North-East Democratic Alliance

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North-East Democratic Alliance
Lok Sabha LeaderNarendra Modi
(Prime Minister of India and Leader of the House in Lok Sabha)
Rajya Sabha LeaderPiyush Goyal
(Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha and Union Central Minister)
IdeologyBig Tent
Political positionMajority: Centre-right to Right-wing
SloganEight States. One Force.[4]
ECI StatusRecognised
AllianceNDA (National)
Seats in Lok Sabha
20 / 25
Seats in Rajya Sabha
10 / 14
Seats in State Legislative Assemblies
346 / 498
(currently 490 members and 1 vacancies)
Number of states and union territories in government
8 / 8

The North-East Democratic Alliance (abbr. NEDA) is a political coalition that was formed on May 24, 2016, by Bharatiya Janata Party. The motive of the new political front was to protect the interest of the people of the region as well as uniting non-Congress parties in Northeast India. Himanta Biswa Sarma was appointed as the convenor of the front.[5][6][7][8][9][10]


The alliance was established after Bharatiya Janata Party led National Democratic Alliance which includes parties like Asom Gana Parishad and Bodoland People's Front formed its first government in Assam. The founding political parties of North-East Democratic Alliance led by Bharatiya Janata Party on May 26, 2019, included Naga People's Front, Sikkim Democratic Front, People's Party of Arunachal, Asom Gana Parishad and Bodoland People's Front.[11] The Chief Ministers of the northeastern states of Sikkim, Pawan Kumar Chamling; Assam, Sarbananda Sonowal; Arunachal Pradesh, Kalikho Pul and Nagaland, T. R. Zeliang were the founding members of the alliance. BJP President Amit Shah chaired the meeting which was also attended by BJP General Secretary Ram Madhav and BJP North East Zonal Organizing Secretary Ajay Jamwal.[12] The alliance suffered a big setback in Arunachal Pradesh when their 30 MLAs defected back to Indian National Congress.

On 16 September 2016, 43 MLAs from the ruling party, under the CM Pema Khandu, left Indian National Congress to join People's Party of Arunachal in alliance with Bharatiya Janata Party. Though Pema Khandu is still the Chief Minister, it is soon expected that either a coalition government will be formed with BJP as the speaker of assembly has also changed sides with the CM, or that the Indian Government will dissolve the state assembly for fresh general elections.[13]

In October 2016, People's Party of Arunachal formally joined hands with Bharatiya Janata Party making Arunachal Pradesh 15th state to have BJP led NDA in Power,[14] and with this new coalition, Tamiyo Taga sworn in as Cabinet minister of Arunachal Pradesh.[15]

On December 21, 2016, Khandu was suspended from the party by the party president and Takam Pario was named as the next likely Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh replacing Khandu after People's Party of Arunachal suspended Khandu along with 6 other MLAs.[16][17][18]

In December 2016, Khandu proved the majority on the floor with 33 of the People's Party of Arunachal’s 43 legislators joining the Bharatiya Janata Party as the BJP party increased its strength to 45 and it has the support of two independents. He became second Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh of Bharatiya Janata Party in Arunachal Pradesh after 44 days lead Gegong Apang government in 2003.[19][20]

In March 2017,Nongthombam Biren Singh is the leader of Bharatiya Janata Party was sworn in the Chief Ministers of Manipur on March 15, 2017. Here is the list of the ministers of his ministry.[21][22][23][24] The Bharatiya Janata Party allied with National People's Party, Naga People's Front, Lok Janshakti Party and others it was the first time that BJP formed government in Manipur through INC emerged as the single largest party.

In 2018, the BJP and the ruling Nagaland People's Front dissolved their electoral alliance prior to the election. The BJP instead chose to form an alliance with the newly formed Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party, led by former CM Neiphiu Rio.[25][26]Lok Sabha MP and former Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio of the Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party was declared elected uncontested in the Northern Angami II constituency after no other candidate was nominated against him.[27]

In March 2018, The National People's Party came second behind Indian National Congress by winning 19 seats in the 2018 Meghalaya legislative assembly election.[28] Conrad Sangma staked claim to form government with a letter of support from the 34 MLA, that included 19 from NPP, 6 from United Democratic Party, 4 from People's Democratic Front, two each from Hill State People's Democratic Party and Bharatiya Janata Party, and an independent.[29][30]

In March 2018, Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party came second behind Naga People's Front by winning 18 seats in the 2018 Nagaland legislative assembly election. Neiphiu Rio staked claim to form government with a letter of support from the 32 MLA, that included 17 from NDPP, 12 from Bharatiya Janata Party, 1 from Janata Dal (United) and an independent.[31][32]

In March 2018, Bharatiya Janata Party won the 2018 Tripura legislative assembly election 35 seats. Its ally Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura won 8 of 9 seats which they contested. The alliance defeated Communist Party of India (Marxist) who was ruling since 1993.[33][34]

In 2018 state assembly elections, Mizo National Front has emerged as largest political party and won 26 seats and Pu Zoramthanga became the new Chief Minister of Mizoram.[35] This was the first time that Congress does not have any government in any of the states in Northeast India.[36]

In May 2019, Bharatiya Janata Party won the 2018 Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly election 41 seats whereas its ally's National People's Party won 5 and Janata Dal (United) got 7 seats. National People's Party was accorded the status of National Party from Election Commission of India as it got 5 seats in the assembly with a vote share of 14.56% getting also the status of a Recognized State Party in Arunachal Pradesh. Janata Dal (United) party got the status of a Recognized State Party by the Election Commission of India as it secured 7 seats in the assembly winning a vote share of 9.88% in the state.[37]

In Sikkim, The Sikkim Krantikari Morcha came close to allying with Bhartiya Janata Party before the 2019 Indian Election but decided to fight alone.[38] They contested on all 32 constituencies of the Sikkim Legislative Assembly and won 17 constituencies, thus ending Pawan Kumar Chamling's 25-year rule in Sikkim.[39] Indra Hang Subba won the Sikkim Lok Sabha constituency by defeating his nearest rival of Sikkim Democratic Front Dek Bahadur Katwal 12,443 margin.[40]

After the assembly election, 1 MLA from Sikkim Krantikari Morcha and 2 MLAs from Sikkim Democratic Front each vacated their second seat after being elected from two constituencies. Before the by-elections to these three vacant seats were held, 10 MLAs of Sikkim Democratic Front defected to Bhartiya Janata Party and 2 MLAs of Sikkim Democratic Front defected to Sikkim Krantikari Morcha, leaving Sikkim Democratic Front with only 1 MLA.[41] SKM had 18 MLAs and BJP had 10 MLAs. In the by-elections held on 21 October 2019, BJP won two seats and SKM one seat.[42] The final seat numbers are: SKM 19 seats, BJP 12 seats and SDF 1 seat.

On 17 June 2020 9 MLAs supporting N. Biren Singh led the government in Manipur revolted against him and withdrew support from his government blaming him for lack of action during COVID-19 pandemic. During the vote of confidence, he was one of the eight MLAs who had skipped the assembly proceedings defying the party whip for the trust vote. All member resigned from Indian National Congress and later joined Bharatiya Janata Party in presence of Ram Madhav, Baijayant Panda and Chief Minister of Manipur N. Biren Singh.[43][44][45][46]

In November 2020, Bharatiya Janata Party announced that it has agreed to support efforts by the UPPL to form an executive body in Bodoland Territorial Council. The leader of the UPPL, Pramod Boro became the new Chief Executive Member of the Bodoland Territorial Council on 15 December 2020.[47][48]

Soon after the election results were declared and the BJP led NDA emerged victorious it faced the dilemma of who should we made the Chief Minister. While most of the top leaders in the BJP state unit favored incumbent Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal, speculations suggest that Himanta Biswa Sarma had more number of elected MLAs of the BJP on his side. Due to prolonged discontent between the two leaders a BJP legislature party meeting couldn't have been called.[49] On 10 May 2021, Sarma was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Assam, succeeding his colleague Sarbananda Sonowal.[50]


Party Lok Sabha MPs Rajya Sabha MPs Vidhan Sabha MLAs Base State Joining Year
1 BJP 15[a] 8[a] 195[a] National[51] 2016
2 AGP 0 1 9 Assam 2016
3 NPF 1 0 7 Nagaland, Manipur 2018
4 NPP 1 1 42 National 2018
5 NDPP 1 0 25 Nagaland 2018
6 HSPDP 0 0 2 Meghalaya 2018
7 SKM 1 0 19 Sikkim 2019
8 UPPL 0 1 7 Assam 2020
9 KPA 0 0 2 Manipur 2022
10. RPI(A) 0 0 2 Nagaland 2023
11 IND 1 0 17 North East -
Total 20 10 345

Strength in state legislative assemblies[edit]

State Seats NEDA Overall Tally CM of Ref(s)
Arunachal Pradesh 60 49 NPP (4)
55 / 60
BJP [52]
Assam 126 63 AGP (9)
79 / 126
BJP [53]
UPPL (7)
Manipur 60 37 NPP (7)
54 / 60
BJP [54]
NPF (5)
KPA (2)
IND (3)
Meghalaya 60 2 NPP (26)
46 / 60
NPP [55]
PDF (2)
IND (2)
Mizoram 40 1 MNF (28)
29 / 40
MNF [56]
Nagaland 60 12 NDPP (25)
58 / 60
NDPP [57]
NCP (7)
NPP (5)
RPI(A) (2)
LJP(RV) (2)
IND (5)
Sikkim 32 12 SKM (19)
31 / 32
SKM [58]
Tripura 60 32 IPFT (1)
33 / 60
BJP [59]

Legislative leaders[edit]

Chief Ministers[edit]

State Govt Since Chief Minister Portrait Party CM Since
Arunachal Pradesh 29 December 2016 Pema Khandu Pema Khandu in July 2016.jpg BJP 29 December 2016
Assam 24 May 2016 Himanta Biswa Sarma Himanta Biswa Sarma with PM Narendra Modi Cropped.jpg BJP 10 May 2021
Manipur 15 March 2017 N. Biren Singh The Chief Minister of Manipur, Shri Biren Singh calling on the Vice President, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu, in New Delhi on September 06, 2017 (cropped).jpg BJP 15 March 2017
Meghalaya 6 March 2018 Conrad Sangma The Chief Minister of Meghalaya, Shri Conrad Sangma.JPG NPP 6 March 2018
Nagaland 7 March 2008 Neiphiu Rio NeiphiuRio.jpg NDPP 7 March 2018
Sikkim 23 May 2019 Prem Singh Tamang Prem Singh Tamang.jpg SKM 23 May 2019
Tripura 6 March 2018 Manik Saha Manik Saha Invitation for HWC 2023.jpg BJP 15 May 2022

Deputy chief ministers[edit]

State Chief Minister Portrait Party
Arunachal Pradesh Chowna Mein The Agriculture Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, Shri Chowna Mein calling on the Union Minister for Agriculture, Shri Radha Mohan Singh, in New Delhi on September 17, 2014 (cropped).jpg BJP
Meghalaya Prestone Tynsong A delegation from North Eastern States led by the Minister General Administration Home (Civil Defence And Home Guards) Public Health Engineering Relief And Rehabilitation (cropped).jpg NPP
Sniawbhalang Dhar
Nagaland Yanthungo Patton The Nagaland Home Minister, Shri Yanthungo Patton meeting the Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir, in New Delhi on November 09, 2016 (cropped).jpg BJP
T. R. Zeliang The Chief Minister of Nagaland, Shri T.R. Zeliang meeting the Union Minister for Human Resource Development, Smt. Smriti Irani, in New Delhi on December 08, 2015 (1) (cropped).jpg NDPP

NEDA coalition in Autonomous district councils[edit]

Autonomous district councils operating under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India are shown in bold.

State/Union Territory Autonomous Council Headquarters Districts / Subdivisions Formation Last Election Ruling Party Chief Executive
Assam Bodoland Kokrajhar Baksa, Chirang, Kokrajhar, Udalguri 2003 2020 BJP & UPPL & GSP Pramod Boro
Deori Autonomous Council Narayanpur Lakhimpur 2005 2016 BJP Madhav Deori
North Cachar Hills/Dima Hasao Autonomous Council Haflong Dima Hasao 1951 2019 BJP Debolal Gorlosa
Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council Diphu Karbi Anglong, West Karbi Anglong 1952 2017 BJP Tuliram Ronghang
Moran Autonomous Council ** Tinsukia district 2020 TBA TBA
Mising Autonomous Council Dhemaji Dhemaji 1995 2019 BJP & Sanmilita Gana Shakti Ranoj Pegu
Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council Dudhnoi Kamrup Rural, Goalpara 1995 2019 BJP & RHJMC Tankeswar Rabha
Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council Dibrugarh 2005 2019 BJP TBA
Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council Titabar 2005 2016 BJP TBA
Tiwa(Lalung) Autonomous Council Morigaon, Bongaigaon, Dhubri Kamrup (Metro), Morigaon, Nagaon and Hojai 1995 2020 BJP Jiban Chandra Konwar
Meghalaya Garo Hills Tura East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, South Garo Hills, North Garo Hills and South West Garo Hills 1973 2015 -- Benedick Marak
Jaintia Hills Jowai East Jaintia Hills, West Jaintia Hills 1973 2019 NPP & UDP A. H. Darnei
Khasi Hills Shillong West Khasi Hills, East Khasi Hills and Ri Bhoi 1973 2019 UDP & NPP Titosstarwell Chyne

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c The Bharatiya Janata Party has numerous other MPs elsewhere in India, but the figure specified here refers to the number of BJP MPs representing constituencies in North-East India.


  1. ^ "Mizoram : BJP's Secular Model – Evident Along Country's Overall Progress; Asserts National Minority Secretary". 20 April 2022.
  2. ^ "Congress a 'sickular' Party, not secular: BJP Nagaland".
  3. ^ "Candidates who know local language will have edge for govt. jobs in Manipur". 2 December 2022.
  4. ^ "Neda: Going from strength to strength".
  5. ^ Himanta Biswa Sarma Named Convener Of BJP's Northeast Alliance
  6. ^ Amit Shah holds meeting with northeast CMs, forms alliance
  7. ^ BJP acts east, brass joins the Assam party
  8. ^ "Former Gogoi close aide Himanta Biswa Sarma named convener of NDA's northeast alliance | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2016-05-24. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  9. ^ Chief Minister of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Sikkim met BJP National President Shri Amit Shah and proposed to join an alliance of non-congress parties in North-East
  10. ^ BJP launches Northeast alliance, ousted CM Kalikho Pul meets Shah
  11. ^ "Sikkim CM joins NDA". 2016-06-09. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  12. ^ After Assam, BJP targets Congress-ruled Manipur and Meghalaya
  13. ^ Congress loses Arunachal two months after it got it, 43 of 44 MLAs defect
  14. ^ ANI (2016-10-14). "Tamiyo Taga sworn-in as Cabinet minister of Arunachal Pradesh". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
  15. ^ ANI (2016-10-14). "Tamiyo Taga sworn-in as Cabinet minister of Arunachal Pradesh". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
  16. ^ After Pema Khandu's suspension, Takam Pario to be new Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, PPA Chairman says
  17. ^ Takam Pario likely to be Arunachal CM in 2017 after PPA suspendsKhandu
  18. ^ Takam Pario, the richest Arunachal MLA, may replace Pema Khandu as CM
  19. ^ Khandu wins musical chairs game for BJP
  20. ^ Shifting to BJP, Pema Khandu drops 3 ministers, 2 advisors, 5 parliamentary secretaries
  21. ^ Full list of ministers and their portfolios in Manipur
  22. ^ BJP names N Biren Singh as chief minister candidate for Manipur
  23. ^ Biren Singh sworn-in as Manipur CM
  24. ^ Manipur gets its first BJP govt as Biren Singh takes oath along with 8 ministers
  25. ^ "Nagaland: Nagaland Assembly polls: BJP to join hands with NDPP | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. 20 January 2018.
  26. ^ "'Had we gone it alone, we'd have won 20 seats': Nagaland BJP state president talks seat-sharing, dissent and defections-Politics News , Firstpost". 14 February 2018.
  27. ^ "The list of all contesting candidates for 13th Nagaland Legislative Assembly Election". The Naga Republic. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  28. ^ "Hung Assembly in Meghalaya, Congress single largest party". The Hindu. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  29. ^ "Meghalaya assembly elections 2018: NPP-led alliance all set to form govt". Mint. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  30. ^ "Congress outsmarted in Meghalaya, Conrad Sangma to be sworn in March 6". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 4 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  31. ^ "Neiphiu Rio stakes claim to form government, incumbent hangs on". Indian Express. Indian Express. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  32. ^ "Who is Neiphiu Rio?". Indian Express. Indian Express. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  33. ^ "No mean victory". Indian Express. Indian Express. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  34. ^ "Left Front's worst poll-show in state". Indian Express. Indian Express. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  35. ^ "MNF sweeps Mizoram, northeast now 'Congress-mukt'". The Times of India. 12 December 2018.
  36. ^ "MNF sweeps Mizoram, northeast now 'Congress-mukt'". The Times of India. 12 December 2018.
  37. ^ "NPP Becomes First Political Outfit from the Northeast to get Status of National Party". News18. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 2020-06-14.
  38. ^ SKM parts ways with BJP in Sikkim
  39. ^ SKM wins 17 assembly seats, set to form govt
  40. ^ SKM's Indra Hang Subba wins lone LS seat in Sikkim
  41. ^ "2 SDF MLAs Join Ruling SKM In Sikkim A Day After 10 From Party Joined BJP". Outlook. 14 February 2022.
  42. ^ "SKM and BJP sweep byelections in Sikkim; big win for Tamang". Frontline. 24 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Manipur CM Arrives in Delhi, to Induct Seven Congress Leaders Into BJP". The Wire. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  44. ^ "'Extend my warmest welcome', says Manipur CM after former Congress MLAs join BJP". Hindustan Times. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  45. ^ "5 Manipur MLAs who resigned from Cong join BJP in Delhi". India Today. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  46. ^ "Five former Manipur Congress MLAs join BJP in New Delhi". Northeast Now. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Assam Guv accepts claim of UPPL-BJP-GSP for BTC executive". The Outlook India. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  48. ^ "After Fractured Poll Results, BJP To Back Hardliner In Assam's Bodoland". The Outlook India. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  49. ^ Prabhash K Dutta (2021-05-29). "Sonowal or Himanta? Besides Covid-19, BJP faces another big challenge". India Today.
  50. ^ PTI (9 May 2021). "Himanta Biswa Sarma set to become chief minister of Assam". The Economic Times. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  51. ^ Election Commission 2013.
  52. ^ Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
  53. ^ Assam Legislative Assembly
  54. ^ Manipur Legislative Assembly
  55. ^ Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
  56. ^ "'Mizo National Front to be in NDA, but won't team up with BJP' | Guwahati News - Times of India". The Times of India. TNN. Dec 16, 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  57. ^ Nagaland Legislative Assembly
  58. ^ Sikkim Legislative Assembly
  59. ^ Tripura Legislative Assembly


External links[edit]