Monarchy of Belize

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Queen of Belize
Coat of arms of Belize.svg
Incumbent
Elizabeth II (1).jpg
Elizabeth II
since 21 September 1981
Details
StyleHer Majesty
Heir apparentCharles, Prince of Wales
First monarchElizabeth II
Formation21 September 1981
ResidenceBelize House, Belmopan[1]

The monarchy of Belize is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Belize. The current Belizean monarch and head of state, since the independence of Belize on 21 September 1981, is Queen Elizabeth II. As sovereign, she is the personal embodiment of the Belizean Crown. Although the person of the sovereign is shared with 14 other independent countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, each country's monarchy is separate and legally distinct. As a result, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of Belize and, in this capacity, she and other members of the Royal Family undertake public and private functions as representatives of the Belizean state. However, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role.

All executive authority is vested in the monarch, and royal assent is required for the National Assembly to enact laws and for letters patent and Orders in Council to have legal effect. Most of the powers are exercised by the elected members of parliament, government ministers, and judges. Other powers vested in the monarch are significant but are treated only as reserve powers and as an important security part of the role of the monarchy.

The Crown today primarily functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power. While some powers are exercisable only by the sovereign, most of the monarch's operational and ceremonial duties are exercised by her representative, the governor-general of Belize.

History[edit]

The Queen on a 1962 stamp of British Honduras

In 1836, after the emancipation of Central America from Spanish rule, the British claimed the right to administer the region nowadays known as Belize. In 1862, the Settlement of Belize in the Bay of Honduras was declared a British colony called British Honduras, and the crown's representative was elevated to a lieutenant governor, subordinate to the governor of Jamaica.[2]

Under a new constitution, Britain granted British Honduras self-governance in 1964. On 1 June 1973, British Honduras was officially renamed Belize.[3] Independence from Britain was granted on 21 September 1981, following the signing of the Belize Independence Order in 1981 by Queen Elizabeth II, which made Belize a sovereign state and an independent constitutional monarchy.[4][5]

Prince Michael of Kent represented the Queen at the independence celebrations.[6][7] In the capital, Belmopan, in the morning of 21 September, Prince Michael handed the instruments of independence to George Price, who became the prime minister of independent Belize. Minita Gordon, a sociologist, was appointed governor-general by the Queen the same day.[8]

The Belizean Crown and its aspects[edit]

The Queen of Belize on the obverse of a Belizean 5-cent coin of 2009

The Sovereign of Belize is shared with other monarchies in the Commonwealth of Nations, with the monarch's relationship with Belize completely independent from her position as monarch of any other realm. Despite sharing the same person as their respective national monarch, each of the Commonwealth realms is sovereign and independent of the others.[9]

Since independence in 1981, the Belizean Crown has had both a shared and a separate character and the sovereign's role as monarch of Belize is distinct to his or her position as monarch of any other realm, including the United Kingdom.[10][11] Only Belizean ministers can advise the sovereign on matters of the Belizean state.[11][12][13] The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution and in Belize became a Belizean, or "domesticated" establishment.[14][15]

This division is illustrated in a number of ways: The sovereign, for example, holds a unique Belizean title and,[16] when she is acting in public specifically as a representative of Belize, she uses, where possible, Belizean symbols, including the country's national flag and the like.[citation needed]

In Belize, the legal personality of the state is referred to as the "Crown in Right of Belize", or "Her Majesty in right of Her Government in Belize", or the "Crown in right of Her Majesty's Government in Belize".[17][18]

Constitutional role and royal prerogative[edit]

Governor-General Sir Colville Young and President Tsai of Taiwan converse under a portrait of the Queen of Belize, 2018

The Belizean Constitution gives Belize a similar parliamentary system of government as the other Commonwealth realms, in which all powers of the state are constitutionally reposed in the monarch, who is represented by the governor-general of Belize; appointed by the monarch upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Belize. The monarch's domestic duties are performed by this vice-regal representative.[19]

The role of the monarch and the governor-general is both legal and practical; the Crown is regarded as a corporation, in which several parts share the authority of the whole, with the monarch as the person at the centre of the constitutional construct.[20]

Executive[edit]

The governor-general is responsible for appointing a prime minister,[21] who thereafter heads the Cabinet and advises the monarch or governor-general on how to execute their executive powers over all aspects of government operations and foreign affairs. The monarch is informed by the governor-general of the acceptance of the resignation of a prime minister and the swearing-in of a new prime minister and members of the ministry.[22]

The governor-general also appoints and dismisses ministers, members of various executive agencies, and other officials, including senators.[21][23]

As all executive authority of Belize is vested in the sovereign,[21] the institutions of government are said to act under her authority; hence, the government of Belize is formally referred to as "Her Majesty's Government in Belize".[18]

Foreign affairs[edit]

The Royal Prerogative also extends to foreign affairs: the sovereign or the governor-general may negotiate and ratify treaties, alliances, and international agreements; no parliamentary approval is required. However, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of Belize; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The governor-general, on behalf of the monarch, also accredits Belizean High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states.[24][25]

In addition, the issuance of passports falls under the Royal Prerogative and, as such, all Belizean passports are issued in the governor-general's name, the monarch's vice-regal representative.[26]

National Assembly[edit]

Your presence in this Honourable House of Representatives intensifies our faith in the principles of constitutional democracy, which are the pillars of Your Majesty's Government in Belize, and which guide the deliberations of this National Assembly.

— Bernard Q. Pitts, Speaker of the House of Representatives addressing the Queen of Belize, 1994[27]

The governor-general is responsible for summoning the two Houses of the National Assembly and may at any time prorogue or dissolve the National Assembly.[23] At the opening of a new parliamentary session, the governor-general reads the Speech from the Throne, outlining the government's legislative agenda.[28][19] A general election follows dissolution, the writs for which are dropped by the governor-general at Belize House.[29] The authority of the Crown is embodied in the mace of the House of Representatives, which bears a crown at its apex; unlike other bicameral realms, however, the Belizean legislature only has a mace for the lower house.[30]

Mace of the National Assembly of Belize

There are also a few duties which must be specifically performed by the monarch, such as signing the appointment papers of governors-general.[31]

Because the Belizean monarchy is a constitutional one, the powers that are constitutionally the monarch's are exercised almost wholly upon the advice of her Prime Minister and the Ministers of the Crown in Cabinet, who are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Representatives, and through it, to the people. The monarch's role, and thereby the viceroy's role, is almost entirely symbolic and cultural, acting as a symbol of the legal authority under which all governments and agencies operate. In exceptional circumstances, however, the monarch or viceroy can act against such advice based upon his or her reserve powers.[20]

All laws in Belize are enacted with the viceroy's signature.[19] The granting of a signature to a bill is known as Royal Assent; it, and proclamation, are required for all acts of parliament, usually granted or withheld by the governor-general, with the Public Seal of Belize.[32]

Courts[edit]

Supreme Court of Belize, Belize City

As your Sovereign, I am proud to associate myself with your determination that social justice and personal freedom should flourish under the rule of law.

The sovereign is responsible for rendering justice to all her subjects, and is thus traditionally deemed the fount of justice.[33] In Belize, criminal offences are legally deemed to be offences against the sovereign and proceedings for indictable offences are brought in the sovereign's name in the form of The Queen versus [Name].[34][35][36] Hence, the common law holds that the sovereign "can do no wrong", and the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her own courts for criminal offences.[37]

The appointment of the Chief Justice of Belize, and other Justices of the Supreme Court also falls under the Royal Prerogative, and these duties are assigned to the governor-general by the Constitution.[38]

The governor-general can also grant immunity from prosecution, exercise the "prerogative of mercy", and pardon offences against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded before, during, or after a trial. The exercise of the 'Prerogative of Mercy' to grant a pardon and the commutation of prison sentences in described in section 52 of the Belizean Constitution.[21]

Title[edit]

In Belize, the Queen's official title is: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Belize and of Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.[39][40]

This style communicates Belize's status as an independent monarchy, highlighting the sovereign's role specifically as Queen of Belize, as well as the shared aspect of the Crown throughout the Commonwealth realms. Typically, the sovereign is styled "Queen of Belize", and is addressed as such when in Belize.[16]

Succession[edit]

Like some realms, Belize defers to United Kingdom law to determine the line of succession.[41]

Succession is by absolute primogeniture governed by the provisions of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, as well as the Act of Settlement, 1701, and the Bill of Rights, 1689. This legislation limits the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted), legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and stipulates that the monarch cannot be a Roman Catholic, nor married to one, and must be in communion with the Church of England upon ascending the throne. Though these constitutional laws, as they apply to Belize, still lie within the control of the British parliament, both the United Kingdom and Belize cannot change the rules of succession without the unanimous consent of the other realms, unless explicitly leaving the shared monarchy relationship; a situation that applies identically in all the other realms, and which has been likened to a treaty amongst these countries.[42]

Cultural role[edit]

The Queen's personal flag flying at the Sovereign's Day parade in Belize City, 2019

Belize celebrates the birthday of its monarch every year in May. The day is known as Sovereign's Day, and is marked by parades in Belize City, although it is not an official public holiday, like in the UK.[43] Horse races, conducted by the National Sports Council, are held in Belize City's National Stadium and Orange Walk Town's People's Stadium. A cycling race, also arranged by the National Sports Council, is held between the cities of Belmopan and Cayo. There is a flag-raising ceremony among other events held at schools and universities to commemorate Sovereign's Day.[44][45][46]

The Crown and Honours[edit]

Within the Commonwealth realms, the monarch is deemed the fount of honour.[47] Similarly, the monarch, as Sovereign of Belize, confers awards and honours in Belize in her name. Most of them are often awarded on the advice of "Her Majesty's Belize Ministers".[48][49]

Through the passage of the National Honours and Awards Act, Belize established three national orders on 16 August 1991: the Order of Belize, the Order of Distinction, and the Order of the National Hero. The Queen of Belize is the sovereign of all three orders, while the governor-general serves as the chancellor.[50]

The Crown and the Defence Force[edit]

The rank insignia of a Belizean Colonel (left), Lieutenant-Colonel (centre), and Major (right) of the Belize Defence Force featuring the St Edward's Crown

The Crown sits at the pinnacle of the Belize Defence Force. The Queen is the Commander-in-Chief of the entire Forces.[51]

The Crown of St. Edward appears on Belize Defence Force badges and rank insignia, which illustrates the monarchy as the locus of authority.[52]

Under the Belizean Defence Act, every member of the Belize Defence Force must swear allegiance to the monarch of Belize, on taking office. The current oath is:[53]

"I, (name), do sincerely promise and swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Our Sovereign Lady the Queen and to Her constitutionally Elected Government in Belize and that I will faithfully serve Her Majesty in the Belize Defence Force until lawfully discharged, dismissed or removed, and that I will resist Her Majesty’s enemies and defend and protect all Her Majesty’s subjects and territory in Belize and cause Her Majesty’s peace to be kept and maintained and that I will in all matters appertaining to my service faithfully discharge my duties according to law."

The Crown and the Police Force[edit]

The rank insignia of a Belizean Commissioner (left), Senior Superintendent (centre) and Superintendent (right) of the Belize Police featuring the St Edward's Crown[54]

St Edward's Crown also appears on the rank insignia of the Belize Police Department.[54]

Every member of the Belize Police Department has to swear allegiance to the monarch of Belize, on taking office. Under the Police Act of Belize, every police officer must make the following declaration on joining the Department:[55]

"I, (name), do solemnly and sincerely declare that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth the Second, Her Heirs and Successors, and that I will faithfully serve Her Majesty the Queen, Her Heirs and Successors, during my service in the Department and will obey all orders of the Governor-General and of the officers placed over me, and will subject myself to all Acts, Orders and Regulations, from time to time in force, relating to the Department."

Belizean royal symbols[edit]

The main symbol of the Belizean monarchy is the sovereign herself. Thus, framed portraits of her are displayed in public buildings and government offices. Many Belizeans also keep portraits of the Queen and members of the Royal Family in their homes.[56] All Belizean coins feature a crowned effigy of the Queen. All banknotes in Belize feature the Queen's portrait on the obverse.[57] The Queen also appears on commemorative Belizean stamps.[58]

A crown is also used to illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, appearing on police force, postal workers, prison officers, and Belize Defence Force regimental and maritime badges and rank insignia.

God Save the Queen is the royal anthem of Belize.[59]

Under the Belizean Oath of Citizenship, new Belizean citizens have to take a pledge of allegiance to the monarch of Belize, and her heirs and successors.[60]

Royal visits[edit]

20th century[edit]

Belize is the only one of my eighteen realms that I have not visited before and I have been looking forward to this moment for a long time.

Princess Margaret visited Belize in 1958.[62] The Duke of Edinburgh visited in 1962.[63]

Prince Michael of Kent represented the Queen at the independence celebrations in September 1981.[64]

The Queen of Belize, Elizabeth II, visited Belize in October 1985. The Queen was welcomed by the Mayor and given the key to Belize City. She spent the night in Government House before flying to Dangriga the following day where they watched a Junkanoo Dance by children and received a painting from the people of the Stann Creek District. She also met British Servicemen and women stationed in Belize.[65] During the visit, the Queen was served the famous gibnut during an official dinner. The next day, the British press in London ran headlines: "Queen Eats Rat in Belize". Ever since, the gibnut has often been referred to as "The Royal Rat", or "The Queen's Rat" in Belize.[66][67]

I am honoured to convey the very warmest wishes from my grandmother, The Queen of Belize, on the occasion of her Platinum Jubilee. She always speaks so fondly of her visits to Belize, which of course included a memorable stop here at Cahal Pech in 1994. And she may have mentioned something about a gibnut.

The Duke of Edinburgh returned in 1988 for a solo visit in his capacity as President of the World Wide Fund for Nature.[62]

The Queen visited again in 1994. On her arrival at the airport in Belize City, she was greeted by 90% of the city's population. The Queen also visited the towns of San Ignacio and Punta Gorda. The Queen attended a special sitting of the National Assembly, addressed the body for the first time and spoke of Belize's "robust democracy". She also visited Cahal Pech, one of Belize's many Mayan archaeological sites.[27][62]

21st century[edit]

The Princess Royal visited Belize in April 2001. The Princess visited the National Assembly of Belize at Belmopan, and the Belize Defence Force, Price Barracks, Ladyville, Belize City. During her visit, The Princess also visited San Lazaro Village Roman Catholic Primary School at Orange Walk, the Mennonite Community at Blue Creek Village, the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Marla's House of Hope, NOPCA Saves - Children's Home (National Organisation for the Prevention of Child Abuse), Belize Zoo, and the Commonwealth War Graves at Lord's Ridge Cemetery at Belize City.[69]

I bring to you warmest greetings from The Queen of Belize, whose Diamond Jubilee we are celebrating here tonight. Her Majesty has asked me to send her good wishes to you all. She remembers so fondly her visits to this beautiful realm and speaks of the warmth of welcome she received on her most recent visit in 1994.

In 2012, Prince Harry visited on the Queen's behalf to mark her Diamond Jubilee. During his visit, the Prince visited the remains of the ancient Mayan city of Xunantunich, launched a canoe named in honour of the Queen, and attended officially naming of the 'Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II Boulevard' in Belmopan.[62]

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visited in March 2022 on the occasion of the Queen's Platinum Jubilee. The couple visited historic Mayan sites, explored Belize's world-famous Maya chocolate making, and celebrated the rich culture of the Garifuna community in Hopkins. The Duke and Duchess also learned about the restoration efforts of Belize's barrier reef being led by communities across the country.[71] They also scuba-dived to learn more about the second-largest barrier reef in the world.[72] At the reception hosted by Governor-General Dame Froyla Tzalam in celebration of the Queen's Platinum Jubilee, the Duke said, "Now we know why Belize is so lovingly referred to as the Jewel. We hope to return again soon and to show our children this wonderful country. They are rather jealous that they're not here with us now".[73]

List of Belizean monarch(s)[edit]

No. Portrait Regnal name
(Birth–Death)
Reign over Belize Full name Consort House
Start End
1 Elizabeth II (1).jpg Elizabeth II
(1926–)
21 September 1981 present Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Philip Mountbatten Windsor
Governors-general: Dame Elmira Minita Gordon, Sir Colville Young, Froyla Tzalam
Prime ministers: George Cadle Price, Sir Manuel Esquivel, Said Musa, Dean Barrow, Johnny Briceño

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lennox, Doug (2009), Now You Know Royalty, Dundurn Press, p. 102, ISBN 9781770704060
  2. ^ Bolland, Nigel. "Belize: Historical Setting". In A Country Study: Belize (Tim Merrill, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 1992). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "Belize". CARICOM. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  4. ^ Leslie Jermyn, Jui Lin Yong, Jason Brainard (2020), Belize, Cavendish Square Publishing LLC, p. 31, ISBN 9781502655745{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "The Belize Independence Order 1981" (PDF). legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  6. ^ "The Prince". Prince Michael of Kent. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  7. ^ Thomas Streissguth (2009), Belize in Pictures, Twenty-First Century Books, p. 34, ISBN 9781575059587
  8. ^ "Belize Celebrates its Independence". The New York Times. 22 September 1981. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  9. ^ The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while "there is only one person who is the Sovereign within the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for example, is entirely independent and distinct from the Queen of Canada." R v Foreign Secretary; Ex parte Indian Association, QB 892 at 928; as referenced in High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999] HCA 30; 23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998
  10. ^ R v Foreign Secretary, Ex parte Indian Association (as referenced in High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999] HCA 30; 23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998), QB 892 at 928 (English Court of Appeal June 1999).
  11. ^ a b Royal Household. "The Queen and Commonwealth > Other Caribbean Realms". Queen's Printer.
  12. ^ The Queen's role in Belize
  13. ^ Vernon Bogdanor (1995), The Monarchy and the Constitution, Clarendon Press, p. 279, ISBN 9780191520891
  14. ^ Mallory, J.R. (August 1956). "Seals and Symbols: From Substance to Form in Commonwealth Equality". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. Montreal: Blackwell Publishing. 22 (3): 281–291. doi:10.2307/138434. ISSN 0008-4085. JSTOR 138434.
  15. ^ Nathan Tidridge (2011), Canada's Constitutional Monarchy: An Introduction to Our Form of Government, Dundurn, p. 205, ISBN 9781554889808, The Crown is an institution that has grown to become specific to the country in which it now finds itself planted. No longer just a British monarchy, the Crown is separately a Jamaican monarchy, Tuvaluan monarchy, Canadian monarchy, et cetera.
  16. ^ a b Coates, Colin Macmillan (2006). Majesty in Canada. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-55002-586-6.
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  20. ^ a b Cox, Noel; Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law: Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence; Volume 9, Number 3 (September 2002)
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  25. ^ "Presentation of Credentials". Government of Belize Press Office. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  26. ^ Passports
  27. ^ a b c "THE ROYAL VISIT TO BELIZE (22-24 FEBRUARY)" (PDF). 23 March 1994. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  28. ^ Amelia D. Poornananda (1995), The Office of the Governor-General of Belize: A Booklet of Information, Belize House, p. 3
  29. ^ "Governor General issues Writ of Election". Breaking Belize News. 29 September 2015.
  30. ^ "Mace of the National Assembly". National Assembly of Belize. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  31. ^ Julio A. Fernandez (1989), Belize: Case Study for Democracy in Central America, Avebury, p. 48, ISBN 9780566057212
  32. ^ Belize (2000), Belize Government Gazette, Government Printery
  33. ^ Davis, Reginald (1976), Elizabeth, our Queen, Collins, p. 36, ISBN 9780002112338
  34. ^ "The Queen v Marco Suazo" (PDF). belizejudiciary.org. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  35. ^ "The Queen v Mr. Elmer Javier Carillo" (PDF). belizejudiciary.org. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  36. ^ "The Queen v Keyron Gibson" (PDF). belizejudiciary.org. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  37. ^ Halsbury's Laws of England, volume 12(1): "Crown Proceedings and Crown Practice", paragraph 101
  38. ^ "Part VII: The Judiciary". Belize Law.
  39. ^ Queen and Belize Archived 1 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Belize: Heads of State: 1981-2021". archontology.org. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  41. ^ Clegg, Nick (26 March 2015), Commencement of Succession to the Crown Act 2013 :Written statement - HCWS490, London: Queen's Printer, retrieved 26 March 2015
  42. ^ Justice Rouleau in a 2003 court ruling wrote that "Union under the ... Crown together with other Commonwealth countries [is a] constitutional principle". O’Donohue v. Canada, 2003 CanLII 41404 (ON S.C.)
  43. ^ "Public and Bank Holidays, 2022 (Updated)". Government of Belize Press Office. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  44. ^ "Holidays Act" (PDF). Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  45. ^ Kate Joynes-Burgess (2010), Explorer's Guide Belize: A Great Destination, Countryman Press, p. 60, ISBN 9781581578522
  46. ^ "Sovereign's Day". Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  47. ^ Commonwealth Journal: The Journal of the Royal Commonwealth Society · Volumes 12-14, Royal Commonwealth Society, 1969, p. 99
  48. ^ "No. 58736". The London Gazette (8th supplement). 14 June 2008. pp. 43–44.
  49. ^ "No. 60735". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2013. p. 53.
  50. ^ World Orders of Knighthood and Merit: Volume 1, Burke's Peerage & Gentry, 2006, p. 882
  51. ^ "Belize Defence Force welcomes new commander on its 40th anniversary". The San Pedro Sun. 2 February 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  52. ^ "Belize Defence Force". The International Encyclopedia of Uniform Insignia. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  53. ^ "Defence Act" (PDF). Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  54. ^ a b "Rank Insignia". The Belize Police Department. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019.
  55. ^ "Police Act" (PDF). Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  56. ^ Geneviève Escure (1997), Creole and Dialect Continua Standard Acquisition Processes in Belize and China (PRC), John Benjamins Publishing Company, p. 68, ISBN 9789027275868
  57. ^ Thomas Streissguth (2009), Belize in Pictures, Twenty-First Century Books, p. 68, ISBN 9781575059587
  58. ^ "All Hail the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Stamps". edition.channel5belize.com. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  59. ^ The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2012, p. 79
  60. ^ "Belizean Nationality Act" (PDF). belizelaw.org. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  61. ^ The New Belize: Volumes 14-15, Government Information Service, p. 4
  62. ^ a b c d "Royal visits". Royal.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  63. ^ The Illustrated London News: Volume 240, Illustrated London News & Sketch Limited, 1962, p. 595
  64. ^ "The Prince". Prince Michael of Kent. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  65. ^ Royal visits
  66. ^ Kema Irogbe (2014), The Effects of Globalization in Latin America, Africa, and Asia: A Global South Perspective, Lexington Books, p. 104, ISBN 9780739187708
  67. ^ Belize, APA Publications, 2003, p. 96
  68. ^ "Prince William and Kate arrive in Jamaica for royal tour amid protests – best photos". HELLO!. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  69. ^ "April 2001". Royal.uk. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  70. ^ "A speech by Prince Harry at a Diamond Jubilee street naming ceremony in Belize". 3 March 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  71. ^ The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visit Belize, Jamaica and The Bahamas Royal.uk
  72. ^ Duke and Duchess of Cambridge swim with sharks as Royal couple go diving in Belize
  73. ^ "It's A Wrap For The Royals!". 7 News Belize. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.

External links[edit]