North-West Frontier Province

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North-West Frontier Province
شمال لویدیځ سرحدي ولایت (Pashto)
شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ (Urdu)
Province of British Raj and Pakistan
1901–2010
Coat of arms of NWFP
Coat of arms
1901–1947
Location within the British Raj
1947–1955
1970–2010

Location within Pakistan
Area 
• 1901
100,142[1][2] km2 (38,665 sq mi)
Population 
• 1901
2,041,534
History
History 
• Established
9 November 1901
19 April 2010
Preceded by
Succeeded by
1901:
Punjab Province (British India)
1950:
Phulra State
1970 (intervened by West Pakistan):
Amb State
Swat State
Dir State
Chitral State
Hazara Tribal Agency
Kohistan Tribal Agency
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Today part ofPakistan
 · Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP; Pashto: شمال لویدیځ سرحدي ولایت, Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) was a Chief Commissioner's Province of British India, established on 9 November 1901 from the north-western districts of the Punjab Province. Following the referendum in 1947 to join either Pakistan or India, the province voted hugely in favour of joining Pakistan and it acceded accordingly on 14th August, 1947. It was dissolved to form a unified province of West Pakistan in 1955 upon creation of One Unit Scheme and was re-established in 1970. It was known by this name until 19 April 2010, when it was redesignated as the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa following the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan by erstwhile President Asif Ali Zardari.

The province covered an area of 70,709 km2 (27,301 sq mi), including much of the current Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province but excluding the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the former princely states of Amb, Chitral, Dir, Phulra and Swat. Its capital was the city of Peshawar, and the province was composed of six divisions (Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hazara, Kohat, Mardan, and Peshawar Division; Malakand was later added as the seventh division). Until 1947, the province was bordered by five princely states to the north, the minor states of the Gilgit Agency to the northeast, the province of West Punjab to the east and the province of Balochistan to the south. The Kingdom of Afghanistan lay to the northwest, with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas forming a buffer zone between the two.

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

The northwestern frontier areas were annexed by the East India Company after the Second Sikh War (1848–49). The territories thenceforth formed a part of Punjab until the province, then known as North-West Frontier Province, was created in 1901 from the north-western districts of the Punjab Province.[3] This region, along with the 'Frontier Tribal Areas', acted as a buffer zone with Afghanistan.

Inside Pakistan[edit]

Before the Partition of India, the 1947 North-West Frontier Province referendum was held in July 1947 to decide the future of NWFP, in which the people of the province decided in favor of joining Pakistan. However, the then Chief Minister Dr Khan Sahib, along with his brother Bacha Khan and the Khudai Khidmatgars, boycotted the referendum, citing that it did not have the options of the NWFP becoming independent or joining Afghanistan.[4][5]

As a separate province, the NWFP lasted until 1955 when it was merged into the new province of West Pakistan, under the One Unit policy announced by Prime Minister Chaudhry Mohammad Ali. It was recreated after the dissolution of the One Unit system and lasted under its old nomenclature until April 2010, when it was renamed as the 'Khyber Pakhtunkhwa' province.

Government[edit]

The offices of Governor and Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province lasted until 14 October 1955.

Tenure Governors of the North-West Frontier Province[6]
14 August 1947 – 8 April 1948 Sir George Cunningham
8 April 1948 – 16 July 1949 Sir Ambrose Dundas Flux Dundas
16 July 1949 – 14 January 1950 Sahibzada Mohammad Kursheed
14 January 1950 – 21 February 1950 Mohammad Ibrahim Khan Jhagra (acting)
21 February 1950 – 23 November 1951 Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar
24 November 1951 – 17 November 1954 Khwaja Shahabuddin
17 November 1954 – 14 October 1955 Qurban Ali Khan
14 October 1955 North-West Frontier Province dissolved
Tenure Chief Ministers of the North-West Frontier Province[6] Political party
1 April 1937 – 7 September 1937 Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan Non-party government nominee
7 September 1937 – 10 November 1939 Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (1st time) Indian National Congress
10 November 1939 – 25 May 1943 Governor's rule
25 May 1943 – 16 March 1945 Sardar Aurangzeb Khan Muslim League
16 March 1945 – 22 August 1947 Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (2nd time) Indian National Congress
14 August 1947 Independence of Pakistan
23 August 1947 – 23 April 1953 Abdul Qayyum Khan Kashmiri Pakistan Muslim League
23 April 1953 – 18 July 1955 Sardar Abdur Rashid Khan
19 July 1955 – 14 October 1955 Sardar Bahadur Khan

Demographics[edit]

Population history
YearPop.±%
18551,144,047—    
18681,339,566+17.1%
18811,575,943+17.6%
18911,857,519+17.9%
19012,041,534+9.9%
19112,196,933+7.6%
19212,251,340+2.5%
19312,425,076+7.7%
19413,038,067+25.3%
Source: Census of India
[7]: 30 [8]: 345–346 [9]

Historical population and religious counts in North-West Frontier Province were enumerated in all districts (Hazara, Mardan, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan), detailed in the population and religious tables above and below. Separate population counts were taken in the Agencies and Tribal Areas, as detailed on the respective article page.

At independence, there was a clear Muslim Pashtun majority in the North-West Frontier Province, although there were also Hindu and Sikh Pashtun, Hindkowan and Punjabi minorities scattered across the province.

Language[edit]

The languages of the North-West Frontier Province included Pashto, Hindko, Kohistani and others, although most of the population spoke Pashto. Prior to the arrival of the British, the official language, for governmental uses and such, was Persian.

Religion[edit]

Religious counts below is for the entirety of NWFP (Hazara, Mardan, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, and Dera Ismail Khan). The Agencies and Tribal Areas constituted a separate administrative division where religious composition was not enumerated, except at small Trans-Frontier Posts in the region.

Religion in North–West Frontier Province (1881–1941)
Religious
group
1881[7]: 95  1891[7]: 95  1901[7]: 95  1911[7]: 95  1921[8]: 345–346  1941[9]: 22 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 1,451,444 92.1% 1,714,490 92.3% 1,882,294 92.2% 2,039,894 92.86% 2,062,786 91.62% 2,788,797 91.8%
Hinduism Om.svg 111,892 7.1% 118,881 6.4% 128,617 6.3% 119,942 5.46% 149,881 6.66% 180,321 5.94%
Sikhism Khanda.svg 7,880 0.5% 18,575 1% 26,540 1.3% 30,345 1.38% 28,040 1.25% 57,939 1.91%
Christianity Christian cross.svg 4,728 0.3% 5,573 0.3% 6,125 0.3% 6,585 0.3% 10,610 0.47% 10,889 0.36%
Others N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 23 0% 121[a] 0%
Total Population 1,575,943 100% 1,857,519 100% 2,041,534 100% 2,196,766 100% 2,251,340 100% 3,038,067 100%

Districts[edit]

Religion in the Districts of North–West Frontier Province (1941)[9]: 22–23 
District Islam Star and Crescent.svg Hinduism Om.svg Sikhism Khanda.svg Christianity Christian cross.svg Others[b] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar District 769,589 90.35% 51,212 6.01% 24,030 2.82% 6,890 0.81% 112[c] 0.01% 851,833 100%
Hazara District 756,004 94.95% 30,267 3.8% 9,220 1.16% 737 0.09% 2[d] 0.0003% 796,230 100%
Mardan District 483,575 95.47% 10,677 2.11% 11,838 2.34% 449 0.09% 0 0% 506,539 100%
Dera Ismail Khan District 255,757 85.79% 39,167 13.14% 2,390 0.8% 810 0.27% 7[e] 0.002% 298,131 100%
Bannu District 257,648 87.06% 31,471 10.63% 6,112 2.07% 699 0.24% 0 0% 295,930 100%
Kohat District 266,224 91.99% 17,527 6.06% 4,349 1.5% 1,304 0.45% 0 0% 289,404 100%
Total 2,788,797 91.8% 180,321 5.94% 57,939 1.91% 10,889 0.36% 121[a] 0.004% 3,038,067 100%

Tehsils[edit]

Religion in the Tehsils of North–West Frontier Province (1941)[9]: 30 
Tehsil Islam Star and Crescent.svg Hinduism Om.svg Sikhism Khanda.svg Christianity Christian cross.svg[f] Others[g] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Peshawar Tehsil 335,871 86.27% 33,551 8.62% 15,454 3.97% 2,618[f] 0.67% 1,835[g] 0.47% 389,329 100%
Abbottabad Tehsil 284,228 92.13% 17,558 5.69% 6,035 1.96% 278[f] 0.09% 419[g] 0.14% 308,518 100%
Mardan Tehsil 281,161 93.91% 8,709 2.91% 9,091 3.04% 360[f] 0.12% 63[g] 0.02% 299,384 100%
Charsadda Tehsil 239,634 98.11% 2,533 1.04% 1,940 0.79% 127[f] 0.05% 12[g] 0% 244,246 100%
Mansehra Tehsil 237,306 97.58% 4,910 2.02% 965 0.4% 22[f] 0.01% 0 0% 243,203 100%
Nowshera Tehsil 194,084 88.92% 15,128 6.93% 6,636 3.04% 652[f] 0.3% 1,758[g] 0.81% 218,258 100%
Swabi Tehsil 202,414 97.71% 1,968 0.95% 2,747 1.33% 16[f] 0.01% 10[g] 0% 207,155 100%
Haripur Tehsil 178,545 95.04% 7,278 3.87% 2,011 1.07% 14[f] 0.01% 6[g] 0% 187,854 100%
Bannu Tehsil 157,097 83.74% 24,517 13.07% 5,285 2.82% 467[f] 0.25% 232[g] 0.12% 187,598 100%
Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil 155,100 82.68% 30,065 16.03% 1,740 0.93% 195[f] 0.1% 485[g] 0.26% 187,585 100%
Kohat Tehsil 100,868 88.01% 9,156 7.99% 3,613 3.15% 596[f] 0.52% 383[g] 0.33% 114,616 100%
Teri Tehsil 110,146 97.73% 2,462 2.18% 86 0.08% 0 0% 15[g] 0.01% 112,709 100%
Marwat Tehsil 100,551 92.82% 6,954 6.42% 817 0.75% 0 0% 0 0% 108,332 100%
Hangu Tehsil 55,210 88.94% 5,909 9.52% 650 1.05% 0 0% 310[g] 0.5% 62,079 100%
Tank Tehsil 49,847 89.55% 5,279 9.48% 401 0.72% 81[f] 0.15% 56[g] 0.1% 55,664 100%
Kulachi Tehsil 50,810 92.58% 3,823 6.97% 249 0.45% 0 0% 0 0% 54,882 100%
Amb Tehsil 47,288 98.69% 433 0.9% 195 0.41% 0 0% 0 0% 47,916 100%
Phulra Tehsil 8,637 98.83% 88 1.01% 14 0.16% 0 0% 0 0% 8,739 100%
Total 2,788,797 91.8% 180,321 5.94% 57,929 1.91% 5,426[f] 0.18% 5,583[g] 0.18% 3,038,067 100%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Included 71 Jews, 25 Buddhists, 24 Parsis (Zoroastrians), and 1 Jain.
  2. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated
  3. ^ Including 70 Jews, 24 Parsis (Zoroastrians), and 18 Buddhists
  4. ^ Including 2 Buddhists
  5. ^ Including 5 Buddhists, 1 Jain, and 1 Jew.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Tehsil and city religious breakdown figures for Christianity only includes local Christians, labeled as "Indian Christians" on census. Does not include Anglo-Indian Christians or British Christians, who were classified under "Other" category.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Including Anglo-Indian Christians, British Christians, Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated

References[edit]

  1. ^ Area with Native States in 1901. Province area excluding Native States was 34 169 km2 (13 193 sq mi).
  2. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908, p. 46.
  3. ^ "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa | province, Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  4. ^ Meyer, Karl E. (5 August 2008). The Dust of Empire: The Race For Mastery in the Asian Heartland – Karl E. Meyer – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780786724819. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Was Jinnah democratic? – II". Daily Times. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  6. ^ a b Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Pakistan Provinces". Retrieved 3 October 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1911 VOLUME XII NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE" (PDF). Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  8. ^ a b "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1921 VOLUME XIV NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE". Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME X NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE". Retrieved 23 September 2021.

References[edit]

  • The Imperial Gazetteer of India (26 vol, 1908–31), a highly detailed description of all of India in 1901. online edition

External links[edit]