Ministry of Emergency Situations (Russia)

Coordinates: 55°45′34″N 37°37′18″E / 55.75944°N 37.62167°E / 55.75944; 37.62167
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Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters
Министерство Российской Федерации по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий
Ministry emblem
Ministry flag

Ministry headquarters in Moscow
Agency overview
FormedDecember 27, 1990 (1990-12-27)
Preceding agency
  • Russian Rescue Corps
JurisdictionPresident of Russia
HeadquartersTeatralny proyezd 3, Moscow
55°45′34″N 37°37′18″E / 55.75944°N 37.62167°E / 55.75944; 37.62167
Minister responsible
Parent agencyGovernment of Russia
Child agencies
Websiteen.mchs.ru
Footnotes
  • The official anthem and marchpast is Sound about the Alarming Youth (Песня о тревожной молодости) by Alexandera Pakhmutova[1]
  • Civil Defence Day (День войск гражданской обороны) is celebrated on 4 October.[2]

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (Russian: Министерство Российской Федерации по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий), also known as the Ministry of Emergency Situations (Министерство по чрезвычайным ситуациям; abbreviated MChS, МЧС России) or internationally as EMERCOM (derived from "Emergency Control Ministry"), is a Russian government agency overseeing the civil emergency services in Russia.

President Boris Yeltsin established EMERCOM on January 10, 1994, though the ministry can be traced back to December 27, 1990, when the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) established the Russian Rescue Corps and assigned it the mission of rapid response to emergencies.[3]

History[edit]

The history of civil defence services in Russia traces to the years of Muscovy rule and the 1649 "Direction on Municipal rescue" decree of Tsar Alexis of Russia which officially raised the Moscow Municipal Fire Service, the first active fire department in Russia. When Peter the Great was Tsar, Saint Petersburg was given its own fire department modeled on Western practices of the time. By 1863 it was transformed, by orders of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, as the first ever professional fire service in Russia and Eastern Europe.

Starting in 1932 civil defense matters were performed by the Local Air Defense Units (Местная противовоздушная оборона PBO-C, Mestnaya protivovozdushnaya oborona PVO-S) under the nascent Soviet Air Defence Forces, which were transferred to the NKVD in 1940 (and served with distinction, together with the NKVD Fire Services Command founded in 1918, in the Great Patriotic War). In 1960 it was returned to the Ministry of Defence as a service branch of the Soviet Armed Forces (the Civil Defence Forces of the Ministry of Defense) and a directly reporting agency, while the MVD retained the firefighting service.

In the aftermath of the events of the 1988 Armenian earthquake and the Chernobyl disaster, on July 17, 1990 a directive decision of the Presidium of The Supreme Council of Russian Socialist Soviet Republic led to the formation of the Russian Rescue Corps (Российский корпус спасателей), which eventually was formed by the Soviet Government on December 27, 1990.[4] This date is marked as the official anniversary of the EMERCOM.

On April 17, 1991 the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Russia appointed Sergei Shoigu as Chairman of the State Committee for Extraordinary Situations (Государственный Комитет по чрезвычайным ситуациям, ГКЧС), which succeeded the RRC.[5][6]

On November 19, 1991 the State Committee was merged with the Headquarters for Civil Defense of the USSR (under the Ministry of Defense) to create the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence Matters, Extraordinary Situations and the Liquidation of Natural Disasters (Государственный комитет по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий при Президенте РСФСР) and was subordinated to the President of Russia.

On January 10, 1994 the State committee became part of the Government of Russia and the ministry was named The Ministry for the Affairs of Civil Defence, Emergency Situations and Disaster Relief, with Sergei Shoigu as a minister.

On January 1, 2002, The Russian State Fire Service, the national fire service, became part of the ministry with 278,000 firefighters, removed from Ministry of Internal Affairs control after 84 years.

On May 12, 2012, Vladimir Puchkov was appointed as the new minister, replacing Shoigu who was later appointed as Defense Minister after a brief stint as Governor of Moscow Oblast.[7]

On July 1, 2016, an EMERCOM firefighting Il-76 crashed after taking off from Irkutsk International airport while on its way to dump water as to help douse wildfires in Siberia.

Duties[edit]

Russian Post stamp about EMERCOM
Russian Post stamp about EMERCOM

According to an EMERCOM publication, the Ministry is an agency of federal executive power with the following tasks:

  • developing proposals and initiatives in the sphere of State policy on issues within the Ministry's competence;
  • managing the civil defence and search and rescue Service in the Russian Federation;
  • providing for the functioning and further development of the Russian System of Disaster Management (RSDM);
  • directing activities aimed at eliminating the consequences of large-scale disasters, catastrophes and other emergencies;
  • conducting special submarine activities;
  • supervising the use of finance resources allocated to the Government for disaster management and response;
  • organizing the training of the population, and governing agencies and the RSDM forces for disaster management and response;
  • and organizing international cooperation in the fields of the Ministry's competency.

Ministers[edit]

Sergei Shoigu[edit]

Sergei Shoigu was Minister from 1991 to 2012

The first Minister in charge of EMERCOM was Sergei Shoigu. He was appointed by President Yeltsin in November 1991 as Chairman of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence Matters, Extraordinary Situations and the Liquidation of Natural Disasters. Shoigu was given the rank of Major General in October 1994, and his committee became a ministry in January 1994. President Yeltsin showed his faith in the importance of EMERCOM by designating Minister Shoigu a member of the Russian Security Council by Presidential Decree on February 1, 1994. In May 2012 he was appointed as Governor of Moscow Oblast and he resigned from his office.

Vladimir Puchkov[edit]

Vladimir Puchkov was the Deputy Minister of Emergencies. In May 2012 he was appointed as Minister first government of Dmitry Medvedev. Six years later, when the new government was formed, he did not join the government.

Yevgeny Zinichev[edit]

Yevgeny Zinichev was Minister from 2018 to 2021

Yevgeny Zinichev was appointed minister on May 18, 2018, in the second Medvedev government. Zinichev was not a career lifeguard and had served all his life in security agencies such as the KGB, the FSO and the FSB. Prior to appointment, Zinichev held the position of deputy director of the FSB. After the resignation of the Medvedev government in 2020, he retained his post in the new government of Mikhail Mishustin.

Yevgeny Zinichev tragically died on 8 September 2021, aged 55, during the filming of an interdepartmental exercise to protect the Arctic zone of Russia. According to the ministry, he fell off a cliff while trying to save the life of director and cameraman Aleksandr Melnik, who also died. His death was the first case in the history of post-Soviet Russia of the death of an incumbent federal minister.

Aleksandr Kurenkov[edit]

Aleksandr Kurenkov was appointed minister on 25 May 2022.[8]

Departments[edit]

  • Department for the Protection of the Population and Territories
  • Department for Disaster Prevention
  • Department of Forces
  • Department for International Cooperation
  • Department for the Elimination of Consequences of Radiological and other Disasters
  • Department for Science and Technology
  • Management Department

Commissions and Boards[edit]

Small emblem
  • Interagency Commission of the Russian Federation for Fighting Forest Fires
  • Interagency Commission of the Russian Federation for Floods
  • Interagency Maritime Coordinating Commission for Emergencies on the Seas and Water Basins
  • Interagency Commission of the Russian Federation for the Certification of Rescuers

Working through the office of the Prime Minister, the Ministry can ask for private, Ministry of Defence or National Guard of Russia assistance. That is, the Ministry has international coordination power and the ability to tap local resources if required.

The Department of International Cooperation, to present an example of the activities of one of these departments and commissions, has already signed agreements on cooperation during disaster response and prevention with Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland, Poland, Belarus, Georgia, and Kazakhstan. Mutual assistance pacts are ready for signing with Mongolia, Latvia, Finland, Armenia, Moldova, Serbia and Estonia. An agreement also exists with the U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), and agreements are sought with the OSCE and NATO.

Internal organizations[edit]

EMERCOM troops marching in the 2018 Moscow Victory Day Parade.

To perform rapid response operations the following forces and equipment are available:

  • Russian State Fire Service – The highest fire service body in Russia.
  • Central Air-Mobile Rescue Team – These teams are equipped with aviation facilities that include helicopters and cargo aircraft (Ilyushin Il-76, Antonov An-72, An-148-100EM,[9] Ka-32A11VS). The teams have taken part in United Nations' humanitarian delivery operations.
  • Civil Defense Forces Command – These troops consist of military troop divisions and regiments/brigades stationed in various regions of the country aimed at civil defense measures during natural and man-made disasters.
  • EMERCOM Civil Defense Academy – trains all officers and non-commissioned personnel of the Ministry in the duties of civil defense.
  • Search and Rescue Service – This service maintains 30 units in various republics, regions and provinces.

Ranks[edit]

Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Ministry of Emergency Situations
Генера́л-полко́вник
Generál-polkóvnik
Генера́л-лейтена́нт
Generál-leytenánt
Генера́л-майо́р
Generál-mayór
Полко́вник
Polkóvnik
Подполко́вник
Podpolkóvnik
Майо́р
Majór
Kапита́н
Kapitán
Старший лейтена́нт
Stárshiy leytenánt
Лейтенант
Leytenant
Mла́дший лейтена́нт
Mládshiy leytenánt
Курсант
Kursant
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Ministry of Emergency Situations
Ста́рший пра́порщик
Stárshiy práporshchik
Пра́порщик
Práporshchyk
Старшина́
Starshyná
Ста́рший сержа́нт
Stárshiy serzhánt
Сержа́нт
Serzhánt
Мла́дший сержа́нт
Mládshiy serzhánt
Рядово́й
Ryadovóy

Equipment[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

List of active Ministry of Emergency Situations aircraft[10]
Name Image Origin Type Variant Active Stored Notes
Antonov An-2  Soviet Union Transport aircraft 1
Antonov An-3  Soviet Union Transport aircraft An-3T 2
Yakovlev Yak-40  Soviet Union Regional jet 1
Yakovlev Yak-42  Soviet Union /  Russia Narrow-body jet airliner Yak-42D 2
Antonov An-74  Soviet Union Transport aircraft An-74P 2
Antonov An-148  Ukraine /  Russia Regional jet An-148-100E 2 [11]
Sukhoi Superjet 100  Russia Narrow-body jet airliner Superjet 100-95LR 2 [11]
Ilyushin Il-62  Soviet Union /  Russia Narrow-body jet airliner Il-62M 1
Tupolev Tu-154  Soviet Union Narrow-body jet airliner Tu-154M 1
Ilyushin Il-76  Soviet Union /  Russia Strategic and tactical airlifter Il-76TD 5
Beriev Be-200  Russia Multirole amphibious aircraft Be-200ES 10 2
Airbus Helicopters H145  European Union Utility helicopter 3
MBB Bo 105  Germany Utility helicopter Bo-105CBS-5 2
MBB/Kawasaki BK 117  Germany /  Japan Utility helicopter BK 117C-1 1
Kazan Ansat  Russia Utility helicopter 1
Kamov Ka-32  Soviet Union /  Russia Utility helicopter Ka-32A

Ka-32T Ka-32A11BC

13
Mil Mi-2  Soviet Union Utility helicopter 1
Mil Mi-8  Soviet Union Transport helicopter Mil Mi-8T 1
Mil Mi-8M  Soviet Union /  Russia Transport helicopter Mil Mi-8MT

Mil Mi-8MTV-1 Mil Mi-8MTV-2

33 2
Mil Mi-26  Soviet Union /  Russia Heavy lift transport helicopter Mil Mi-26T 5 1

Cars[edit]

Name Type Origin Photo
GAZelle GAZ-2705 Utility Van  Russia
PPU48-03 (Kamaz-43118 chassis) Mobile control point  Russia
AM-RHR Chemical Reconnaissance Car  Russia
ASM-41-022 (base UAZ-3909) Rescue of general purpose  Russia
MAVR-588560S Rescue vehicle  Russia
ASM-48-031 (Kamaz-43118 chassis) Rescue vehicle  Russia
Car for transportation department paramilitary mountain rescue units (Kamaz-4308 based)  Russia
Petrovich-204-60 All-terrain vehicle  Russia
ZiL-49061 Amphibious vehicle  Soviet Union

Boats[edit]

Name Type Origin Photo
Mars-700 Hovercraft  Russia
Mars-2000 Hovercraft  Russia
Khivus-6 Hovercraft  Russia
Mongoose (project 12150M) Airboat  Russia
PK-500[12] Patrol boat  Russia
RPK-640 Patrol boat  Russia
Kasatka-2M[13] Patrol boat  Russia

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Александр Гамов (January 15, 2015). "Не думай, что все пропели, Что бури все отгремели..." Комсомольская правда. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  2. ^ Описание истории Дня войск гражданской обороны на сайте МЧС России
  3. ^ "Russian Rescue Corps established. Russian Rescuer Day". Presidential Library. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016. [On] December 27, 1990 a decree by the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR № 606 "On the establishment of the Russian Rescue Corps as the RSFSR State Committee, as well as the formation of a unified state and social system of forecasting, prevention and emergency response" was adopted.
  4. ^ "Постановление Совмина РСФСР от 27.12.1990 N 606". www.libussr.ru. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  5. ^ "№51 (758) / Общество и наука / Спецпроект / Первый спасатель". www.itogi.ru. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  6. ^ "ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ КОМИССИЯ СОВЕТА МИНИСТРОВ СССР ПО ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫМ СИТУАЦИЯМ (ГКЧС СМ СССР)". www.mchs.gov.ru. Archived from the original on July 27, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  7. ^ В.А, Зиничев Евгений Николаевич (April 15, 2016), Русский: О совершенствовании деятельности территориальных органов и организаций МЧС России по предупреждению и ликвидации чрезвычайных ситуаций, обеспечению пожарной безопасности и безопасности людей на водных объектах на территориях местных пожарно-спасательных гарнизонов (PDF), retrieved August 21, 2019
  8. ^ "Alexander Kurenkov appointed a head of the Russian Emergencies Ministry". en.mchs.gov.ru. May 25, 2022. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  9. ^ "bmpd". livejournal.com. Archived from the original on December 24, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  10. ^ "Russia - Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM)". OneSpotter.
  11. ^ a b "Global Airline Guide 2017 (Part Two)". Airliner World (November 2017): 30.
  12. ^ "ЦАМТО / / KMZ завершил выполнение контракта на поставку 42 патрульных катера ПК-500 для МЧС".
  13. ^ "ЦАМТО / / Кингисеппский машзавод выполнил контракт на поставку Росгвардии 40 катеров «Афалина»".
  • EMERCOM of Russia, publication of the Ministry of Emergency Situations
  • "EMERCOM: RUSSIA'S EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM" (1995), Mr. Timothy L. Thomas, Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement, Vol 4, Autumn 1995, No 2

External links[edit]