[edit]

Market forms[edit]

Market form

  • Perfect competition, in which the market consists of a very large number of firms producing a homogeneous product.
  • Monopolistic competition, also called competitive market, where there are a large number of independent firms which have a very small proportion of the market share.
  • Monopoly, where there is only one provider of a product or service.
  • Monopsony, when there is only one buyer in a market.
  • Natural monopoly, a monopoly in which economies of scale cause efficiency to increase continuously with the size of the firm.
  • Oligopoly, in which a market is dominated by a small number of firms which own more than 40% of the market share.
  • Oligopsony, a market dominated by many sellers and a few buyers.

Market-oriented activities[edit]




Resource management[edit]

Resource management

Factors of production[edit]

Factors of production





Economic theory[edit]

Economic ideologies[edit]

History of economics[edit]

History of economic thought[edit]

History of economic thought

Economic history[edit]

Economic history

General economic concepts[edit]

Economics organizations[edit]

Economics publications[edit]

Persons influential in the field of economics[edit]

Nobel Memorial Prize–winning economic historians[edit]

Other notable economic historians[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]