Mianwali District

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ضِلع مِيانوالی
Namal Lake.png
Salt Range.jpg
Flag of Mianwali
Official seal of Mianwali
Mianwali District highlighted within Punjab Province
Mianwali District highlighted within Punjab Province
Country Pakistan
ProvincePunjab, Pakistan Punjab
DivisionMianwali Division
 • TypeDistrict Administration
 • Deputy CommissionerKhurram Shahzad Mall
 • District Police OfficerIsmail Kharak
 • District Health OfficerN/A
 • Total5,840 km2 (2,250 sq mi)
 • Total1,542,601
 • Density260/km2 (680/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Postal Code
Area code0459
Number of Tehsils3
Thal Canal

The Mianwali District (Urdu: ضِلع مِيانوالى), is a district located in Mianwali Division of Punjab province, Pakistan. It has a border with the Chakwal, Attock, Kohat,[3] Karak, Lakki Marwat, Dera Ismail Khan, Bhakkar,[4] and Khushab Districts.[5]

The main languages spoken in the district include Saraiki (76.05%), Pashto (11.53%), Punjabi (9.35%), and Urdu (2.76%).[1]


The history of the district is tied to the Miana family which came from Baghdad and settled in Mianwali. The name Mianwali is derived from Sufi saint Mian Ali's name. Mian Ali Mianwali was a known settlement and an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300 – c.1300 BCE). Mianwali later became part of the Vedic civilization.

After the Islamic conquest of Punjab, Arabs who had established themselves in Multan were in control of Mianwali and surrounding areas of Punjab.[6]

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 CE he conquered the Hindu Shahis and followed it by the conquests of the Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. Mianwali was associated with Multan province of Mughal Empire as it had large saraiki population.[7] The population of the Punjab region became majority Muslim, following the conquests by various Muslim dynasties from Central Asia. The real historical representation of the Mianwali Region is older than 900 AD but the true accuracy is traced to the arrival of Qutb Shah in 1090 AD in this region who in later years of his conquest allowed his sons to settle and further rule the region. Their lineage still exists to date in Mianwali District as well as in Pakistan and are known as Awan Tribe. Historically, all major rulers of South Asia governed this area in their turn. Mughal emperor Babur mentioned Isakhel in the Baburnama when describing his campaigns against the Malik Awans and Niazi Pakhtuns during his invasion of Punjab in the 1520s.

Prior to the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1738, there is little to relate concerning the history of the northern part of the district. The upper half of the district was ruled by the Gakhars, who became feudatories of the Mughal Empire, of which the district continued to form a part until the invasion of Nadir Shah. In 1738 a portion of his army entered Chashma, and by its atrocities so cowed the Bannuchis and Marwats that a heavy tribute was raised from them. Another portion of the army crossed the Darra Pezu and worked its way down to Dera Ismail Khan. Contingents raised from the neighborhoods of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan marched under Nadir Shah's banner to the sack of Delhi. In 1739 the area west of the Indus was surrendered by the Emperor of Delhi to Nadir Shah and passed after his death to Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1748 a Durrani army under one of Ahmad Shah's generals crossed the Indus at Kalabagh, and drove out the Ghakkars, who still ruled in the cis-Indus tracts of the district, owing nominal allegiance to the Emperor at Delhi. Their stronghold, Muazzam Nagar, was razed to the ground, and with their expulsion was swept away the last vestige of the authority of the Mughal Emperor in these parts. During British Raj Mianwali District was also among the states of British Punjab where regional offices of East India Company were in position until winter of 1883 when the regional office of East India Company in Mianwali was Shutdown due to civil unrest and hostile conditions.[8]


Mianwali district covers an area of 5,840 square kilometres (2,250 sq mi).[9] The area in north is a continuation of the Pothohar Plateau[10] and the Kohistan-e-Namak.[11] Southern side of the district is a part of Thal Desert.[12] Indus River flows through the district.[13]


Mianwali district has an extreme climate, with a long, hot summer season and cold, dry winters. Summer lasts from May to September and winter lasts from November till February.[14] June is the hottest month with average temperatures of 42 °C (highest recorded temperature 52 °C); in winter, December and January monthly average temperatures can be as low as 3 to 4 °C. The average rainfall in the district is about 385 mm.[15][16]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average High Temperatures °C (°F) 19° (66.2 °) 21° (69.8 °) 26° (78.8 °) 33° (91.4 °) 38° (100.4 °) 42° (107.6 °) 39° (102.2 °) 37° (98.6 °) 37° (98.6 °) 33° (91.6 °) 28° (82.4 °) 21° (69.8 °) 31° (87.8 °)
Average Low Temperatures °C 3 6 12 17 22 27 27 26 23 16 9 4 16
Rainfall in. (cm) 1.6 2.1 4.1 2.4 1.9 1.8 7.6 11 4.5 0.7 0.1 0.9 38.5
Source: Weatherbase


The district is administratively divided into three tehsils 7 Municipal Committees and 51 union councils:[17][18]

Name of tehsils No. of union councils No. of municipal committees Parent tehsil
Isakhel[17] 13 3 Mianwali
Mianwali[17] 26 2 Mianwali
Piplan[17] 12 2 Mianwali
Total 51 7


At the time of the 2017 census the district had a population of 1,542,601, of which 771,969 were males and 770,502 females. Rural population is 1,214,789 while the urban population is 327,812. The literacy rate was 61.28%.


As per the 2017 census Muslims made up almost the entire population with 99.53%, although there is a small mainly urban minority of Christians numbering 7,000.[1]

Religion in Mianwali District
Religion Population (1941)[19]: 42  Percentage (1941)
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 436,260 86.16%
Hinduism Om.svg 62,824 12.41%
Sikhism Khanda.svg 6,865 1.36%
Christianity Christian cross.svg 324 0.06%
Others [a] 48 0.01%
Total Population 506,321 100%


At the time of the 2017 census, 76.05% of the population spoke Saraiki, 11.53% Pashto, 9.35% Punjabi and 2.76% Urdu as their first language.[1]


Places of interest[edit]

A view of Namal Lake in Mianwali Salt range
"Days of Yore" PR ZE. class 230 en route to Lakki Marwat from Mari Indus in frosty winter morning circa 1987. (Mianwali was the only district in Punjab with about 80 km of narrow gauge section, which was closed in 1992.)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • "Manaqib-E-Sultani" By Mian Alamgir
  • "Wichara Watan" By Harish Chander Nakra, New Delhi, India


  1. ^ a b c d "District Wise Results / Tables (Census - 2017)". www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  2. ^ "South Asia Partnership-Pakistan (sappk.org): Profile of Mianwali District" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  3. ^ "Kohat | Pakistan on Encyclopedia Britannica website".
  4. ^ "District Website". District Courts Bhakkar, Punjab Government website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  5. ^ "Mianwali | on Punjab Portal website".
  6. ^ "Tareekh e Pakistan pdf - Available for Download". Yahya Amjad. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  7. ^ Richards, John F. (18 March 1993). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-25119-8.
  8. ^ "Brief History of Mianwali". District Courts Mianwali, Government of the Punjab website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  9. ^ "Mianwali Map | Pakistan Google Satellite Maps".
  10. ^ "Fig. 1. A map of Punjab Province, Pakistan, showing Potohar Plateau..." ResearchGate.
  11. ^ "PAKISTAN'S SALT MINES - Luke Duggleby Photography". Luke Duggleby website.
  12. ^ "Thal | region, Pakistan on Encyclopedia Britannica".
  13. ^ "Indus River | Irrigation System and Barrages in Mianwali District included". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  14. ^ "December Climate History for Mianwali District area | Local | Pakistan".
  15. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Mianwali, Pakistan". timeanddate.com website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  16. ^ "Mianwali Climate". en.climate-data.org website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  17. ^ a b c d "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mianwali". Government of Pakistan website. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  18. ^ "District Overview - History of Mianwali District". District Police Office Mianwali website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  19. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". JSTOR.org website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  20. ^ "Imran Khan (Cricketer of the Year - 1983)". ESPN Cricinfo website. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  21. ^ "Atta Ullah Eesakhelvi and the Cassette Revolution". All Things Pakistan website. 22 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  1. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 32°00′N 71°30′E / 32.000°N 71.500°E / 32.000; 71.500